Charles C. Hong, M.D., Ph.D.

Associate Professor

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Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Medicine Associate Professor of Cell and Developmental BiologyAssociate Professor of Pharmacology
M.Phil., Yale University, New Haven, ConnecticutPh.D., Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, ConnecticutM.D., Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, ConnecticutS.B., Life Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Office Address
Preston Research Building 383
2220 Pierce Ave., PRB 383
Nashville, TN 37232
Research Description
Our research can be divided into 2 broad areas. The first area involves chemical biology of vertebrate development, which entails discovery of small molecules that selectively modulate cell signaling pathways involved in embryogenesis. Since developmental pathways represent important untapped therapeutic targets, we have an active medicinal chemistry program to develop our novel small molecules as lead compounds for future therapies. We have thus far discovered potent and highly selective chemical modifiers of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt, Hedgehog, and lipid signaling pathways, among others. Several of our compounds are first-in-class molecules with substantial therapeutic potential in rare and common diseases, including cancers, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Our chemical biology exploration has led to new opportunities for innovative therapeutic programs.

In the second, we are examining the utility of hiPSC to study human congenital heart diseases and inherited cardiomyopathies. Finally, we are developing human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes as a platform for drug testing, including validation of novel cardiac inotropes.

2006 - Discovered the role of PI3K and MAP kinase crosstalk in artery specification.
2008 - Discovered dorsomorphin, the first pharmacological inhibitor of the BMP pathway.
2010 - First large scale in vivo structure activity relationship (SAR) study outside the anti-microbial field.
2008, 2010 - First reported use of pharmacological inhibitors of BMP and Wnt pathways to induce cardiomyogenesis in pluripotent stem cells.
2011 - Contributed to the discovery of the role of BMP signaling in cholesterol homeostasis.
2008, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015 - Helped reveal therapeutic potential of a BMP inhibitor for anemia, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, atherosclerosis, and variety of cancers (lung, metastatic breast, ovarian and brain cancers).
2015 - Discovered phosphodiesterase-4 as a pharmacological target for hedgehog signaling inhibitor.
2015 - Signed an exclusive research and licensing agreement with La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company covering novel BMP receptor inhibitors.
Clinical Description
Dr. Hong is a board certified cardiologist, with expertise in inherited heart diseases.
Research Keywords
Chemical biology, Cardiovascular development, Drug discovery, Zebrafish, Developmental biology, Molecular medicine, Pharmacology, Stem cells, Inherited heart diseases, Regenerative Medicine, Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
Clinical Research Keywords
inherited heart disease, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
Cadar AG, Feaster TK, Durbin MD, Hong CC. Production of Single Contracting Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Matrigel Mattress Technique. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol. 2017 Aug 8/14/2017; 42: 4A.14.1-4A.14.7. PMID: 28806851, PMCID: PMC5577013, DOI: 10.1002/cpsc.32, ISSN: 1938-8969.

Durbin MD, Cadar AG, Williams CH, Guo Y, Bichell DP, Su YR, Hong CC. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Sequencing Reveals a Novel NOTCH1 Mutation in a Family with Single Ventricle Defects. Pediatr Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2017 Aug; 38(6): 1232-40. PMID: 28608148, PMCID: PMC5577922, PII: 10.1007/s00246-017-1650-5, DOI: 10.1007/s00246-017-1650-5, ISSN: 1432-1971.

Gaskill CF, Carrier EJ, Kropski JA, Bloodworth NC, Menon S, Foronjy RF, Taketo MM, Hong CC, Austin ED, West JD, Means AL, Loyd JE, Merryman WD, Hemnes AR, De Langhe S, Blackwell TS, Klemm DJ, Majka SM. Disruption of lineage specification in adult pulmonary mesenchymal progenitor cells promotes microvascular dysfunction. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2017 Jun 6/1/2017; 127(6): 2262-76. PMID: 28463231, PMCID: PMC5451236, PII: 88629, DOI: 10.1172/JCI88629, ISSN: 1558-8238.

Pulley JM, Shirey-Rice JK, Lavieri RR, Jerome RN, Zaleski NM, Aronoff DM, Bastarache L, Niu X, Holroyd KJ, Roden DM, Skaar EP, Niswender CM, Marnett LJ, Lindsley CW, Ekstrom LB, Bentley AR, Bernard GR, Hong CC, Denny JC. Accelerating Precision Drug Development and Drug Repurposing by Leveraging Human Genetics. Assay Drug Dev Technol [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 15(3): 113-9. PMID: 28379727, PMCID: PMC5399743, DOI: 10.1089/adt.2016.772, ISSN: 1557-8127.

Jiramongkolchai P, Owens P, Hong CC. Emerging roles of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway in cancer: potential therapeutic target for kinase inhibition. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2016 Aug 8/15/2016; 44(4): 1117-34. PMID: 27528760, PII: BST20160069, DOI: 10.1042/BST20160069, ISSN: 1470-8752.

Sheng CC, Amiri-Kordestani L, Palmby T, Force T, Hong CC, Wu JC, Croce K, Kim G, Moslehi J. 21st Century Cardio-Oncology: Identifying Cardiac Safety Signals in the Era of Personalized Medicine. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2016 Aug; 1(5): 386-98. PMID: 28713868, PMCID: PMC5508213, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2016.05.008, ISSN: 2452-302X.

Clark CR, Robinson JY, Sanchez NS, Townsend TA, Arrieta JA, Merryman WD, Trykall DZ, Olivey HE, Hong CC, Barnett JV. Common pathways regulate type III TGFß receptor-dependent cell invasion in epicardial and endocardial cells. Cell. Signal [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/9/2016; PMID: 26970186, PII: S0898-6568(16)30057-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2016.03.004, ISSN: 1873-3913.

Hempel JE, Cadar AG, Hong CC. Development of thieno- and benzopyrimidinone inhibitors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway reveals PDE4-dependent and PDE4-independent mechanisms of action. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/7/2016; PMID: 26976215, PII: S0960-894X(16)30233-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.03.013, ISSN: 1464-3405.

Tadokoro T, Gao X, Hong CC, Hotten D, Hogan BL. BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors. Development [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/1/2016; 143(5): 764-73. PMID: 26811382, PII: dev.126656, DOI: 10.1242/dev.126656, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Williams CH, Hong CC. Zebrafish small molecule screens: Taking the phenotypic plunge. Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2016; 14: 350-6. PMID: 27721960, PMCID: PMC5050293, PII: S2001-0370(16)30044-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.csbj.2016.09.001, ISSN: 2001-0370.

Hover LD, Owens P, Munden AL, Wang J, Chambless LB, Hopkins CR, Hong CC, Moses HL, Abel TW. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling promotes tumorigenesis in a murine model of high-grade glioma. Neuro-oncology [print-electronic]. 2015 Dec 12/18/2015; PMID: 26683138, PII: nov310, DOI: 10.1093/neuonc/nov310, ISSN: 1523-5866.

Feaster TK, Cadar AG, Wang L, Williams CH, Chun YW, Hempel JE, Bloodworth N, Merryman WD, Lim CC, Wu JC, Knollmann BC, Hong CC. Matrigel Mattress: A Method for the Generation of Single Contracting Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2015 Dec 12/4/2015; 117(12): 995-1000. PMID: 26429802, PMCID: PMC4670592, PII: CIRCRESAHA.115.307580, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.307580, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Hwang HS, Kryshtal DO, Feaster TK, Sánchez-Freire V, Zhang J, Kamp TJ, Hong CC, Wu JC, Knollmann BC. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes to understand and test cardiac calcium handling: A glass half full [letter]. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2015 Dec; 89(Pt B): 379-80. PMID: 26695095, PII: S0022-2828(15)00249-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.10.021, ISSN: 1095-8584.

Chun YW, Voyles DE, Rath R, Hofmeister LH, Boire TC, Wilcox H, Lee JH, Bellan LM, Hong CC, Sung HJ. Differential responses of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to anisotropic strain depends on disease status. J Biomech [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov 11/5/2015; 48(14): 3890-6. PMID: 26476764, PMCID: PMC4655132, PII: S0021-9290(15)00522-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.09.028, ISSN: 1873-2380.

Hover LD, Young CD, Bhola NE, Wilson AJ, Khabele D, Hong CC, Moses HL, Owens P. Small molecule inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway DMH1 reduces ovarian cancer cell growth. Cancer Lett [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov 11/1/2015; 368(1): 79-87. PMID: 26235139, PMCID: PMC4554828, PII: S0304-3835(15)00487-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2015.07.032, ISSN: 1872-7980.

Chun YW, Balikov DA, Feaster TK, Williams CH, Sheng CC, Lee JB, Boire TC, Neely MD, Bellan LM, Ess KC, Bowman AB, Sung HJ, Hong CC. Combinatorial polymer matrices enhance in vitro maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Biomaterials [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct; 67: 52-64. PMID: 26204225, PMCID: PMC4550551, PII: S0142-9612(15)00580-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.07.004, ISSN: 1878-5905.

Hwang HS, Kryshtal DO, Feaster TK, Sánchez-Freire V, Zhang J, Kamp TJ, Hong CC, Wu JC, Knollmann BC. Comparable calcium handling of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes generated by multiple laboratories. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 85: 79-88. PMID: 25982839, PMCID: PMC4530041, PII: S0022-2828(15)00151-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.05.003, ISSN: 1095-8584.

Habib A, Polavarapu R, Karmali V, Guo L, Van Dam R, Cheng Q, Akahori H, Saeed O, Nakano M, Pachura K, Hong CC, Shin E, Kolodgie F, Virmani R, Finn AV. Hepcidin-ferroportin axis controls toll-like receptor 4 dependent macrophage inflammatory responses in human atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 241(2): 692-700. PMID: 26125411, PII: S0021-9150(15)01379-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.06.025, ISSN: 1879-1484.

Owens P, Pickup MW, Novitskiy SV, Giltnane JM, Gorska AE, Hopkins CR, Hong CC, Moses HL. Inhibition of BMP signaling suppresses metastasis in mammary cancer. Oncogene [print-electronic]. 2015 May 5/7/2015; 34(19): 2437-49. PMID: 24998846, PMCID: PMC4689138, PII: onc2014189, DOI: 10.1038/onc.2014.189, ISSN: 1476-5594.

Williams CH, Hempel JE, Hao J, Frist AY, Williams MM, Fleming JT, Sulikowski GA, Cooper MK, Chiang C, Hong CC. An in vivo chemical genetic screen identifies phosphodiesterase 4 as a pharmacological target for hedgehog signaling inhibition. Cell Rep [print-electronic]. 2015 Apr 4/7/2015; 11(1): 43-50. PMID: 25818300, PMCID: PMC4394042, PII: S2211-1247(15)00243-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.001, ISSN: 2211-1247.

Aboud AA, Tidball AM, Kumar KK, Neely MD, Han B, Ess KC, Hong CC, Erikson KM, Hedera P, Bowman AB. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper. Neurobiol. Dis [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 73: 204-12. PMID: 25315681, PMCID: PMC4394022, PII: S0969-9961(14)00295-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2014.10.002, ISSN: 1095-953X.

Hempel JE, Hong CC. Practical strategies for small-molecule probe development in chemical biology. Methods Mol. Biol. 2015; 1263: 209-23. PMID: 25618348, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2269-7_17, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Williams CH, Hong CC. High content screening for modulators of cardiovascular or global developmental pathways in zebrafish. Methods Mol. Biol. 2015; 1263: 167-74. PMID: 25618344, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2269-7_13, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Hempel JE, Williams CH, Hong CC. Preface. Chemical biology [editorial]. Methods Mol. Biol. 2015; 1263: v. PMID: 25774396, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Wang X, Chun YW, Zhong L, Chiusa M, Balikov DA, Frist AY, Lim CC, Maltais S, Bellan L, Hong CC, Sung HJ. A temperature-sensitive, self-adhesive hydrogel to deliver iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes for heart repair [letter]. Int. J. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2015; 190: 177-80. PMID: 25918074, PMCID: PMC4446140, PII: S0167-5273(15)00862-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.139, ISSN: 1874-1754.

Herington JL, Swale DR, Brown N, Shelton EL, Choi H, Williams CH, Hong CC, Paria BC, Denton JS, Reese J. High-Throughput Screening of Myometrial Calcium-Mobilization to Identify Modulators of Uterine Contractility. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(11): e0143243. PMID: 26600013, PMCID: PMC4658040, PII: PONE-D-15-12311, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143243, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Herington JL, Swale DR, Brown N, Shelton EL, Choi H, Williams CH, Hong CC, Paria BC, Denton JS, Reese J. High-Throughput Screening of Myometrial Calcium-Mobilization to Identify Modulators of Uterine Contractility. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(11): e0143243. PMID: 26600013, PMCID: PMC4658040, PII: PONE-D-15-12311, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143243, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Tsugawa D, Oya Y, Masuzaki R, Ray K, Engers DW, Dib M, Do N, Kuramitsu K, Ho K, Frist A, Yu PB, Bloch KD, Lindsley CW, Hopkins CR, Hong CC, Karp SJ. Specific activin receptor-like kinase 3 inhibitors enhance liver regeneration. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 351(3): 549-58. PMID: 25271257, PMCID: PMC4244585, PII: jpet.114.216903, DOI: 10.1124/jpet.114.216903, ISSN: 1521-0103.

West JD, Austin ED, Gaskill C, Marriott S, Baskir R, Bilousova G, Jean JC, Hemnes AR, Menon S, Bloodworth NC, Fessel JP, Kropski JA, Irwin D, Ware LB, Wheeler L, Hong CC, Meyrick B, Loyd JE, Bowman AB, Ess KC, Klemm DJ, Young PP, Merryman WD, Kotton D, Majka SM. Identification of a common Wnt-associated genetic signature across multiple cell types in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep 9/1/2014; 307(5): C415-30. PMID: 24871858, PMCID: PMC4154073, PII: ajpcell.00057.2014, DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00057.2014, ISSN: 1522-1563.

Yang T, Chun YW, Stroud DM, Mosley JD, Knollmann BC, Hong C, Roden DM. Screening for acute IKr block is insufficient to detect torsades de pointes liability: role of late sodium current. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul 7/15/2014; 130(3): 224-34. PMID: 24895457, PMCID: PMC4101031, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.113.007765, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.007765, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Fotinos A, Nagarajan N, Martins AS, Fritz DT, Garsetti D, Lee AT, Hong CC, Rogers MB. Bone morphogenetic protein-focused strategies to induce cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2014 May; 34(5): 2095-104. PMID: 24778011, PII: 34/5/2095, ISSN: 1791-7530.

Talati M, West J, Zaynagetdinov R, Hong CC, Han W, Blackwell T, Robinson L, Blackwell TS, Lane K. BMP pathway regulation of and by macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(4): e94119. PMID: 24713633, PMCID: PMC3979749, PII: PONE-D-12-05427, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094119, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Hao J, Ao A, Zhou L, Murphy CK, Frist AY, Keel JJ, Thorne CA, Kim K, Lee E, Hong CC. Selective small molecule targeting ß-catenin function discovered by in vivo chemical genetic screen. Cell Rep [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep 9/12/2013; 4(5): 898-904. PMID: 24012757, PMCID: PMC3923627, PII: S2211-1247(13)00409-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.07.047, ISSN: 2211-1247.

Wells QS, Becker JR, Su YR, Mosley JD, Weeke P, D'Aoust L, Ausborn NL, Ramirez AH, Pfotenhauer JP, Naftilan AJ, Markham L, Exil V, Roden DM, Hong CC. Whole exome sequencing identifies a causal RBM20 mutation in a large pedigree with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Circ Cardiovasc Genet [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug; 6(4): 317-26. PMID: 23861363, PMCID: PMC3895490, PII: CIRCGENETICS.113.000011, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.113.000011, ISSN: 1942-3268.

Sun CC, Vaja V, Chen S, Theurl I, Stepanek A, Brown DE, Cappellini MD, Weiss G, Hong CC, Lin HY, Babitt JL. A hepcidin lowering agent mobilizes iron for incorporation into red blood cells in an adenine-induced kidney disease model of anemia in rats. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul; 28(7): 1733-43. PMID: 23345622, PMCID: PMC3707526, PII: gfs584, DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfs584, ISSN: 1460-2385.

Engers DW, Frist AY, Lindsley CW, Hong CC, Hopkins CR. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel and selective bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMP) inhibitor derived from the pyrazolo[1.5-a]pyrimidine scaffold of dorsomorphin: the discovery of ML347 as an ALK2 versus ALK3 selective MLPCN probe. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun 6/1/2013; 23(11): 3248-52. PMID: 23639540, PMCID: PMC3677712, PII: S0960-894X(13)00441-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.03.113, ISSN: 1464-3405.

Roden DM, Hong CC. Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes as a tool for studying proarrhythmia: a better canary in the coal mine? [editorial]. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr 4/23/2013; 127(16): 1641-3. PMID: 23519759, PMCID: PMC3954984, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002127, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002127, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Sheng, CC Hong, CC. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling Human Cardiovascular Diseases. 2013.

Sheng, CC Hao J Hong CC. Chemically induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSC): a potential chemical biological breakthrough in reprogramming?. 2013.

Engers, DW, Frist, AY, Lindsley, CW, Hong, CC, Hopkins, CR. Development of a potent and ALK2 selective bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMP) inhibitor. 2013.

Owens P, Polikowsky H, Pickup MW, Gorska AE, Jovanovic B, Shaw AK, Novitskiy SV, Hong CC, Moses HL. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins stimulate mammary fibroblasts to promote mammary carcinoma cell invasion. PLoS ONE [electronic-print]. 2013; 8(6): e67533. PMID: 23840733, PMCID: PMC3695869, PII: PONE-D-13-03284, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067533, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Shelton EL, Galindo CL, Williams CH, Pfaltzgraff E, Hong CC, Bader DM. Autotaxin signaling governs phenotypic heterogeneity in visceral and parietal mesothelia. PLoS ONE [electronic-print]. 2013; 8(7): e69712. PMID: 23936085, PMCID: PMC3723636, PII: PONE-D-13-15224, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069712, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Williams C, Hong C. Making Models Work: Library Annotation through Phenoclustering. Drug Discov Today Dis Models. 2013; 10(1): PMID: 24187570, PMCID: PMC3811947, DOI: 10.1016/j.ddmod.2011.12.001, ISSN: 1740-6757.

Sheng CC, Hong CC. Mixing of the old with the new: nanoparticle-mediated pioglitazone delivery to enhance therapeutic neovascularization [editorial]. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2012 Oct; 32(10): 2337-8. PMID: 22972937, PMCID: PMC3672409, PII: 32/10/2337, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300217, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Ding S, Liu L, Zhuge QC, Yu Z, Zhang X, Xie J, Hong W, Wang S, Yang Y, Chen B. The meta-analysis of the association of PPARG P12A, C161T polymorphism and coronary heart disease. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr [print-electronic]. 2012 Oct; 124(19-20): 671-7. PMID: 22987045, DOI: 10.1007/s00508-012-0223-0, ISSN: 1613-7671.

Neely MD, Litt MJ, Tidball AM, Li GG, Aboud AA, Hopkins CR, Chamberlin R, Hong CC, Ess KC, Bowman AB. DMH1, a highly selective small molecule BMP inhibitor promotes neurogenesis of hiPSCs: comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 expression during neural induction. ACS Chem Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun 6/20/2012; 3(6): 482-91. PMID: 22860217, PMCID: PMC3400384, DOI: 10.1021/cn300029t, ISSN: 1948-7193.

Hill CR, Sanchez NS, Love JD, Arrieta JA, Hong CC, Brown CB, Austin AF, Barnett JV. BMP2 signals loss of epithelial character in epicardial cells but requires the Type III TGFß receptor to promote invasion. Cell. Signal [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 24(5): 1012-22. PMID: 22237159, PMCID: PMC3288519, PII: S0898-6568(11)00414-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2011.12.022, ISSN: 1873-3913.

Feng F, Yang J, Tong L, Yuan S, Tian Y, Hong L, Wang W, Zhang H. OP9-DL1 cell co-culture enhances anti-tumour immunity of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Cell Biol. Int. 2012 Mar 3/1/2012; 36(3): 297-303. PMID: 21906030, PII: CBI20100462, DOI: 10.1042/CBI20100462, ISSN: 1095-8355.

Saeed O, Otsuka F, Polavarapu R, Karmali V, Weiss D, Davis T, Rostad B, Pachura K, Adams L, Elliott J, Taylor WR, Narula J, Kolodgie F, Virmani R, Hong CC, Finn AV. Pharmacological suppression of hepcidin increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and reduces foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb; 32(2): 299-307. PMID: 22095982, PMCID: PMC3262074, PII: ATVBAHA.111.240101, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.240101, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Wang L, Trebicka E, Fu Y, Ellenbogen S, Hong CC, Babitt JL, Lin HY, Cherayil BJ. The bone morphogenetic protein-hepcidin axis as a therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis [print-electronic]. 2012 Jan; 18(1): 112-9. PMID: 21351217, PMCID: PMC3139830, DOI: 10.1002/ibd.21675, ISSN: 1536-4844.

Ao A, Hao J, Hopkins CR, Hong CC. DMH1, a novel BMP small molecule inhibitor, increases cardiomyocyte progenitors and promotes cardiac differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(7): e41627. PMID: 22848549, PMCID: PMC3407188, PII: PONE-D-11-08927, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041627, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Theurl I, Schroll A, Sonnweber T, Nairz M, Theurl M, Willenbacher W, Eller K, Wolf D, Seifert M, Sun CC, Babitt JL, Hong CC, Menhall T, Gearing P, Lin HY, Weiss G. Pharmacologic inhibition of hepcidin expression reverses anemia of chronic inflammation in rats. Blood [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov 11/3/2011; 118(18): 4977-84. PMID: 21730356, PMCID: PMC3208302, PII: blood-2011-03-345066, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-03-345066, ISSN: 1528-0020.

Cross EE, Thomason RT, Martinez M, Hopkins CR, Hong CC, Bader DM. Application of small organic molecules reveals cooperative TGFß and BMP regulation of mesothelial cell behaviors. ACS Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Sep 9/16/2011; 6(9): 952-61. PMID: 21740033, PMCID: PMC3177035, DOI: 10.1021/cb200205z, ISSN: 1554-8937.

Hao J, Sawyer DB, Hatzopoulos AK, Hong CC. Recent Progress on Chemical Biology of Pluripotent Stem Cell Self-renewal, Reprogramming and Cardiomyogenesis. Recent Pat Regen Med. 2011 Sep; 1(3): 263-74. PMID: 22787575, PMCID: PMC3392203, ISSN: 2210-2965.

Wells QS, Ausborn NL, Funke BH, Pfotenhauer JP, Fredi JL, Baxter S, Disalvo TD, Hong CC. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy associated with congenital defects in the setting of a novel VCL mutation (Lys815Arg) in conjunction with a known MYPBC3 variant. Cardiogenetics. 2011 Aug 8/22/2011; 1(1): PMID: 24062880, PMCID: PMC3779542, DOI: 10.4081/cardiogenetics.2011.e10, ISSN: 2035-8253.

Meynard D, Vaja V, Sun CC, Corradini E, Chen S, López-Otín C, Grgurevic L, Hong CC, Stirnberg M, Gütschow M, Vukicevic S, Babitt JL, Lin HY. Regulation of TMPRSS6 by BMP6 and iron in human cells and mice. Blood [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul 7/21/2011; 118(3): 747-56. PMID: 21622652, PMCID: PMC3142910, PII: blood-2011-04-348698, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-04-348698, ISSN: 1528-0020.

Wiley DM, Kim JD, Hao J, Hong CC, Bautch VL, Jin SW. Distinct signalling pathways regulate sprouting angiogenesis from the dorsal aorta and the axial vein. Nat. Cell Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun; 13(6): 686-92. PMID: 21572418, PMCID: PMC3107371, PII: ncb2232, DOI: 10.1038/ncb2232, ISSN: 1476-4679.

Wang DM, Fan L, Fang C, Zhu DX, Dong H, Yang H, Qiu HR, Hong M, Qiao C, Xu W, Li JY. [Cytogenetic study of mantle cell lymphoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2011 Jun; 28(3): 283-6. PMID: 21644224, PII: 940628058, DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2011.03.010, ISSN: 1003-9406.

Ao A, Hao J, Hong CC. Regenerative chemical biology: current challenges and future potential. Chem. Biol. 2011 Apr 4/22/2011; 18(4): 413-24. PMID: 21513877, PMCID: PMC3082739, PII: S1074-5521(11)00127-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2011.03.011, ISSN: 1879-1301.

Wang H, Hao J, Hong CC. Cardiac induction of embryonic stem cells by a small molecule inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. ACS Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Feb 2/18/2011; 6(2): 192-7. PMID: 21077691, PMCID: PMC3076310, DOI: 10.1021/cb100323z, ISSN: 1554-8937.

Xia Y, Cortez-Retamozo V, Niederkofler V, Salie R, Chen S, Samad TA, Hong CC, Arber S, Vyas JM, Weissleder R, Pittet MJ, Lin HY. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b) inhibits IL-6 expression in macrophages. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2011 Feb 2/1/2011; 186(3): 1369-76. PMID: 21187450, PMCID: PMC3670585, PII: jimmunol.1002047, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1002047, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Shi S, Hoogaars WM, de Gorter DJ, van Heiningen SH, Lin HY, Hong CC, Kemaladewi DU, Aartsma-Rus A, ten Dijke P, 't Hoen PA. BMP antagonists enhance myogenic differentiation and ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in a DMD mouse model. Neurobiol. Dis [print-electronic]. 2011 Feb; 41(2): 353-60. PMID: 20940052, PMCID: PMC3674857, PII: S0969-9961(10)00334-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.10.003, ISSN: 1095-953X.

Williams CH, Hong CC. Multi-step usage of in vivo models during rational drug design and discovery. Int J Mol Sci [print-electronic]. 2011; 12(4): 2262-74. PMID: 21731440, PMCID: PMC3127116, PII: ijms-12-02262, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12042262, ISSN: 1422-0067.

Palmisano BT, Rottman JN, Wells QS, DiSalvo TG, Hong CC. Familial evaluation for diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Cardiology [print-electronic]. 2011; 119(1): 47-53. PMID: 21822014, PMCID: PMC3169361, PII: 000329834, DOI: 10.1159/000329834, ISSN: 1421-9751.

Ao A, Williams CH, Hao J, Hong CC. Modified mouse embryonic stem cell based assay for quantifying cardiogenic induction efficiency. J Vis Exp. 2011; (50): PMID: 21540823, PMCID: PMC3169258, PII: 2656, DOI: 10.3791/2656, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Gupta MK, Walthall JM, Venkataraman R, Crowder SW, Jung DK, Yu SS, Feaster TK, Wang X, Giorgio TD, Hong CC, Baudenbacher FJ, Hatzopoulos AK, Sung HJ. Combinatorial polymer electrospun matrices promote physiologically-relevant cardiomyogenic stem cell differentiation. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2011; 6(12): e28935. PMID: 22216144, PMCID: PMC3246450, PII: PONE-D-11-17409, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028935, ISSN: 1932-6203.

The International Clinical Consortium on FOP (Hong, CC, contributing member). Clin Proc Intl Clin Consort FOP. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2011.

Hao, J, Zhou, L, Hong, CC. Embryonic Stem Cells. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2011. (Chap 3).

Alfaro MP, Vincent A, Saraswati S, Thorne CA, Hong CC, Lee E, Young PP. SFRP2 suppression of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling mediates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) self-renewal promoting engraftment and myocardial repair. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Nov 11/12/2010; 285(46): 35645-53. PMID: 20826809, PMCID: PMC2975189, PII: M110.135335, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.135335, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Xia Y, Babitt JL, Bouley R, Zhang Y, Da Silva N, Chen S, Zhuang Z, Samad TA, Brenner GJ, Anderson JL, Hong CC, Schneyer AL, Brown D, Lin HY. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 21(4): 666-77. PMID: 20167703, PMCID: PMC2844302, PII: ASN.2009050511, DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2009050511, ISSN: 1533-3450.

Kaplan FS, Zasloff MA, Kitterman JA, Shore EM, Hong CC, Rocke DM. Early mortality and cardiorespiratory failure in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Mar; 92(3): 686-91. PMID: 20194327, PMCID: PMC2827822, PII: 92/3/686, DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.I.00705, ISSN: 1535-1386.

Hao J, Ho JN, Lewis JA, Karim KA, Daniels RN, Gentry PR, Hopkins CR, Lindsley CW, Hong CC. In vivo structure-activity relationship study of dorsomorphin analogues identifies selective VEGF and BMP inhibitors. ACS Chem. Biol. 2010 Feb 2/19/2010; 5(2): 245-53. PMID: 20020776, PMCID: PMC2825290, DOI: 10.1021/cb9002865, ISSN: 1554-8937.

Harris B, Pfotenhauer JP, Silverstein CA, Markham LW, Schafer K, Exil VJ, Hong CC. Serial observations and mutational analysis of an adoptee with family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiol Res Pract [print-electronic]. 2010; 2010: 697269. PMID: 20309391, PMCID: PMC2838361, DOI: 10.4061/2010/697269, ISSN: 2090-0597.

Hao J, Williams CH, Webb ME, Hong CC. Large scale zebrafish-based in vivo small molecule screen. J Vis Exp. 2010; (46): PMID: 21248690, PMCID: PMC3159654, PII: 2243, DOI: 10.3791/2243, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Hao J, Daleo MA, Hong CC. Systems Biology for Signaling Network. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2010. (Ed. Choi S., Springer, New York).

Wang L, Harrington L, Trebicka E, Shi HN, Kagan JC, Hong CC, Lin HY, Babitt JL, Cherayil BJ. Selective modulation of TLR4-activated inflammatory responses by altered iron homeostasis in mice. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2009 Nov; 119(11): 3322-8. PMID: 19809161, PMCID: PMC2769199, PII: 39939, DOI: 10.1172/JCI39939, ISSN: 1558-8238.

Hong CC, Yu PB. Applications of small molecule BMP inhibitors in physiology and disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev [print-electronic]. 2009 Oct; 20(5-6): 409-18. PMID: 19914855, PMCID: PMC2813719, PII: S1359-6101(09)00096-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2009.10.021, ISSN: 1879-0305.

Hong CC. Large-scale small-molecule screen using zebrafish embryos. Methods Mol. Biol. 2009; 486: 43-55. PMID: 19347615, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60327-545-3_4, ISSN: 1064-3745.

Yu PB, Deng DY, Lai CS, Hong CC, Cuny GD, Bouxsein ML, Hong DW, McManus PM, Katagiri T, Sachidanandan C, Kamiya N, Fukuda T, Mishina Y, Peterson RT, Bloch KD. BMP type I receptor inhibition reduces heterotopic [corrected] ossification. Nat. Med [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 14(12): 1363-9. PMID: 19029982, PMCID: PMC2846458, PII: nm.1888, DOI: 10.1038/nm.1888, ISSN: 1546-170X.

Hong CC, Kume T, Peterson RT. Role of crosstalk between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in artery-vein specification. Circ. Res. 2008 Sep 9/12/2008; 103(6): 573-9. PMID: 18796644, PMCID: PMC2768581, PII: 103/6/573, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.180745, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Yu PB, Deng DY, Beppu H, Hong CC, Lai C, Hoyng SA, Kawai N, Bloch KD. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptor is required for BMP-mediated growth arrest and differentiation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb 2/15/2008; 283(7): 3877-88. PMID: 18042551, PII: M706797200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M706797200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Hao J, Daleo MA, Murphy CK, Yu PB, Ho JN, Hu J, Peterson RT, Hatzopoulos AK, Hong CC. Dorsomorphin, a selective small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, promotes cardiomyogenesis in embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(8): e2904. PMID: 18682835, PMCID: PMC2483414, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002904, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Yu PB, Hong CC, Sachidanandan C, Babitt JL, Deng DY, Hoyng SA, Lin HY, Bloch KD, Peterson RT. Dorsomorphin inhibits BMP signals required for embryogenesis and iron metabolism. Nat. Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Jan; 4(1): 33-41. PMID: 18026094, PMCID: PMC2727650, PII: nchembio.2007.54, DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2007.54, ISSN: 1552-4469.

The International Clinical Consortium on FOP (Hong, CC, contributing member). The medical management of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: current management considerations. Clin Proc Intl Clin Consort FOP. 2008; 3: 1-82.

Hong CC, Peterson QP, Hong JY, Peterson RT. Artery/vein specification is governed by opposing phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and MAP kinase/ERK signaling. Curr. Biol. 2006 Jul 7/11/2006; 16(13): 1366-72. PMID: 16824925, PMCID: PMC1930149, PII: S0960-9822(06)01629-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.05.046, ISSN: 0960-9822.

LeMosy EK, Hong CC, Hashimoto C. Signal transduction by a protease cascade. Trends Cell Biol. 1999 Mar; 9(3): 102-7. PMID: 10201075, PII: S0962-8924(98)01494-9, ISSN: 0962-8924.

Hong CC, Hashimoto C. The maternal nudel protein of Drosophila has two distinct roles important for embryogenesis. Genetics. 1996 Aug; 143(4): 1653-61. PMID: 8844153, PMCID: PMC1207428, ISSN: 0016-6731.

Hong CC, Hashimoto C. An unusual mosaic protein with a protease domain, encoded by the nudel gene, is involved in defining embryonic dorsoventral polarity in Drosophila. Cell. 1995 Sep 9/8/1995; 82(5): 785-94. PMID: 7671306, PII: 0092-8674(95)90475-1, ISSN: 0092-8674.

de la Monte SM, Quertermous T, Hong CC, Bloch KD. Regional and maturation-associated expression of endothelin 2 in rat gastrointestinal tract. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1995 Feb; 43(2): 203-9. PMID: 7822776, ISSN: 0022-1554.

Cicila GT, Rapp JP, Bloch KD, Kurtz TW, Pravenec M, Kren V, Hong CC, Quertermous T, Ng SC. Cosegregation of the endothelin-3 locus with blood pressure and relative heart weight in inbred Dahl rats. J. Hypertens. 1994 Jun; 12(6): 643-51. PMID: 7963489, ISSN: 0263-6352.

Bloch KD, Hong CC, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Quertermous T. CDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the endothelin 2 gene: vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide is rat endothelin 2. Genomics. 1991 May; 10(1): 236-42. PMID: 1840558, PII: 0888-7543(91)90505-9, ISSN: 0888-7543.