Andries Zijlstra, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

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Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
Ph.D., Genetics and Cell Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WashingtonB.S., Genetics and Cell Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
Office Address
C-2102C MCN
1161 21st Ave S
Nashville, TN 37232-2561
Research Description
Research in my laboratory is dedicated to understanding the molecular biology of cancer metastasis and translating this knowledge to clinical application.

The research program is based on three central themes:
A) Investigating the molecular mechanisms of tumor cell migration,
B) Evaluating and validating the contribution of these mechanisms to metastasis cancer patients
C) Developing research and clinical tools to investigate metastatic behavior of tumor cells.

The laboratory currently pursues four integrated research objectives: 1) Defining how dynamic regulation of adhesion and migration controls metastasis, 2) Identification and characterization of the metastatic cell populations within a primary tumor, 3) Experimental modeling of metastasis in a clinically relevant manner, and 4) clinical implementation of molecular markers of migration as biomarkers of tumor progression and metastasis. Our mechanistic studies apply to much of the cancer spectrum but our clinical studies are focused on bladder and prostate cancer.

Specific mechanistic studies include an interrogation of the adhesion dynamics controlled by the tetraspanin CD151 and affiliated adhesion receptors (Integrins and IgG cell adhesion receptors). By tuning the adhesive properties of the cell, this mechanism can immobilize tumor cells or facilitate their dissemination. Dissecting the regulatory mechanism of CD151 demonstrates that the biphasic nature of migration is highly tunable through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. This dynamic regulation implies that escape from the primary tumor from is very much a non-linear aspect of metastasis that is less influenced by cancer genetics and more by the cellular context, interactions with adjacent tumor cells, the host and response to changing microenvironments.

Specific translational studies include: Molecular mechanisms of migration contribute to metastasis and subsequently thought to be central to the cancer progression poor clinical outcome for cancer patients. We have developed a series of preclinical tests that determine the status of pro-migratory mechanisms within the tumor. Using this technology it becomes possible to diagnose patients with aggressive disease, predict clinical outcome, and possible anticipate treatment response. Ongoing studies are expanding biomarker studies to a variety of cancers, including renal, bladder, prostate, lung, and breast cancer.

Specific technological advances: We have developed novel optical imaging strategies using fluorescent and luminescent proteins to visualize cell behavior intravitally along the metastatic cascade. In addition to visualizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of metastasis, we implement imaging and biochemical strategies to assess quantitatively how metastasis is impacted by specific mechanisms of motility.
Research Keywords
Understanding and targeting tumor cell adhesion and migration in cancer metastasis
Arnold SA, Loomans HA, Ketova T, Andl CD, Clark PE, Zijlstra A. Urinary oncofetal ED-A fibronectin correlates with poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer. Clin. Exp. Metastasis [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/11/2015; PMID: 26456754, PII: 10.1007/s10585-015-9754-x, DOI: 10.1007/s10585-015-9754-x, ISSN: 1573-7276.

An H, Stoops SL, Deane NG, Zhu J, Zi J, Weaver C, Waterson AG, Zijlstra A, Lindsley CW, Beauchamp RD. Small molecule/ML327 mediated transcriptional de-repression of E-cadherin and inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 9/8/2015; 6(26): 22934-48. PMID: 26082441, PMCID: PMC4673210, PII: 4473, DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.4473, ISSN: 1949-2553.

Nakamura T, Shinriki S, Jono H, Guo J, Ueda M, Hayashi M, Yamashita S, Zijlstra A, Nakayama H, Hiraki A, Shinohara M, Ando Y. Intrinsic TGF-ß2-triggered SDF-1-CXCR4 signaling axis is crucial for drug resistance and a slow-cycling state in bone marrow-disseminated tumor cells. Oncotarget. 2015 Jan 1/20/2015; 6(2): 1008-19. PMID: 25504440, PMCID: PMC4359213, PII: 2826, DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.2826, ISSN: 1949-2553.

Preston Campbell J, Mulcrone P, Masood SK, Karolak M, Merkel A, Hebron K, Zijlstra A, Sterling J, Elefteriou F. TRIzol and Alu qPCR-based quantification of metastatic seeding within the skeleton. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 12635. PMID: 26271202, PMCID: PMC4536516, PII: srep12635, DOI: 10.1038/srep12635, ISSN: 2045-2322.

Sung BH, Ketova T, Hoshino D, Zijlstra A, Weaver AM. Directional cell movement through tissues is controlled by exosome secretion. Nat Commun. 2015; 6: 7164. PMID: 25968605, PMCID: PMC4435734, PII: ncomms8164, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8164, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Irvin MW, Zijlstra A, Wikswo JP, Pozzi A. Techniques and assays for the study of angiogenesis. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 239(11): 1476-88. PMID: 24872440, PMCID: PMC4216737, PII: 1535370214529386, DOI: 10.1177/1535370214529386, ISSN: 1535-3699.

Stoletov K, Bond D, Hebron K, Raha S, Zijlstra A, Lewis JD. Metastasis as a therapeutic target in prostate cancer: a conceptual framework. Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2014 Apr; 2(1): 45-56. PMID: 25360439, PMCID: PMC4219290, ISSN: 2330-1910.

Madamanchi A, Zijlstra A, Zutter MM. Flipping the switch: integrin switching provides metastatic competence. Sci Signal. 2014 Mar 3/25/2014; 7(318): pe9. PMID: 24667375, PMCID: PMC4209128, PII: 7/318/pe9, DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2005236, ISSN: 1937-9145.

Hansen AG, Arnold SA, Jiang M, Palmer TD, Ketova T, Merkel A, Pickup M, Samaras S, Shyr Y, Moses HL, Hayward SW, Sterling JA, Zijlstra A. ALCAM/CD166 is a TGF-ß-responsive marker and functional regulator of prostate cancer metastasis to bone. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar 3/1/2014; 74(5): 1404-15. PMID: 24385212, PMCID: PMC4149913, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-13-1296, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1296, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Kain KH, Miller JW, Jones-Paris CR, Thomason RT, Lewis JD, Bader DM, Barnett JV, Zijlstra A. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research. Dev. Dyn [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb; 243(2): 216-28. PMID: 24357262, PMCID: PMC4164046, DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.24093, ISSN: 1097-0177.

Palmer TD, Martínez CH, Vasquez C, Hebron KE, Jones-Paris C, Arnold SA, Chan SM, Chalasani V, Gomez-Lemus JA, Williams AK, Chin JL, Giannico GA, Ketova T, Lewis JD, Zijlstra A. Integrin-free tetraspanin CD151 can inhibit tumor cell motility upon clustering and is a clinical indicator of prostate cancer progression. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2014 Jan 1/1/2014; 74(1): 173-87. PMID: 24220242, PMCID: PMC3947299, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-13-0275, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-0275, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Jovanovic B, Beeler JS, Pickup MW, Chytil A, Gorska AE, Ashby WJ, Lehmann BD, Zijlstra A, Pietenpol JA, Moses HL. Transforming growth factor beta receptor type III is a tumor promoter in mesenchymal-stem like triple negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(4): R69. PMID: 24985072, PMCID: PMC4095685, PII: bcr3684, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3684, ISSN: 1465-542X.

Hansen AG, Freeman TJ, Arnold SA, Starchenko A, Jones-Paris CR, Gilger MA, Washington MK, Fan KH, Shyr Y, Beauchamp RD, Zijlstra A. Elevated ALCAM shedding in colorectal cancer correlates with poor patient outcome. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2013 May 5/15/2013; 73(10): 2955-64. PMID: 23539446, PMCID: PMC3660148, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-12-2052, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-2052, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Ashby WJ, Zijlstra A. Established and novel methods of interrogating two-dimensional cell migration. Integr Biol (Camb). 2012 Nov; 4(11): 1338-50. PMID: 23038152, PMCID: PMC4165521, DOI: 10.1039/c2ib20154b, ISSN: 1757-9708.

Ashby WJ, Wikswo JP, Zijlstra A. Magnetically attachable stencils and the non-destructive analysis of the contribution made by the underlying matrix to cell migration. Biomaterials [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov; 33(33): 8189-203. PMID: 22940214, PMCID: PMC3444626, PII: S0142-9612(12)00787-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.07.018, ISSN: 1878-5905.

Campbell JP, Karolak MR, Ma Y, Perrien DS, Masood-Campbell SK, Penner NL, Munoz SA, Zijlstra A, Yang X, Sterling JA, Elefteriou F. Stimulation of host bone marrow stromal cells by sympathetic nerves promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in mice. PLoS Biol [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 10(7): e1001363. PMID: 22815651, PMCID: PMC3398959, PII: PBIOLOGY-D-12-00249, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001363, ISSN: 1545-7885.

Matise LA, Palmer TD, Ashby WJ, Nashabi A, Chytil A, Aakre M, Pickup MW, Gorska AE, Zijlstra A, Moses HL. Lack of transforming growth factor-ß signaling promotes collective cancer cell invasion through tumor-stromal crosstalk. Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(4): R98. PMID: 22748014, PMCID: PMC3680921, PII: bcr3217, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3217, ISSN: 1465-542X.

Palmer TD, Ashby WJ, Lewis JD, Zijlstra A. Targeting tumor cell motility to prevent metastasis. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul 7/18/2011; 63(8): 568-81. PMID: 21664937, PMCID: PMC3132821, PII: S0169-409X(11)00133-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.addr.2011.04.008, ISSN: 1872-8294.

Gao Y, Majumdar D, Jovanovic B, Shaifer C, Lin PC, Zijlstra A, Webb DJ, Li D. A versatile valve-enabled microfluidic cell co-culture platform and demonstration of its applications to neurobiology and cancer biology. Biomed Microdevices. 2011 Jun; 13(3): 539-48. PMID: 21424383, PMCID: PMC3085600, DOI: 10.1007/s10544-011-9523-9, ISSN: 1572-8781.

Palmer TD, Lewis J, Zijlstra A. Quantitative analysis of cancer metastasis using an avian embryo model. J Vis Exp. 2011; (51): PMID: 21673636, PMCID: PMC3197130, PII: 2815, DOI: 10.3791/2815, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Ramirez NE, Zhang Z, Madamanchi A, Boyd KL, O'Rear LD, Nashabi A, Li Z, Dupont WD, Zijlstra A, Zutter MM. The a2ß1 integrin is a metastasis suppressor in mouse models and human cancer. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 121(1): 226-37. PMID: 21135504, PMCID: PMC3007139, PII: 42328, DOI: 10.1172/JCI42328, ISSN: 1558-8238.

Cho CF, Ablack A, Leong HS, Zijlstra A, Lewis J. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in tumors in real time using intravital imaging. J Vis Exp. 2011; (52): PMID: 21730939, PMCID: PMC3197055, PII: 2808, DOI: 10.3791/2808, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Hansen AG, Swart GW, Zijlstra A. ALCAM: Basis Sequence: Mouse. AFCS Nat Mol Pages. 2011; 2011: PMID: 25983661, PMCID: PMC4432864, ISSN: 1477-5921.

Palmer TD, Zijlstra A. CD151: Basis Sequence: Mouse. AFCS Nat Mol Pages. 2011; 2011: PMID: 25983660, PMCID: PMC4432845, ISSN: 1477-5921.

Leong HS, Steinmetz NF, Ablack A, Destito G, Zijlstra A, Stuhlmann H, Manchester M, Lewis JD. Intravital imaging of embryonic and tumor neovasculature using viral nanoparticles. Nat Protoc [print-electronic]. 2010 Aug; 5(8): 1406-17. PMID: 20671724, PMCID: PMC3163450, PII: nprot.2010.103, DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2010.103, ISSN: 1750-2799.

Andries Zijlstra. In: Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions in Cancer. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2010. (Springer Science + Business Media). Available from:

Zhang Y, Schulte W, Pink D, Phipps K, Zijlstra A, Lewis JD, Waisman DM. Sensitivity of cancer cells to truncated diphtheria toxin. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(5): e10498. PMID: 20463924, PMCID: PMC2864767, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010498, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Zijlstra A. Launching an academic research career [editorial]. Dis Model Mech. 2009 Nov; 2(11-12): 526-30. PMID: 19892881, PII: 2/11-12/526, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.004523, ISSN: 1754-8411.

Zijlstra A, Lewis J, Degryse B, Stuhlmann H, Quigley JP. The inhibition of tumor cell intravasation and subsequent metastasis via regulation of in vivo tumor cell motility by the tetraspanin CD151. Cancer Cell. 2008 Mar; 13(3): 221-34. PMID: 18328426, PMCID: PMC3068919, PII: S1535-6108(08)00040-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2008.01.031, ISSN: 1878-3686.

Féral CC, Zijlstra A, Tkachenko E, Prager G, Gardel ML, Slepak M, Ginsberg MH. CD98hc (SLC3A2) participates in fibronectin matrix assembly by mediating integrin signaling. J. Cell Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug 8/13/2007; 178(4): 701-11. PMID: 17682053, PMCID: PMC2064475, PII: jcb.200705090, DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200705090, ISSN: 0021-9525.

Zijlstra A, Quigley JP. The DARC side of metastasis: shining a light on KAI1-mediated metastasis suppression in the vascular tunnel. Cancer Cell. 2006 Sep; 10(3): 177-8. PMID: 16959609, PII: S1535-6108(06)00252-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2006.08.012, ISSN: 1535-6108.

Lewis JD, Destito G, Zijlstra A, Gonzalez MJ, Quigley JP, Manchester M, Stuhlmann H. Viral nanoparticles as tools for intravital vascular imaging. Nat. Med [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar; 12(3): 354-60. PMID: 16501571, PMCID: PMC2536493, PII: nm1368, DOI: 10.1038/nm1368, ISSN: 1078-8956.

Zijlstra A, Seandel M, Kupriyanova TA, Partridge JJ, Madsen MA, Hahn-Dantona EA, Quigley JP, Deryugina EI. Proangiogenic role of neutrophil-like inflammatory heterophils during neovascularization induced by growth factors and human tumor cells. Blood [print-electronic]. 2006 Jan 1/1/2006; 107(1): 317-27. PMID: 16174763, PMCID: PMC1895349, PII: 2005-04-1458, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-04-1458, ISSN: 0006-4971.

Deryugina EI, Zijlstra A, Partridge JJ, Kupriyanova TA, Madsen MA, Papagiannakopoulos T, Quigley JP. Unexpected effect of matrix metalloproteinase down-regulation on vascular intravasation and metastasis of human fibrosarcoma cells selected in vivo for high rates of dissemination. Cancer Res. 2005 Dec 12/1/2005; 65(23): 10959-69. PMID: 16322244, PII: 65/23/10959, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2228, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Blancafort P, Chen EI, Gonzalez B, Bergquist S, Zijlstra A, Guthy D, Brachat A, Brakenhoff RH, Quigley JP, Erdmann D, Barbas CF. Genetic reprogramming of tumor cells by zinc finger transcription factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2005 Aug 8/16/2005; 102(33): 11716-21. PMID: 16081541, PMCID: PMC1187960, PII: 0501162102, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0501162102, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Wilson S, Greer B, Hooper J, Zijlstra A, Walker B, Quigley J, Hawthorne S. The membrane-anchored serine protease, TMPRSS2, activates PAR-2 in prostate cancer cells. Biochem. J. 2005 Jun 6/15/2005; 388(Pt 3): 967-72. PMID: 15537383, PMCID: PMC1183478, PII: BJ20041066, DOI: 10.1042/BJ20041066, ISSN: 1470-8728.

Zijlstra A, Aimes RT, Zhu D, Regazzoni K, Kupriyanova T, Seandel M, Deryugina EI, Quigley JP. Collagenolysis-dependent angiogenesis mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-13 (collagenase-3). J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Jun 6/25/2004; 279(26): 27633-45. PMID: 15066996, PII: M313617200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M313617200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Zijlstra A, Testa JE, Quigley JP. Targeting the proteome/epitome, implementation of subtractive immunization. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003 Apr 4/11/2003; 303(3): 733-44. PMID: 12670472, PII: S0006291X03003577, ISSN: 0006-291X.

Hooper JD, Zijlstra A, Aimes RT, Liang H, Claassen GF, Tarin D, Testa JE, Quigley JP. Subtractive immunization using highly metastatic human tumor cells identifies SIMA135/CDCP1, a 135 kDa cell surface phosphorylated glycoprotein antigen. Oncogene. 2003 Mar 3/27/2003; 22(12): 1783-94. PMID: 12660814, PII: 1206220, DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1206220, ISSN: 0950-9232.

Aimes RT, Zijlstra A, Hooper JD, Ogbourne SM, Sit ML, Fuchs S, Gotley DC, Quigley JP, Antalis TM. Endothelial cell serine proteases expressed during vascular morphogenesis and angiogenesis. Thromb. Haemost. 2003 Mar; 89(3): 561-72. PMID: 12624642, PII: 03030561, DOI: 10.1267/THRO03030561, ISSN: 0340-6245.

Zijlstra A, Mellor R, Panzarella G, Aimes RT, Hooper JD, Marchenko ND, Quigley JP. A quantitative analysis of rate-limiting steps in the metastatic cascade using human-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cancer Res. 2002 Dec 12/1/2002; 62(23): 7083-92. PMID: 12460930, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Balza E, Castellani P, Zijlstra A, Neri D, Zardi L, Siri A. Lack of specificity of endoglin expression for tumor blood vessels. Int. J. Cancer. 2001 Nov; 94(4): 579-85. PMID: 11745447, PII: 10.1002/ijc.1505, ISSN: 0020-7136.

Zijlstra A, Schelling ME. Detection of multiple fibronectin isoforms in fetal fibroblast monolayer culture: a novel method for the qualitative and quantitative detection of multiple antigens. Histochem. Cell Biol. 1999 Feb; 111(2): 163-9. PMID: 10090577, ISSN: 0948-6143.

Zijlstra A, McCabe NR, Schelling ME. Expression and assembly of the angiogenic marker B-fibronectin by endothelial cells in vitro: regulation by confluency. Angiogenesis. 1999; 3(1): 77-87. PMID: 14517447, PII: 239971, ISSN: 0969-6970.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 7/16/2014
A postdoctoral position is available (July, 2013). The project for this position is focused on the molecular biology of metastasis with an emphasis on cell migration. The project will integrate both molecular and translational aspects of metastasis research. Applicants interested in the laboratory and our research should send a current curriculum vitae and a past research synopsis to:

Andries Zijlstra Ph.D.,
Vanderbilt University
Department of Pathology, C-2102A MCN
1161 21st Ave. S.
Nashville, TN 37232-2561