Ethan Lee, M.D., Ph.D.

Professor

ethan.lee@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology Associate Professor of PharmacologyProfessor of Cancer Biology
Education
Ph.D., CELL REGULATION, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TexasM.D., Medicine/Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TexasB.A., Biochemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas
Office Address
Department of Cell & Developmental Biology
U-4213A Learned Lab/MRBIII
465 21st Avenue South
Nashville, TN 37232-8240
Research Description
BACKGROUND
The Wnt pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway present in all metazoans. During development, Wnt signaling coordinate the formation of tissues, organs, and limbs, and its misregulation leads to a variety of human disease states such Alzheimeri's disease and cancer. My laboratory is interested in understanding the basic mechanism by which a Wnt signal is propagated and how this information can be used in regenerative medicine and in the treatment of cancer.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES
A major experimental approach in my laboratory involves the use of Xenopus extracts and purified proteins to biochemically reconstitute Wnt signaling in vitro. Genome-scale screens, cultured mammalian cells, Xenopus embryos, Drosophila genetics (in collaboration with Dr. Laura Lee), and mouse studies are employed to compliment and extend our biochemical findings.

MECHANISM OF WNT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
One of the major mysteries of this pathway is how a Wnt signal is propagated from the cell surface. My laboratory has recently developed an in vitro system to study the mechanism of Wnt signal transduction from the plasma membrane. Towards this end, we have focused on understanding the mechanism of signaling from the coreceptor, LRP6, and the potential role of the membrane associated heterotrimeric G protein family members in Wnt signal transduction. Many components of the Wnt pathway are regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Recently, we have taken a genome-scale screen to identify deubiquitinating enzyme (DUBs) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s) that regulate the Wnt pathway. Several hits have been identified from these screens, and current efforts are directed towards validating their roles in Wnt signaling.

REGENERATIVE MEDICINE AND CANCER
In regenerative medicine, the healing process is manipulated to repair damaged tissues. Modern regenerative medicine is a field in which stem cells are manipulated to treat a variety of human diseases. Wnt signaling is one of a handful of molecular pathways critical to stem cells. Thus, agents that target Wnt signaling would be potentially useful for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and other disorders that may benefit from regenerative medicine.

Cancer stem cells (CSC) are fundamental to the initiation and maintenance of tumors. Failure to eradicate CSC (as is typical with conventional therapy) leaves behind a small reservoir of cells that drives relapse. Wnt inhibitors would be expected to specifically target this resistant CSC population. Using our Xenopus biochemical system, we have found several compounds that potently inhibit the Wnt pathway. One of these, VU-WS30, inhibits the viability of a variety of cancer cell lines that are highly dependent on Wnt signaling for growth and proliferation. Current efforts are directed towards identifying the molecular targets of VU-WS30 and other Wnt inhibitors identified in our screen.
Research Keywords
Mechanism of Wnt signal transduction in development and disease
Publications
Wang Z, Tacchelly-Benites O, Yang E, Thorne CA, Nojima H, Lee E, Ahmed Y. Wnt/Wingless Pathway Activation Is Promoted by a Critical Threshold of Axin Maintained by the Tumor Suppressor APC and the ADP-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase. Genetics [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/14/2016; PMID: 26975665, PII: genetics.115.183244, DOI: 10.1534/genetics.115.183244, ISSN: 1943-2631.

Yang E, Tacchelly-Benites O, Wang Z, Randall MP, Tian A, Benchabane H, Freemantle S, Pikielny C, Tolwinski NS, Lee E, Ahmed Y. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation. Nat Commun. 2016; 7: 11430. PMID: 27138857, PII: ncomms11430, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11430, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Bastakoty D, Saraswati S, Cates J, Lee E, Nanney LB, Young PP. Inhibition of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway promotes regenerative repair of cutaneous and cartilage injury. FASEB J [print-electronic]. 2015 Dec; 29(12): 4881-92. PMID: 26268926, PMCID: PMC4653050, PII: fj.15-275941, DOI: 10.1096/fj.15-275941, ISSN: 1530-6860.

Winterbottom EF, Fei DL, Koestler DC, Giambelli C, Wika E, Capobianco AJ, Lee E, Marsit CJ, Karagas MR, Robbins DJ. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth. EBioMedicine. 2015 Jun; 2(6): 536-43. PMID: 26288817, PMCID: PMC4535308, PII: S2352-3964(15)30006-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.04.019, ISSN: 2352-3964.

Broadus MR, Yew PR, Hann SR, Lee E. Small-molecule high-throughput screening utilizing Xenopus egg extract. Methods Mol. Biol. 2015; 1263: 63-73. PMID: 25618336, PMCID: PMC4492114, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2269-7_5, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Li B, Fei DL, Flaveny CA, Dahmane N, Baubet V, Wang Z, Bai F, Pei XH, Rodriguez-Blanco J, Hang B, Orton D, Han L, Wang B, Capobianco AJ, Lee E, Robbins DJ. Pyrvinium attenuates Hedgehog signaling downstream of smoothened. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep 9/1/2014; 74(17): 4811-21. PMID: 24994715, PMCID: PMC4321822, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-14-0317, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0317, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Wallace HA, Merkle JA, Yu MC, Berg TG, Lee E, Bosco G, Lee LA. TRIP/NOPO E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes ubiquitylation of DNA polymerase ¿. Development [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar; 141(6): 1332-41. PMID: 24553286, PMCID: PMC3943184, PII: dev.101196, DOI: 10.1242/dev.101196, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Sitaram P, Merkle JA, Lee E, Lee LA. Asunder is required for dynein localization and dorsal fate determination during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb 2/1/2014; 386(1): 42-52. PMID: 24333177, PMCID: PMC3919068, PII: S0012-1606(13)00649-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2013.12.004, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Murphy AJ, Pierce J, de Caestecker C, Ayers GD, Zhao A, Krebs JR, Saito-Diaz VK, Lee E, Perantoni AO, de Caestecker MP, Lovvorn HN. CITED1 confers stemness to Wilms tumor and enhances tumorigenic responses when enriched in the nucleus. Oncotarget. 2014 Jan 1/30/2014; 5(2): 386-402. PMID: 24481423, PMCID: PMC3964215, PII: 1566, DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.1566, ISSN: 1949-2553.

Hainline SG, Rickmyre JL, Neitzel LR, Lee LA, Lee E. The Drosophila MCPH1-B isoform is a substrate of the APCCdh1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Biol Open. 2014; 3(7): 669-76. PMID: 24972868, PMCID: PMC4154303, PII: bio.20148318, DOI: 10.1242/bio.20148318, ISSN: 2046-6390.

Chen TW, Broadus MR, Huppert SS, Lee E. Reconstitution Of ß-catenin degradation in Xenopus egg extract. J Vis Exp. 2014; (88): PMID: 24962160, PMCID: PMC4133086, DOI: 10.3791/51425, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Li B, Flaveny CA, Giambelli C, Fei DL, Han L, Hang BI, Bai F, Pei XH, Nose V, Burlingame O, Capobianco AJ, Orton D, Lee E, Robbins DJ. Repurposing the FDA-approved pinworm drug pyrvinium as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for intestinal polyposis. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(7): e101969. PMID: 25003333, PMCID: PMC4086981, PII: PONE-D-12-21320, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101969, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Tacchelly-Benites O, Wang Z, Yang E, Lee E, Ahmed Y. Toggling a conformational switch in Wnt/ß-catenin signaling: regulation of Axin phosphorylation. The phosphorylation state of Axin controls its scaffold function in two Wnt pathway protein complexes. Bioessays [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec; 35(12): 1063-70. PMID: 24105937, PMCID: PMC3878292, DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300101, ISSN: 1521-1878.

Barham W, Frump AL, Sherrill TP, Garcia CB, Saito-Diaz K, VanSaun MN, Fingleton B, Gleaves L, Orton D, Capecchi MR, Blackwell TS, Lee E, Yull F, Eid JE. Targeting the Wnt pathway in synovial sarcoma models. Cancer Discov [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 3(11): 1286-301. PMID: 23921231, PMCID: PMC3823757, PII: 2159-8290.CD-13-0138, DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0138, ISSN: 2159-8290.

Hao J, Ao A, Zhou L, Murphy CK, Frist AY, Keel JJ, Thorne CA, Kim K, Lee E, Hong CC. Selective small molecule targeting ß-catenin function discovered by in vivo chemical genetic screen. Cell Rep [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep 9/12/2013; 4(5): 898-904. PMID: 24012757, PMCID: PMC3923627, PII: S2211-1247(13)00409-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.07.047, ISSN: 2211-1247.

Jodoin JN, Sitaram P, Albrecht TR, May SB, Shboul M, Lee E, Reversade B, Wagner EJ, Lee LA. Nuclear-localized Asunder regulates cytoplasmic dynein localization via its role in the integrator complex. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 24(18): 2954-65. PMID: 23904267, PMCID: PMC3771956, PII: mbc.E13-05-0254, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E13-05-0254, ISSN: 1939-4586.

Saito-Diaz K, Chen TW, Wang X, Thorne CA, Wallace HA, Page-McCaw A, Lee E. The way Wnt works: components and mechanism. Growth Factors [print-electronic]. 2013 Feb; 31(1): 1-31. PMID: 23256519, PMCID: PMC3697919, DOI: 10.3109/08977194.2012.752737, ISSN: 1029-2292.

Ferguson JL, Chao WC, Lee E, Friedman KL. The anaphase promoting complex contributes to the degradation of the S. cerevisiae telomerase recruitment subunit Est1p. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2013; 8(1): e55055. PMID: 23372810, PMCID: PMC3555863, PII: PONE-D-12-35468, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055055, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Jodoin JN, Shboul M, Albrecht TR, Lee E, Wagner EJ, Reversade B, Lee LA. The snRNA-processing complex, Integrator, is required for ciliogenesis and dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope via distinct mechanisms. Biol Open. 2013; 2(12): 1390-6. PMID: 24285713, PMCID: PMC3863424, PII: bio.20136981, DOI: 10.1242/bio.20136981, ISSN: 2046-6390.

Jodoin JN, Shboul M, Sitaram P, Zein-Sabatto H, Reversade B, Lee E, Lee LA. Human Asunder promotes dynein recruitment and centrosomal tethering to the nucleus at mitotic entry. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec; 23(24): 4713-24. PMID: 23097494, PMCID: PMC3521680, PII: mbc.E12-07-0558, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E12-07-0558, ISSN: 1939-4586.

Sitaram P, Anderson MA, Jodoin JN, Lee E, Lee LA. Regulation of dynein localization and centrosome positioning by Lis-1 and asunder during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug; 139(16): 2945-54. PMID: 22764052, PMCID: PMC3403104, PII: dev.077511, DOI: 10.1242/dev.077511, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Hang BI, Thorne CA, Robbins DJ, Huppert SS, Lee LA, Lee E. Screening for small molecule inhibitors of embryonic pathways: sometimes you gotta crack a few eggs. Bioorg. Med. Chem [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar 3/15/2012; 20(6): 1869-77. PMID: 22261025, PMCID: PMC3298638, PII: S0968-0896(11)01060-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.12.044, ISSN: 1464-3391.

Hanson AJ, Wallace HA, Freeman TJ, Beauchamp RD, Lee LA, Lee E. XIAP monoubiquitylates Groucho/TLE to promote canonical Wnt signaling. Mol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar 3/9/2012; 45(5): 619-28. PMID: 22304967, PMCID: PMC3299836, PII: S1097-2765(12)00042-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.12.032, ISSN: 1097-4164.

Thorne CA, Lafleur B, Lewis M, Hanson AJ, Jernigan KK, Weaver DC, Huppert KA, Chen TW, Wichaidit C, Cselenyi CS, Tahinci E, Meyers KC, Waskow E, Orton D, Salic A, Lee LA, Robbins DJ, Huppert SS, Lee E. A biochemical screen for identification of small-molecule regulators of the Wnt pathway using Xenopus egg extracts. J Biomol Screen [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 16(9): 995-1006. PMID: 21859680, PMCID: PMC3694444, PII: 1087057111416657, DOI: 10.1177/1087057111416657, ISSN: 1552-454X.

Alfaro MP, Vincent A, Saraswati S, Thorne CA, Hong CC, Lee E, Young PP. SFRP2 suppression of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling mediates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) self-renewal promoting engraftment and myocardial repair. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Nov 11/12/2010; 285(46): 35645-53. PMID: 20826809, PMCID: PMC2975189, PII: M110.135335, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.135335, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Thorne CA, Hanson AJ, Schneider J, Tahinci E, Orton D, Cselenyi CS, Jernigan KK, Meyers KC, Hang BI, Waterson AG, Kim K, Melancon B, Ghidu VP, Sulikowski GA, LaFleur B, Salic A, Lee LA, Miller DM, Lee E. Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling through activation of casein kinase 1a. Nat. Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Nov; 6(11): 829-36. PMID: 20890287, PMCID: PMC3681608, PII: nchembio.453, DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.453, ISSN: 1552-4469.

Speirs CK, Jernigan KK, Kim SH, Cha YI, Lin F, Sepich DS, DuBois RN, Lee E, Solnica-Krezel L. Prostaglandin Gbetagamma signaling stimulates gastrulation movements by limiting cell adhesion through Snai1a stabilization. Development. 2010 Apr; 137(8): 1327-37. PMID: 20332150, PMCID: PMC2847468, PII: 137/8/1327, DOI: 10.1242/dev.045971, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Jernigan KK, Cselenyi CS, Thorne CA, Hanson AJ, Tahinci E, Hajicek N, Oldham WM, Lee LA, Hamm HE, Hepler JR, Kozasa T, Linder ME, Lee E. Gbetagamma activates GSK3 to promote LRP6-mediated beta-catenin transcriptional activity. Sci Signal. 2010; 3(121): ra37. PMID: 20460648, PMCID: PMC3088111, PII: 3/121/ra37, DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2000647, ISSN: 1937-9145.

Saraswati S, Alfaro MP, Thorne CA, Atkinson J, Lee E, Young PP. Pyrvinium, a potent small molecule Wnt inhibitor, promotes wound repair and post-MI cardiac remodeling. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(11): e15521. PMID: 21170416, PMCID: PMC2993965, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015521, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Anderson MA, Jodoin JN, Lee E, Hales KG, Hays TS, Lee LA. Asunder is a critical regulator of dynein-dynactin localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2009 Jun; 20(11): 2709-21. PMID: 19357193, PMCID: PMC2688550, PII: E08-12-1165, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E08-12-1165, ISSN: 1939-4586.

Barton CE, Tahinci E, Barbieri CE, Johnson KN, Hanson AJ, Jernigan KK, Chen TW, Lee E, Pietenpol JA. DeltaNp63 antagonizes p53 to regulate mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2009 May 5/1/2009; 329(1): 130-9. PMID: 19272371, PMCID: PMC2690611, PII: S0012-1606(09)00166-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.02.036, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Merkle JA, Rickmyre JL, Garg A, Loggins EB, Jodoin JN, Lee E, Wu LP, Lee LA. No poles encodes a predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase required for early embryonic development of Drosophila. Development. 2009 Feb; 136(3): 449-59. PMID: 19141674, PMCID: PMC2687590, PII: 136/3/449, DOI: 10.1242/dev.027599, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Alfaro MP, Pagni M, Vincent A, Atkinson J, Hill MF, Cates J, Davidson JM, Rottman J, Lee E, Young PP. The Wnt modulator sFRP2 enhances mesenchymal stem cell engraftment, granulation tissue formation and myocardial repair. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov 11/25/2008; 105(47): 18366-71. PMID: 19017790, PMCID: PMC2587631, PII: 0803437105, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0803437105, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Cselenyi CS, Jernigan KK, Tahinci E, Thorne CA, Lee LA, Lee E. LRP6 transduces a canonical Wnt signal independently of Axin degradation by inhibiting GSK3's phosphorylation of beta-catenin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2008 Jun 6/10/2008; 105(23): 8032-7. PMID: 18509060, PMCID: PMC2430354, PII: 0803025105, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0803025105, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Moore AC, Amann JM, Williams CS, Tahinci E, Farmer TE, Martinez JA, Yang G, Luce KS, Lee E, Hiebert SW. Myeloid translocation gene family members associate with T-cell factors (TCFs) and influence TCF-dependent transcription. Mol. Cell. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb; 28(3): 977-87. PMID: 18039847, PMCID: PMC2223385, PII: MCB.01242-07, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.01242-07, ISSN: 1098-5549.

Cselenyi CS, Lee E. Context-dependent activation or inhibition of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling by Kremen. Sci Signal. 2008; 1(8): pe10. PMID: 18314504, PII: stke.18pe10, DOI: 10.1126/stke.18pe10, ISSN: 1937-9145.

Tahinci E, Thorne CA, Franklin JL, Salic A, Christian KM, Lee LA, Coffey RJ, Lee E. Lrp6 is required for convergent extension during Xenopus gastrulation. Development. 2007 Nov; 134(22): 4095-106. PMID: 17965054, PMCID: PMC4428168, PII: 134/22/4095, DOI: 10.1242/dev.010272, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Rickmyre JL, Dasgupta S, Ooi DL, Keel J, Lee E, Kirschner MW, Waddell S, Lee LA. The Drosophila homolog of MCPH1, a human microcephaly gene, is required for genomic stability in the early embryo. J. Cell. Sci [print-electronic]. 2007 Oct 10/15/2007; 120(Pt 20): 3565-77. PMID: 17895362, PII: jcs.016626, DOI: 10.1242/jcs.016626, ISSN: 0021-9533.

Lee LA, Lee E, Anderson MA, Vardy L, Tahinci E, Ali SM, Kashevsky H, Benasutti M, Kirschner MW, Orr-Weaver TL. Drosophila genome-scale screen for PAN GU kinase substrates identifies Mat89Bb as a cell cycle regulator. Dev. Cell. 2005 Mar; 8(3): 435-42. PMID: 15737938, PII: S1534-5807(04)00455-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2004.12.008, ISSN: 1534-5807.

Tahinci E, Lee E. The interface between cell and developmental biology. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 2004 Aug; 14(4): 361-6. PMID: 15261651, PII: S0959437X04000929, DOI: 10.1016/j.gde.2004.06.013, ISSN: 0959-437X.

Ivanovska I, Lee E, Kwan KM, Fenger DD, Orr-Weaver TL. The Drosophila MOS ortholog is not essential for meiosis. Curr. Biol. 2004 Jan 1/6/2004; 14(1): 75-80. PMID: 14711418, PII: S0960982203009515, ISSN: 0960-9822.

Lee E, Salic A, Krüger R, Heinrich R, Kirschner MW. The roles of APC and Axin derived from experimental and theoretical analysis of the Wnt pathway. PLoS Biol [print-electronic]. 2003 Oct; 1(1): E10. PMID: 14551908, PMCID: PMC212691, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000010, ISSN: 1545-7885.

Pfleger CM, Lee E, Kirschner MW. Substrate recognition by the Cdc20 and Cdh1 components of the anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev. 2001 Sep 9/15/2001; 15(18): 2396-407. PMID: 11562349, PMCID: PMC312782, DOI: 10.1101/gad.918201, ISSN: 0890-9369.

Lee E, Salic A, Kirschner MW. Physiological regulation of [beta]-catenin stability by Tcf3 and CK1epsilon. J. Cell Biol [print-electronic]. 2001 Sep 9/3/2001; 154(5): 983-93. PMID: 11524435, PMCID: PMC2196183, PII: jcb.200102074, DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200102074, ISSN: 0021-9525.

Pfleger CM, Salic A, Lee E, Kirschner MW. Inhibition of Cdh1-APC by the MAD2-related protein MAD2L2: a novel mechanism for regulating Cdh1. Genes Dev. 2001 Jul 7/15/2001; 15(14): 1759-64. PMID: 11459825, PMCID: PMC312740, DOI: 10.1101/gad.897901, ISSN: 0890-9369.

Salic A, Lee E, Mayer L, Kirschner MW. Control of beta-catenin stability: reconstitution of the cytoplasmic steps of the wnt pathway in Xenopus egg extracts. Mol. Cell. 2000 Mar; 5(3): 523-32. PMID: 10882137, PII: S1097-2765(00)80446-3, ISSN: 1097-2765.

Berghuis AM, Lee E, Raw AS, Gilman AG, Sprang SR. Structure of the GDP-Pi complex of Gly203-->Ala gialpha1: a mimic of the ternary product complex of galpha-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis. Structure. 1996 Nov 11/15/1996; 4(11): 1277-90. PMID: 8939752, ISSN: 0969-2126.

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Coleman DE, Berghuis AM, Lee E, Linder ME, Gilman AG, Sprang SR. Structures of active conformations of Gi alpha 1 and the mechanism of GTP hydrolysis. Science. 1994 Sep 9/2/1994; 265(5177): 1405-12. PMID: 8073283, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Coleman DE, Lee E, Mixon MB, Linder ME, Berghuis AM, Gilman AG, Sprang SR. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of Gi alpha 1 and mutants of Gi alpha 1 in the GTP and GDP-bound states. J. Mol. Biol. 1994 May 5/13/1994; 238(4): 630-4. PMID: 8176751, PII: S0022-2836(84)71320-9, DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1994.1320, ISSN: 0022-2836.

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Doyle KE, Kovalick GE, Lee E, Beckingham K. Drosophila melanogaster contains a single calmodulin gene. Further structure and expression studies. J. Mol. Biol. 1990 Jun 6/20/1990; 213(4): 599-605. PMID: 2113585, PII: S0022-2836(05)80245-1, DOI: 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80245-1, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Hofmann SL, Brown MS, Lee E, Pathak RK, Anderson RG, Goldstein JL. Purification of a sarcoplasmic reticulum protein that binds Ca2+ and plasma lipoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 1989 May 5/15/1989; 264(14): 8260-70. PMID: 2498310, ISSN: 0021-9258.