Antonis K. Hatzopoulos, Ph.D.

Associate Professor
Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Medicine Associate Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology
Ph.D., Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston/Chicago, IllinoisB.S., Chemistry, Aristotelion University, Thessaloniki, Greece
Office Address
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
MRB IV - P425C
2213 Garland Avenue
Nashville, TN 37232-6300
Research Description
Our research focuses on cardiovascular progenitor cells as a model system to study heart and blood vessel development and as cell therapy tools in adult disease models. We have shown that in vitro expanded embryonic endothelial progenitor cells form blood vessels after transplantation in the developing embryo. In adult disease models, we found that vascular progenitor cells are originally recruited to sites of angiogenesis by endothelial P-selectin. In mouse models of multiple tumors, we demonstrated that the progenitor cells home to hypoxic metastases with high VEGF expression, but spare well-vascularized tumors and normal organs. Based on these findings, we used the cells as “Trojan horses” to deliver toxic agents directly to the tumor tissue killing malignant cells and blocking tumor growth. Exploring further the specific accumulation of progenitor cells to ischemic sites in vivo, we found that transplantation of progenitor cells under acute (heart) or chronic ischemia (hindlimb) enhances vascularization and improves tissue recovery. Our laboratory currently investigates the mechanisms of cardiac cell specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation and the biology of progenitor cells after ischemic injury in the adult heart. We found that canonical wnt signaling is activated during scar formation and is a critical pathway in the activation of endothelial cells and myofibroblasts after experimental myocardial infarction. We have recently discovered that the BMP antagonist PRDC is an integral component of the regulatory network that fine tunes both Bmp4 expression and signaling activity during heart development, providing novel insights into the molecular basis of congenital cardiac defects. We currently investigate the role of PRDC in cardiac repair after ischemic injury. Our laboratory is a member of the Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) and the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium (PCBC), which have been established by NHLBI in 2007 and 2009, respectively.
Research Keywords
Regenerative medicine, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, stem cell biology, development, heart, BMP, wnt, myocardial infarction, cell therapy, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, zebrafish, mouse
Salomonis N, Dexheimer PJ, Omberg L, Schroll R, Bush S, Huo J, Schriml L, Ho Sui S, Keddache M, Mayhew C, Shanmukhappa SK, Wells J, Daily K, Hubler S, Wang Y, Zambidis E, Margolin A, Hide W, Hatzopoulos AK, Malik P, Cancelas JA, Aronow BJ, Lutzko C. Integrated Genomic Analysis of Diverse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium. Stem Cell Reports [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/12/2016; 7(1): 110-25. PMID: 27293150, PII: S2213-6711(16)30061-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2016.05.006, ISSN: 2213-6711.

Sanders LN, Schoenhard JA, Saleh MA, Mukherjee A, Ryzhov S, McMaster WG, Nolan K, Gumina RJ, Thompson TB, Magnuson MA, Harrison DG, Hatzopoulos AK. The BMP Antagonist Gremlin 2 Limits Inflammation After Myocardial Infarction. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun 6/9/2016; PMID: 27283840, PII: CIRCRESAHA.116.308700, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308700, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Wu J, Montaniel KR, Saleh MA, Xiao L, Chen W, Owens GK, Humphrey JD, Majesky MW, Paik DT, Hatzopoulos AK, Madhur MS, Harrison DG. Origin of Matrix-Producing Cells That Contribute to Aortic Fibrosis in Hypertension. Hypertension [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb; 67(2): 461-8. PMID: 26693821, PMCID: PMC4713264, PII: HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06123, DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06123, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Bylund JB, Hatzopoulos AK. Differentiation of Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells Using the BMP Antagonist Grem2. J Vis Exp. 2016; (109): PMID: 27023256, DOI: 10.3791/53919, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Paik DT, Rai M, Ryzhov S, Sanders LN, Aisagbonhi O, Funke MJ, Feoktistov I, Hatzopoulos AK. Wnt10b Gain-of-Function Improves Cardiac Repair by Arteriole Formation and Attenuation of Fibrosis. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/9/2015; 117(9): 804-16. PMID: 26338900, PMCID: PMC4600464, PII: CIRCRESAHA.115.306886, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306886, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Hecht N, Schneider UC, Czabanka M, Vinci M, Hatzopoulos AK, Vajkoczy P, Woitzik J. Endothelial progenitor cells augment collateralization and hemodynamic rescue in a model of chronic cerebral ischemia. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 34(8): 1297-305. PMID: 24780900, PMCID: PMC4126089, PII: jcbfm201478, DOI: 10.1038/jcbfm.2014.78, ISSN: 1559-7016.

Fioret BA, Heimfeld JD, Paik DT, Hatzopoulos AK. Endothelial cells contribute to generation of adult ventricular myocytes during cardiac homeostasis. Cell Rep [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul 7/10/2014; 8(1): 229-41. PMID: 25001281, PMCID: PMC4101892, PII: S2211-1247(14)00454-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.06.004, ISSN: 2211-1247.

Müller II, Melville DB, Tanwar V, Rybski WM, Mukherjee A, Shoemaker MB, Wang WD, Schoenhard JA, Roden DM, Darbar D, Knapik EW, Hatzopoulos AK. Functional modeling in zebrafish demonstrates that the atrial-fibrillation-associated gene GREM2 regulates cardiac laterality, cardiomyocyte differentiation and atrial rhythm. Dis Model Mech [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar; 6(2): 332-41. PMID: 23223679, PMCID: PMC3597016, PII: dmm.010488, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.010488, ISSN: 1754-8411.

Rai M, Walthall JM, Hu J, Hatzopoulos AK. Continuous antagonism by Dkk1 counter activates canonical Wnt signaling and promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells Dev [print-electronic]. 2012 Jan; 21(1): 54-66. PMID: 21861760, PMCID: PMC3245675, DOI: 10.1089/scd.2011.0326, ISSN: 1557-8534.

Wang WD, Melville DB, Montero-Balaguer M, Hatzopoulos AK, Knapik EW. Tfap2a and Foxd3 regulate early steps in the development of the neural crest progenitor population. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec 12/1/2011; 360(1): 173-85. PMID: 21963426, PMCID: PMC3236700, PII: S0012-1606(11)01263-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.09.019, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Melville DB, Montero-Balaguer M, Levic DS, Bradley K, Smith JR, Hatzopoulos AK, Knapik EW. The feelgood mutation in zebrafish dysregulates COPII-dependent secretion of select extracellular matrix proteins in skeletal morphogenesis. Dis Model Mech [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov; 4(6): 763-76. PMID: 21729877, PMCID: PMC3209646, PII: dmm.007625, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.007625, ISSN: 1754-8411.

Hao J, Sawyer DB, Hatzopoulos AK, Hong CC. Recent Progress on Chemical Biology of Pluripotent Stem Cell Self-renewal, Reprogramming and Cardiomyogenesis. Recent Pat Regen Med. 2011 Sep; 1(3): 263-74. PMID: 22787575, PMCID: PMC3392203, ISSN: 2210-2965.

Defresne F, Bouzin C, Grandjean M, Dieu M, Raes M, Hatzopoulos AK, Kupatt C, Feron O. Preconditioned endothelial progenitor cells reduce formation of melanoma metastases through SPARC-driven cell-cell interactions and endocytosis. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul 7/15/2011; 71(14): 4748-57. PMID: 21616936, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-10-2449, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2449, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Wu B, Wang Y, Lui W, Langworthy M, Tompkins KL, Hatzopoulos AK, Baldwin HS, Zhou B. Nfatc1 coordinates valve endocardial cell lineage development required for heart valve formation. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul 7/8/2011; 109(2): 183-92. PMID: 21597012, PMCID: PMC3132827, PII: CIRCRESAHA.111.245035, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.245035, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Aisagbonhi O, Rai M, Ryzhov S, Atria N, Feoktistov I, Hatzopoulos AK. Experimental myocardial infarction triggers canonical Wnt signaling and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Dis Model Mech [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul; 4(4): 469-83. PMID: 21324930, PMCID: PMC3124051, PII: dmm.006510, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.006510, ISSN: 1754-8411.

Hammon M, Herrmann M, Bleiziffer O, Pryymachuk G, Andreoli L, Munoz LE, Amann KU, Mondini M, Gariglio M, Airó P, Schellerer VS, Hatzopoulos AK, Horch RE, Kneser U, Stürzl M, Naschberger E. Role of guanylate binding protein-1 in vascular defects associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2011 Jul; 15(7): 1582-92. PMID: 20716116, PMCID: PMC3823202, PII: JCMM1146, DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01146.x, ISSN: 1582-4934.

Safa RN, Peng XY, Pentassuglia L, Lim CC, Lamparter M, Silverstein C, Walker J, Chen B, Geisberg C, Hatzopoulos AK, Sawyer DB. Neuregulin-1ß regulation of embryonic endothelial progenitor cell survival. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 300(4): H1311-9. PMID: 21239627, PMCID: PMC3075022, PII: ajpheart.01104.2009, DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.01104.2009, ISSN: 1522-1539.

Gupta MK, Walthall JM, Venkataraman R, Crowder SW, Jung DK, Yu SS, Feaster TK, Wang X, Giorgio TD, Hong CC, Baudenbacher FJ, Hatzopoulos AK, Sung HJ. Combinatorial polymer electrospun matrices promote physiologically-relevant cardiomyogenic stem cell differentiation. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2011; 6(12): e28935. PMID: 22216144, PMCID: PMC3246450, PII: PONE-D-11-17409, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028935, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Willerson JT, Perin EC, Ellis SG, Pepine CJ, Henry TD, Zhao DX, Lai D, Penn MS, Byrne BJ, Silva G, Gee A, Traverse JH, Hatzopoulos AK, Forder JR, Martin D, Kronenberg M, Taylor DA, Cogle CR, Baraniuk S, Westbrook L, Sayre SL, Vojvodic RW, Gordon DJ, Skarlatos SI, Moyé LA, Simari RD, . Intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction (First Mononuclear Cells injected in the US [FOCUS]): Rationale and design. Am. Heart J. 2010 Aug; 160(2): 215-23. PMID: 20691824, PMCID: PMC2921924, PII: S0002-8703(10)00255-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.03.029, ISSN: 1097-6744.

Ratliff BB, Ghaly T, Brudnicki P, Yasuda K, Rajdev M, Bank M, Mares J, Hatzopoulos AK, Goligorsky MS. Endothelial progenitors encapsulated in bioartificial niches are insulated from systemic cytotoxicity and are angiogenesis competent. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul; 299(1): F178-86. PMID: 20410213, PMCID: PMC2904163, PII: ajprenal.00102.2010, DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00102.2010, ISSN: 1522-1466.

Hinkel R, Bock-Marquette I, Hatzopoulos AK, Kupatt C. Thymosin beta4: a key factor for protective effects of eEPCs in acute and chronic ischemia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2010 Apr; 1194: 105-11. PMID: 20536456, PMCID: PMC3601487, PII: NYAS5489, DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05489.x, ISSN: 1749-6632.

Yasuda K, Park HC, Ratliff B, Addabbo F, Hatzopoulos AK, Chander P, Goligorsky MS. Adriamycin nephropathy: a failure of endothelial progenitor cell-induced repair. Am. J. Pathol [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 176(4): 1685-95. PMID: 20167859, PMCID: PMC2843460, PII: S0002-9440(10)60483-X, DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.091071, ISSN: 1525-2191.

Schoenhard JA, Hatzopoulos AK. Stem cell therapy: pieces of the puzzle. J Cardiovasc Transl Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb; 3(1): 49-60. PMID: 20119487, PMCID: PMC2810366, DOI: 10.1007/s12265-009-9148-z, ISSN: 1937-5395.

Pfosser A, El-Aouni C, Pfisterer I, Dietz M, Globisch F, Stachel G, Trenkwalder T, Pinkenburg O, Horstkotte J, Hinkel R, Sperandio M, Hatzopoulos AK, Boekstegers P, Bals R, Kupatt C. NF kappaB activation in embryonic endothelial progenitor cells enhances neovascularization via PSGL-1 mediated recruitment: novel role for LL37. Stem Cells. 2010 Feb; 28(2): 376-85. PMID: 20014279, DOI: 10.1002/stem.280, ISSN: 1549-4918.

Schoenhard JA, Hatzopoulos AK. Time is like a clock in my heart: implications for stem cell delivery after myocardial infarction [editorial]. Cardiology [print-electronic]. 2010; 117(2): 158-60. PMID: 21042016, PMCID: PMC2992645, PII: 000321396, DOI: 10.1159/000321396, ISSN: 1421-9751.

Traverse JH, Henry TD, Vaughan DE, Ellis SG, Pepine CJ, Willerson JT, Zhao DX, Simpson LM, Penn MS, Byrne BJ, Perin EC, Gee AP, Hatzopoulos AK, McKenna DH, Forder JR, Taylor DA, Cogle CR, Baraniuk S, Olson RE, Jorgenson BC, Sayre SL, Vojvodic RW, Gordon DJ, Skarlatos SI, Moyè LA, Simari RD, . LateTIME: a phase-II, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, pilot trial evaluating the safety and effect of administration of bone marrow mononuclear cells 2 to 3 weeks after acute myocardial infarction. Tex Heart Inst J. 2010; 37(4): 412-20. PMID: 20844613, PMCID: PMC2929864, ISSN: 1526-6702.

Traverse JH, Henry TD, Vaughan DE, Ellis SG, Pepine CJ, Willerson JT, Zhao DX, Piller LB, Penn MS, Byrne BJ, Perin EC, Gee AP, Hatzopoulos AK, McKenna DH, Forder JR, Taylor DA, Cogle CR, Olson RE, Jorgenson BC, Sayre SL, Vojvodic RW, Gordon DJ, Skarlatos SI, Moye' LA, Simari RD, . Rationale and design for TIME: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial evaluating the safety and effect of timing of administration of bone marrow mononuclear cells after acute myocardial infarction. Am. Heart J [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 158(3): 356-63. PMID: 19699857, PMCID: PMC2784639, PII: S0002-8703(09)00451-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.06.009, ISSN: 1097-6744.

Boudoulas KD, Hatzopoulos AK. Cardiac repair and regeneration: the Rubik's cube of cell therapy for heart disease. Dis Model Mech. 2009 Jul; 2(7-8): 344-58. PMID: 19553696, PMCID: PMC2707103, PII: 2/7-8/344, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.000240, ISSN: 1754-8411.

Bleiziffer O, Horch RE, Hammon M, Arkudas A, Naschberger E, Rath S, Pryymachuk G, Beier JP, Hatzopoulos AK, Stürzl M, Kneser U. T17b murine embryonal endothelial progenitor cells can be induced towards both proliferation and differentiation in a fibrin matrix. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2009 May; 13(5): 926-35. PMID: 19538255, PMCID: PMC2827195, PII: JCMM527, DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00527.x, ISSN: 1582-4934.

Joggerst SJ, Hatzopoulos AK. Stem cell therapy for cardiac repair: benefits and barriers. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2009; 11: e20. PMID: 19586557, PII: S1462399409001124, DOI: 10.1017/S1462399409001124, ISSN: 1462-3994.

Schulz H, Kolde R, Adler P, Aksoy I, Anastassiadis K, Bader M, Billon N, Boeuf H, Bourillot PY, Buchholz F, Dani C, Doss MX, Forrester L, Gitton M, Henrique D, Hescheler J, Himmelbauer H, Hübner N, Karantzali E, Kretsovali A, Lubitz S, Pradier L, Rai M, Reimand J, Rolletschek A, Sachinidis A, Savatier P, Stewart F, Storm MP, Trouillas M, Vilo J, Welham MJ, Winkler J, Wobus AM, Hatzopoulos AK, . The FunGenES database: a genomics resource for mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(9): e6804. PMID: 19727443, PMCID: PMC2731164, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006804, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Mages J, Freimüller K, Lang R, Hatzopoulos AK, Guggemoos S, Koszinowski UH, Adler H. Proteins of the secretory pathway govern virus productivity during lytic gammaherpesvirus infection. J. Cell. Mol. Med [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 12(5B): 1974-89. PMID: 18194452, PMCID: PMC2673020, PII: JCMM235, DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00235.x, ISSN: 1582-1838.

Beck H, Semisch M, Culmsee C, Plesnila N, Hatzopoulos AK. Egr-1 regulates expression of the glial scar component phosphacan in astrocytes after experimental stroke. Am. J. Pathol [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 173(1): 77-92. PMID: 18556777, PMCID: PMC2438287, PII: S0002-9440(10)61587-8, DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2008.070648, ISSN: 1525-2191.

Hinkel R, El-Aouni C, Olson T, Horstkotte J, Mayer S, Müller S, Willhauck M, Spitzweg C, Gildehaus FJ, Münzing W, Hannappel E, Bock-Marquette I, DiMaio JM, Hatzopoulos AK, Boekstegers P, Kupatt C. Thymosin beta4 is an essential paracrine factor of embryonic endothelial progenitor cell-mediated cardioprotection. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2008 Apr 4/29/2008; 117(17): 2232-40. PMID: 18427126, PMCID: PMC2672916, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.107.758904, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.758904, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Ryzhov S, Solenkova NV, Goldstein AE, Lamparter M, Fleenor T, Young PP, Greelish JP, Byrne JG, Vaughan DE, Biaggioni I, Hatzopoulos AK, Feoktistov I. Adenosine receptor-mediated adhesion of endothelial progenitors to cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb 2/15/2008; 102(3): 356-63. PMID: 18032734, PMCID: PMC2803108, PII: CIRCRESAHA.107.158147, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.158147, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Tsukamoto H, Irie A, Senju S, Hatzopoulos AK, Wojnowski L, Nishimura Y. B-Raf-mediated signaling pathway regulates T cell development. Eur. J. Immunol. 2008 Feb; 38(2): 518-27. PMID: 18228248, PMCID: PMC2706025, DOI: 10.1002/eji.200737430, ISSN: 0014-2980.

Karantzali E, Schulz H, Hummel O, Hubner N, Hatzopoulos A, Kretsovali A. Histone deacetylase inhibition accelerates the early events of stem cell differentiation: transcriptomic and epigenetic analysis. Genome Biol. 2008; 9(4): R65. PMID: 18394158, PMCID: PMC2643936, PII: gb-2008-9-4-r65, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-4-r65, ISSN: 1474-760X.

Hao J, Daleo MA, Murphy CK, Yu PB, Ho JN, Hu J, Peterson RT, Hatzopoulos AK, Hong CC. Dorsomorphin, a selective small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, promotes cardiomyogenesis in embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(8): e2904. PMID: 18682835, PMCID: PMC2483414, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002904, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Bidzhekov K, Hautmann M, Semisch M, Weber C, Engelmann B, Hatzopoulos AK. Rafs constitute a nodal point in the regulation of embryonic endothelial progenitor cell growth and differentiation. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2007 Nov; 11(6): 1395-407. PMID: 18205709, PMCID: PMC4401289, PII: JCMM123, DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00123.x, ISSN: 1582-1838.

Young PP, Vaughan DE, Hatzopoulos AK. Biologic properties of endothelial progenitor cells and their potential for cell therapy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2007 May; 49(6): 421-9. PMID: 17498522, PMCID: PMC1978244, PII: S0033-0620(07)00023-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.pcad.2007.02.004, ISSN: 0033-0620.

Langer HF, May AE, Vestweber D, De Boer HC, Hatzopoulos AK, Gawaz M. Platelet-induced differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 2007 Mar; 33(2): 136-43. PMID: 17340461, DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-969026, ISSN: 0094-6176.

Diez H, Fischer A, Winkler A, Hu CJ, Hatzopoulos AK, Breier G, Gessler M. Hypoxia-mediated activation of Dll4-Notch-Hey2 signaling in endothelial progenitor cells and adoption of arterial cell fate. Exp. Cell Res [print-electronic]. 2007 Jan 1/1/2007; 313(1): 1-9. PMID: 17045587, PII: S0014-4827(06)00388-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.09.009, ISSN: 0014-4827.

Montero-Balaguer M, Lang MR, Sachdev SW, Knappmeyer C, Stewart RA, De La Guardia A, Hatzopoulos AK, Knapik EW. The mother superior mutation ablates foxd3 activity in neural crest progenitor cells and depletes neural crest derivatives in zebrafish. Dev. Dyn. 2006 Dec; 235(12): 3199-212. PMID: 17013879, DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.20959, ISSN: 1058-8388.

Müller II, Knapik EW, Hatzopoulos AK. Expression of the protein related to Dan and Cerberus gene--prdc--During eye, pharyngeal arch, somite, and swim bladder development in zebrafish. Dev. Dyn. 2006 Oct; 235(10): 2881-8. PMID: 16921498, DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.20925, ISSN: 1058-8388.

Langer H, May AE, Daub K, Heinzmann U, Lang P, Schumm M, Vestweber D, Massberg S, Schönberger T, Pfisterer I, Hatzopoulos AK, Gawaz M. Adherent platelets recruit and induce differentiation of murine embryonic endothelial progenitor cells to mature endothelial cells in vitro. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2006 Feb 2/3/2006; 98(2): e2-10. PMID: 16373597, PII: 01.RES.0000201285.87524.9e, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000201285.87524.9e, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Gialitakis M, Kretsovali A, Spilianakis C, Kravariti L, Mages J, Hoffmann R, Hatzopoulos AK, Papamatheakis J. Coordinated changes of histone modifications and HDAC mobilization regulate the induction of MHC class II genes by Trichostatin A. Nucleic Acids Res [electronic-print]. 2006; 34(3): 765-72. PMID: 16452299, PMCID: PMC1360741, PII: 34/3/765, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkj462, ISSN: 1362-4962.

Kupatt C, Horstkotte J, Vlastos GA, Pfosser A, Lebherz C, Semisch M, Thalgott M, Büttner K, Browarzyk C, Mages J, Hoffmann R, Deten A, Lamparter M, Müller F, Beck H, Büning H, Boekstegers P, Hatzopoulos AK. Embryonic endothelial progenitor cells expressing a broad range of proangiogenic and remodeling factors enhance vascularization and tissue recovery in acute and chronic ischemia. FASEB J [print-electronic]. 2005 Sep; 19(11): 1576-8. PMID: 16009705, PII: 04-3282fje, DOI: 10.1096/fj.04-3282fje, ISSN: 1530-6860.

Kupatt C, Hinkel R, Lamparter M, von Brühl ML, Pohl T, Horstkotte J, Beck H, Müller S, Delker S, Gildehaus FJ, Büning H, Hatzopoulos AK, Boekstegers P. Retroinfusion of embryonic endothelial progenitor cells attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in pigs: role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT kinase. Circulation. 2005 Aug 8/30/2005; 112(9 Suppl): I117-22. PMID: 16159802, PII: 112/9_suppl/I-117, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.524801, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Jakupoglu C, Przemeck GK, Schneider M, Moreno SG, Mayr N, Hatzopoulos AK, de Angelis MH, Wurst W, Bornkamm GW, Brielmeier M, Conrad M. Cytoplasmic thioredoxin reductase is essential for embryogenesis but dispensable for cardiac development. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2005 Mar; 25(5): 1980-8. PMID: 15713651, PMCID: PMC549365, PII: 25/5/1980, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.25.5.1980-1988.2005, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Conrad M, Jakupoglu C, Moreno SG, Lippl S, Banjac A, Schneider M, Beck H, Hatzopoulos AK, Just U, Sinowatz F, Schmahl W, Chien KR, Wurst W, Bornkamm GW, Brielmeier M. Essential role for mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in hematopoiesis, heart development, and heart function. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2004 Nov; 24(21): 9414-23. PMID: 15485910, PMCID: PMC522221, PII: 24/21/9414, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.24.21.9414-9423.2004, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Wei J, Blum S, Unger M, Jarmy G, Lamparter M, Geishauser A, Vlastos GA, Chan G, Fischer KD, Rattat D, Debatin KM, Hatzopoulos AK, Beltinger C. Embryonic endothelial progenitor cells armed with a suicide gene target hypoxic lung metastases after intravenous delivery. Cancer Cell. 2004 May; 5(5): 477-88. PMID: 15144955, PII: S1535610804001163, ISSN: 1535-6108.

Vajkoczy P, Blum S, Lamparter M, Mailhammer R, Erber R, Engelhardt B, Vestweber D, Hatzopoulos AK. Multistep nature of microvascular recruitment of ex vivo-expanded embryonic endothelial progenitor cells during tumor angiogenesis. J. Exp. Med. 2003 Jun 6/16/2003; 197(12): 1755-65. PMID: 12810693, PMCID: PMC2193947, PII: jem.20021659, DOI: 10.1084/jem.20021659, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Beck H, Voswinckel R, Wagner S, Ziegelhoeffer T, Heil M, Helisch A, Schaper W, Acker T, Hatzopoulos AK, Plate KH. Participation of bone marrow-derived cells in long-term repair processes after experimental stroke. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Jun; 23(6): 709-17. PMID: 12796719, DOI: 10.1097/01.WCB.0000065940.18332.8D, ISSN: 0271-678X.

Evans V, Hatzopoulos A, Aird WC, Rayburn HB, Rosenberg RD, Kuivenhoven JA. Targeting the Hprt locus in mice reveals differential regulation of Tie2 gene expression in the endothelium. Physiol. Genomics. 2000 Mar 3/13/2000; 2(2): 67-75. PMID: 11015584, PII: 2/2/67, ISSN: 1531-2267.

Hatzopoulos AK, Folkman J, Vasile E, Eiselen GK, Rosenberg RD. Isolation and characterization of endothelial progenitor cells from mouse embryos. Development. 1998 Apr; 125(8): 1457-68. PMID: 9502726, ISSN: 0950-1991.