K. Sam Wells, Ph.D.

Research Professor

sam.wells@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Research Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Education
Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New MexicoM.S., Physical Chemistry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New MexicoB.S., Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
Office Address
702 Light Hall
Nashville, TN 37232-0615
Publications
Sidorova TN, Mace LC, Wells KS, Yermalitskaya LV, Su PF, Shyr Y, Byrne JG, Petracek MR, Greelish JP, Hoff SJ, Ball SK, Glabe CG, Brown NJ, Barnett JV, Murray KT. Quantitative Imaging of Preamyloid Oligomers, a Novel Structural Abnormality, in Human Atrial Samples. J. Histochem. Cytochem [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr 4/30/2014; 62(7): 479-87. PMID: 24789805, PMCID: PMC4072180, PII: 0022155414535782, DOI: 10.1369/0022155414535782, ISSN: 1551-5044.

Sobolik T, Su YJ, Wells S, Ayers GD, Cook RS, Richmond A. CXCR4 drives the metastatic phenotype in breast cancer through induction of CXCR2 and activation of MEK and PI3K pathways. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar; 25(5): 566-82. PMID: 24403602, PMCID: PMC3937084, PII: mbc.E13-07-0360, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E13-07-0360, ISSN: 1939-4586.

Exil V, Ping L, Yu Y, Chakraborty S, Caito SW, Wells KS, Karki P, Lee E, Aschner M. Activation of MAPK and FoxO by manganese (Mn) in rat neonatal primary astrocyte cultures. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(5): e94753. PMID: 24787138, PMCID: PMC4008430, PII: PONE-D-13-35835, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094753, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Schietinger A, Arina A, Liu RB, Wells S, Huang J, Engels B, Bindokas V, Bartkowiak T, Lee D, Herrmann A, Piston DW, Pittet MJ, Lin PC, Zal T, Schreiber H. Longitudinal confocal microscopy imaging of solid tumor destruction following adoptive T cell transfer. Oncoimmunology [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov 11/1/2013; 2(11): e26677. PMID: 24482750, PMCID: PMC3895414, PII: 2013ONCOIMM0284, DOI: 10.4161/onci.26677, ISSN: 2162-4011.

Kendall PL, Case JB, Sullivan AM, Holderness JS, Wells KS, Liu E, Thomas JW. Tolerant anti-insulin B cells are effective APCs. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar 3/15/2013; 190(6): 2519-26. PMID: 23396943, PMCID: PMC3652276, PII: jimmunol.1202104, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1202104, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Hallaq H, Wang DW, Kunic JD, George AL, Wells KS, Murray KT. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb 2/1/2012; 302(3): H782-9. PMID: 22101522, PMCID: PMC3353784, PII: ajpheart.00817.2010, DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00817.2010, ISSN: 1522-1539.

Chopra SS, Stroud DM, Watanabe H, Bennett JS, Burns CG, Wells KS, Yang T, Zhong TP, Roden DM. Voltage-gated sodium channels are required for heart development in zebrafish. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr 4/30/2010; 106(8): 1342-50. PMID: 20339120, PMCID: PMC2869449, PII: CIRCRESAHA.109.213132, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.213132, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Zhuang G, Brantley-Sieders DM, Vaught D, Yu J, Xie L, Wells S, Jackson D, Muraoka-Cook R, Arteaga C, Chen J. Elevation of receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 mediates resistance to trastuzumab therapy. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan 1/1/2010; 70(1): 299-308. PMID: 20028874, PMCID: PMC3859619, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-09-1845, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1845, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Nyman LR, Wells KS, Head WS, McCaughey M, Ford E, Brissova M, Piston DW, Powers AC. Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov; 118(11): 3790-7. PMID: 18846254, PMCID: PMC2564611, DOI: 10.1172/JCI36209, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Martin MD, Fingleton B, Lynch CC, Wells S, McIntyre JO, Piston DW, Matrisian LM. Establishment and quantitative imaging of a 3D lung organotypic model of mammary tumor outgrowth. Clin. Exp. Metastasis [print-electronic]. 2008; 25(8): 877-85. PMID: 18787962, PMCID: PMC2588650, DOI: 10.1007/s10585-008-9206-y, ISSN: 1573-7276.

Jia H, King IN, Chopra SS, Wan H, Ni TT, Jiang C, Guan X, Wells S, Srivastava D, Zhong TP. Vertebrate heart growth is regulated by functional antagonism between Gridlock and Gata5. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug 8/28/2007; 104(35): 14008-13. PMID: 17715064, PMCID: PMC1955785, PII: 0702240104, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0702240104, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Hallaq H, Yang Z, Viswanathan PC, Fukuda K, Shen W, Wang DW, Wells KS, Zhou J, Yi J, Murray KT. Quantitation of protein kinase A-mediated trafficking of cardiac sodium channels in living cells. Cardiovasc. Res [print-electronic]. 2006 Nov 11/1/2006; 72(2): 250-61. PMID: 16973141, PII: S0008-6363(06)00382-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.08.007, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Xu M, Wells KS, Emeson RB. Substrate-dependent contribution of double-stranded RNA-binding motifs to ADAR2 function. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2006 Jul; 17(7): 3211-20. PMID: 16672376, PMCID: PMC1552048, PII: E06-02-0162, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E06-02-0162, ISSN: 1059-1524.

Boczko EM, Cooper TG, Gedeon T, Mischaikow K, Murdock DG, Pratap S, Wells KS. Structure theorems and the dynamics of nitrogen catabolite repression in yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2005 Apr 4/19/2005; 102(16): 5647-52. PMID: 15814615, PMCID: PMC556013, PII: 0501339102, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0501339102, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Bundy L, Wells S, Sealy L. C/EBPbeta-2 confers EGF-independent growth and disrupts the normal acinar architecture of human mammary epithelial cells. Mol. Cancer. 2005; 4: 43. PMID: 16371159, PMCID: PMC1360092, PII: 1476-4598-4-43, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-4-43, ISSN: 1476-4598.

Sheng J, Organ EL, Hao C, Wells KS, Ruley HE, Rubin DH. Mutations in the IGF-II pathway that confer resistance to lytic reovirus infection. BMC Cell Biol. 2004 Aug 8/27/2004; 5: 32. PMID: 15333144, PMCID: PMC517494, PII: 1471-2121-5-32, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-5-32, ISSN: 1471-2121.

Kanki H, Kupershmidt S, Yang T, Wells S, Roden DM. A structural requirement for processing the cardiac K+ channel KCNQ1. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Aug 8/6/2004; 279(32): 33976-83. PMID: 15140888, PII: M404539200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M404539200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

McIntyre JO, Fingleton B, Wells KS, Piston DW, Lynch CC, Gautam S, Matrisian LM. Development of a novel fluorogenic proteolytic beacon for in vivo detection and imaging of tumour-associated matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity. Biochem. J. 2004 Feb 2/1/2004; 377(Pt 3): 617-28. PMID: 14556651, PMCID: PMC1223892, PII: BJ20030582, DOI: 10.1042/BJ20030582, ISSN: 1470-8728.

Manza LL, Codreanu SG, Stamer SL, Smith DL, Wells KS, Roberts RL, Liebler DC.. Global shifts in protein sumoylation in response to electrophile and oxidative stress. 2004.

Sansam CL, Wells KS, Emeson RB. Modulation of RNA editing by functional nucleolar sequestration of ADAR2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2003 Nov 11/25/2003; 100(24): 14018-23. PMID: 14612560, PMCID: PMC283538, PII: 2336131100, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2336131100, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Campbell M, Qu S, Wells S, Sugandha H, Jensen RA. An adenoviral vector containing an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif in the fiber knob enhances protein product levels from transgenes refractory to expression. Cancer Gene Ther. 2003 Jul; 10(7): 559-70. PMID: 12833136, PII: 7700599, DOI: 10.1038/sj.cgt.7700599, ISSN: 0929-1903.

Kupershmidt S, Yang IC, Sutherland M, Wells KS, Yang T, Yang P, Balser JR, Roden DM. Cardiac-enriched LIM domain protein fhl2 is required to generate I(Ks) in a heterologous system. Cardiovasc. Res. 2002 Oct; 56(1): 93-103. PMID: 12237170, PII: S0008636302004984, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Gurrieri S, Wells KS, Johnson ID, Bustamante C. Direct visualization of individual DNA molecules by fluorescence microscopy: characterization of the factors affecting signal/background and optimization of imaging conditions using YOYO. Anal. Biochem. 1997 Jun 6/15/1997; 249(1): 44-53. PMID: 9193707, PII: S0003-2697(97)92102-3, DOI: 10.1006/abio.1997.2102, ISSN: 0003-2697.

Poot M, Zhang YZ, Krämer JA, Wells KS, Jones LJ, Hanzel DK, Lugade AG, Singer VL, Haugland RP. Analysis of mitochondrial morphology and function with novel fixable fluorescent stains. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1996 Dec; 44(12): 1363-72. PMID: 8985128, ISSN: 0022-1554.

Gurrieri S, Smith SB, Wells KS, Johnson ID, Bustamante C. Real-time imaging of the reorientation mechanisms of YOYO-labelled DNA molecules during 90 degrees and 120 degrees pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996 Dec 12/1/1996; 24(23): 4759-67. PMID: 8972863, PMCID: PMC146294, PII: 6w0147, ISSN: 0305-1048.

Larison KD, BreMiller R, Wells KS, Clements I, Haugland RP. Use of a new fluorogenic phosphatase substrate in immunohistochemical applications. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1995 Jan; 43(1): 77-83. PMID: 7822768, ISSN: 0022-1554.

Singer VL, Paragas VB, Larison KD, Wells KS, Fox CJ, Haugland RP. Fluorescence-based signal amplification technology. Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 1994 Oct; 12(11): 55-6, 58. PMID: 7765427, ISSN: 0749-3223.

Haugland RP, You W, Paragas VB, Wells KS, DuBose DA. Simultaneous visualization of G- and F-actin in endothelial cells. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1994 Mar; 42(3): 345-50. PMID: 8308251, ISSN: 0022-1554.

Sandison DR, Williams RM, Wells KS, Strickler J, Webb WW. Quantitative Fluorescence Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Handbook of Confocal Microscopy. 1994; Pawley, J., Ed.((2nd Edition)): Plenum.

Wells, K.S. and Johnson, I.D.. Fluorescent Labels for Confocal Microscopy. In: Three Dimensional Confocal Microscopy: Volume Investigation of Biological Specimens. 1994; Stevens, J., Mills, L.R. and Trogadis, J., Eds,((Acadedmic Press)): 101-29.

Kwon YH, Wells KS, Hoch HC. Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy: Applications in Fungal Cytology. Mycologia. 1993; 85((5)): 721-33.

Wells KS, Sandison DR, Strickler J, Webb, WW. Quantitative Fluorescence Imaging in Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy. 1990; Pawley, J. Ed.((Plenum)): 27-39.

Webb WW, Wells KS, Sandison DR Strickler J. Criteria for Quantitative Dynamical Confocal Fluorescence Imaging. In: An International Conference on Digitized Video Microscopy. 1990; Alan R. Liss, Inc.

Beach DA, Bustamante C, Wells KS, Foucar KM. Differential polarization imaging. III. Theory confirmation. Patterns of polymerization of hemoglobin S in red blood sickle cells. Biophys. J. 1988 Mar; 53(3): 449-56. PMID: 3349134, PMCID: PMC1330212, PII: S0006-3495(88)83121-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(88)83121-7, ISSN: 0006-3495.

Garab G, Wells S, Finzi L, Bustamante C. Helically Organized Macroaggregates of Pigment Protein Complexes in Chloroplasts: Evidence from Circular Intensity Differential Scattering. Biochemistry. 1988; 27((16)): 5839-43.

Spada GP, Gotterelli G, Samori B, Bustamante CJ, Wells KS. A Study of some Lyotropic Cholesteric Mesophases by Circular and Linear Dichroism and by Circular Intensity Differential Scattering. Liquid Crystals 3. 1988; 3((1)): 101-13.

Beach DA, Bustamante C, Wells KS, Foucar KM. Differential polarization imaging. III. Theory confirmation. Patterns of polymerization of hemoglobin S in red blood sickle cells. Biophys. J. 1987 Dec; 52(6): 947-54. PMID: 3427201, PMCID: PMC1330093, PII: S0006-3495(87)83287-3, DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(87)83287-3, ISSN: 0006-3495.

Beach DA, Wells KS, Husher F, Bustamante C. Differential Polarization Microscope Using an Image Dissector Camera and Phase Lock Detection. Rev. Sci. Instr. 1987; 58((Nov)): 1987-95.

Wells KS, Beach DA, Keller D, Bustamante C. An analysis of circular intensity differential scattering measurements: studies on the sperm cell of Eledone cirrhosa. Biopolymers. 1986 Nov; 25(11): 2043-64. PMID: 3790701, DOI: 10.1002/bip.360251103, ISSN: 0006-3525.

Bustamante C, Maestre MF, Wells KS. Recent advances in polarization spectroscopy: perspectives of the extension to the soft X-ray region. Photochem. Photobiol. 1986 Sep; 44(3): 331-41. PMID: 3786454, ISSN: 0031-8655.

Hall K, Wells KS, Keller D, Samori B, Maestre MF, Tinoco Jr. I, Bustamante C. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of Planar and Focal Conic Orientations of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals. Applications of Circularly Polarized Radiation. 1985; Allen FS, Bustamante C, Eds.((Springer)).

Bustamante, C., Wells, K.S., Keller, D., Samori, B., Maestre, M.F. and Tinoco, I.,Jr. The Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of Cholesteric and Blue Mesophases. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals. 1984; 111((1)): 79-102.

Katz JE, Wells S, Ussery D, Bustamante C, Maestre MF. Design and Construction of a Circular Intensity Differential Scattering Instrument. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1984; 55((Oct)): 1574-9.

Sidorova TN, Yermalitskaya LV, Wells KS, Mace LC, Boutaud O, Prinsen JK, Davies SS, Roberts JL, Dikalov SI, Glabe CG, Amarnath V, Barnett JV, Murray KT. Reactive gamma-Ketoaldehydes Promote Protein Misfolding and Preamyloid Oligomer Formation in Rapidly-Activated Atrial Cells.