Alvin C. Powers, M.D.


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Faculty Appointments
Director, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Professor of Medicine Professor of Molecular Physiology and BiophysicsJoe C. Davis Chair in Biomedical Science
M.D., Medicine, University of Tennessee Center for Health Science, Memphis, TennesseeB.A., Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
Office Address
7465 MRBIV
2215 Garland Avenue
Nashville, TN 37232
Research Description
The purpose of our research is to understand how glucose stimulates insulin secretion by pancreatic islet cells and to characterize and reverse abnormalities in this process that are present in diabetes. Insulin secretion by pancreatic islets is very tightly coupled to changes in the blood glucose; abnormalities in insulin secretion are a major factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Our laboratory is conducting research in three areas. First, we are studying the sequence of molecular events and factors important for the development of normal islet vasculature. Pancreatic islets are extensively vascularized and this is important in their ability to sense the blood glucose and quickly secrete insulin. Second, we are investigating the molecular mechanisms of islet growth and regeneration with a focus on growth factors and signal transduction pathways in both rodent and human pancreatic islets. We have developed a new model where beta cell proliferation is related to islet cell interactions with macrophages and endothelial cells. Third, we are developing in vivo bioluminescence and other technologies to image and quantify pancreatic islets in vivo. Many of our studies involve the study of the human pancreas or human islets transplanted into immunodeficient mice to generate information relevant to human diabetes. Our research utilizes research approaches such as RNA and protein analysis, genetically modified mice, in vivo physiology, radioimmunoassay, adenovirus mediated gene transfer, transplantation of murine and human islets, confocal microscopy, and immunocytochemistry and involves collaborations with vascular biologists, development biologists, biomedical engineers, and transplant biologists.

Research Keywords
Pancreatic Islet Biology, Vascularization, Development, Regeneration, and Imaging; Diabetes
Clinical Research Keywords
Diabetes; insulin secretion, pancreatic islet function
Saunders D, Powers AC. Replicative capacity of ß-cells and type 1 diabetes. J. Autoimmun [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul; 71: 59-68. PMID: 27133598, PMCID: PMC4903931, PII: S0896-8411(16)30027-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.jaut.2016.03.014, ISSN: 1095-9157.

Boortz KA, Syring KE, Dai C, Pound LD, Oeser JK, Jacobson DA, Wang JC, McGuinness OP, Powers AC, O'Brien RM. G6PC2 Modulates Fasting Blood Glucose In Male Mice in Response to Stress. Endocrinology [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun 6/14/2016; en20161245. PMID: 27300767, DOI: 10.1210/en.2016-1245, ISSN: 1945-7170.

Shah SS, Ramirez CE, Powers AC, Yu C, Shibao CA, Luther JM. Hyperglycemic clamp-derived disposition index is negatively associated with metabolic syndrome severity in obese subjects. Metab. Clin. Exp [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 65(6): 835-42. PMID: 27173462, PMCID: PMC4867079, PII: S0026-0495(16)00050-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2016.02.011, ISSN: 1532-8600.

Arda HE, Li L, Tsai J, Torre EA, Rosli Y, Peiris H, Spitale RC, Dai C, Gu X, Qu K, Wang P, Wang J, Grompe M, Scharfmann R, Snyder MS, Bottino R, Powers AC, Chang HY, Kim SK. Age-Dependent Pancreatic Gene Regulation Reveals Mechanisms Governing Human ß Cell Function. Cell Metab [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/10/2016; 23(5): 909-20. PMID: 27133132, PMCID: PMC4864151, PII: S1550-4131(16)30122-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.04.002, ISSN: 1932-7420.

Helman A, Klochendler A, Azazmeh N, Gabai Y, Horwitz E, Anzi S, Swisa A, Condiotti R, Granit RZ, Nevo Y, Fixler Y, Shreibman D, Zamir A, Tornovsky-Babeay S, Dai C, Glaser B, Powers AC, Shapiro AM, Magnuson MA, Dor Y, Ben-Porath I. P16(Ink4a)-induced senescence of pancreatic beta cells enhances insulin secretion. Nat. Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr; 22(4): 412-20. PMID: 26950362, PII: nm.4054, DOI: 10.1038/nm.4054, ISSN: 1546-170X.

Powers AC, Wexler JA, Lash RW, Dyer MC, Becker MN, Vigersky RA. Affordable Care Act Implementation: Challenges and Opportunities to Impact Patients With Diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr; 101(4): 1315-7. PMID: 27007692, DOI: 10.1210/jc.2016-1047, ISSN: 1945-7197.

Delong T, Wiles TA, Baker RL, Bradley B, Barbour G, Reisdorph R, Armstrong M, Powell RL, Reisdorph N, Kumar N, Elso CM, DeNicola M, Bottino R, Powers AC, Harlan DM, Kent SC, Mannering SI, Haskins K. Pathogenic CD4 T cells in type 1 diabetes recognize epitopes formed by peptide fusion. Science. 2016 Feb 2/12/2016; 351(6274): 711-4. PMID: 26912858, PII: 351/6274/711, DOI: 10.1126/science.aad2791, ISSN: 1095-9203.

Conrad E, Dai C, Spaeth J, Guo M, Cyphert HA, Scoville D, Carroll J, Yu WM, Goodrich LV, Harlan DM, Grove KL, Roberts CT, Powers AC, Gu G, Stein R. The MAFB transcription factor impacts islet a-cell function in rodents and represents a unique signature of primate islet ß-cells. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/1/2016; 310(1): E91-E102. PMID: 26554594, PMCID: PMC4675799, PII: ajpendo.00285.2015, DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00285.2015, ISSN: 1522-1555.

Damond N, Thorel F, Moyers JS, Charron MJ, Vuguin PM, Powers AC, Herrera PL. Blockade of glucagon signaling prevents or reverses diabetes onset only if residual ß-cells persist. Elife. 2016; 5: PMID: 27092792, PMCID: PMC4871705, DOI: 10.7554/eLife.13828, ISSN: 2050-084X.

Li M, Dean ED, Zhao L, Nicholson WE, Powers AC, Chen W. Glucagon receptor inactivation leads to a-cell hyperplasia in zebrafish. J. Endocrinol. 2015 Nov; 227(2): 93-103. PMID: 26446275, PMCID: PMC4598637, PII: 227/2/93, DOI: 10.1530/JOE-15-0284, ISSN: 1479-6805.

Pan FC, Brissova M, Powers AC, Pfaff S, Wright CV. Inactivating the permanent neonatal diabetes gene Mnx1 switches insulin-producing ß-cells to a d-like fate and reveals a facultative proliferative capacity in aged ß-cells. Development. 2015 Nov 11/1/2015; 142(21): 3637-48. PMID: 26534984, PMCID: PMC4647212, PII: 142/21/3637, DOI: 10.1242/dev.126011, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Ceddia RP, Lee D, Maulis MF, Carboneau BA, Threadgill DW, Poffenberger G, Milne G, Boyd KL, Powers AC, McGuinness OP, Gannon M, Breyer RM. The PGE2 EP3 Receptor Regulates Diet-Induced Adiposity in Male Mice. Endocrinology [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/20/2015; en20151693. PMID: 26485614, DOI: 10.1210/en.2015-1693, ISSN: 1945-7170.

Zhu X, Hu R, Brissova M, Stein RW, Powers AC, Gu G, Kaverina I. Microtubules Negatively Regulate Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic ß Cells. Dev. Cell. 2015 Sep 9/28/2015; 34(6): 656-68. PMID: 26418295, PMCID: PMC4594944, PII: S1534-5807(15)00554-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2015.08.020, ISSN: 1878-1551.

Dou S, Virostko J, Greiner DL, Powers AC, Liu G. Quantitative Correlation of in Vivo Properties with in Vitro Assay Results: The in Vitro Binding of a Biotin-DNA Analogue Modifier with Streptavidin Predicts the in Vivo Avidin-Induced Clearability of the Analogue-Modified Antibody. Mol. Pharm [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug 8/3/2015; 12(8): 3097-103. PMID: 26103429, DOI: 10.1021/mp5008579, ISSN: 1543-8392.

Brissova M, Shostak A, Fligner CL, Revetta FL, Washington MK, Powers AC, Hull RL. Human Islets Have Fewer Blood Vessels than Mouse Islets and the Density of Islet Vascular Structures Is Increased in Type 2 Diabetes. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2015 Aug; 63(8): 637-45. PMID: 26216139, PMCID: PMC4530394, PII: 63/8/637, DOI: 10.1369/0022155415573324, ISSN: 1551-5044.

Raum JC, Soleimanpour SA, Groff DN, Coré N, Fasano L, Garratt AN, Dai C, Powers AC, Stoffers DA. Tshz1 Regulates Pancreatic ß-Cell Maturation. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 64(8): 2905-14. PMID: 25918232, PMCID: PMC4512227, PII: db14-1443, DOI: 10.2337/db14-1443, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Atkinson MA, von Herrath M, Powers AC, Clare-Salzler M. Current concepts on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes--considerations for attempts to prevent and reverse the disease. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jun; 38(6): 979-88. PMID: 25998290, PMCID: PMC4439528, PII: 38/6/979, DOI: 10.2337/dc15-0144, ISSN: 1935-5548.

Burke SJ, May AL, Noland RC, Lu D, Brissova M, Powers AC, Sherrill EM, Karlstad MD, Campagna SR, Stephens JM, Collier JJ. Thiobenzothiazole-modified Hydrocortisones Display Anti-inflammatory Activity with Reduced Impact on Islet ß-Cell Function. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2015 May 5/22/2015; 290(21): 13401-16. PMID: 25851902, PMCID: PMC4505588, PII: M114.632190, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M114.632190, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Kayton NS, Poffenberger G, Henske J, Dai C, Thompson C, Aramandla R, Shostak A, Nicholson W, Brissova M, Bush WS, Powers AC. Human islet preparations distributed for research exhibit a variety of insulin-secretory profiles. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2015 Apr 4/1/2015; 308(7): E592-602. PMID: 25648831, PMCID: PMC4385877, PII: ajpendo.00437.2014, DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00437.2014, ISSN: 1522-1555.

Alfa RW, Park S, Skelly KR, Poffenberger G, Jain N, Gu X, Kockel L, Wang J, Liu Y, Powers AC, Kim SK. Suppression of insulin production and secretion by a decretin hormone. Cell Metab. 2015 Feb 2/3/2015; 21(2): 323-33. PMID: 25651184, PMCID: PMC4349554, PII: S1550-4131(15)00007-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.01.006, ISSN: 1932-7420.

Kang L, Dai C, Lustig ME, Bonner JS, Mayes WH, Mokshagundam S, James FD, Thompson CS, Lin CT, Perry CG, Anderson EJ, Neufer PD, Wasserman DH, Powers AC. Heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but not insulin action, in high-fat-fed mice. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 63(11): 3699-710. PMID: 24947366, PMCID: PMC4207395, PII: db13-1845, DOI: 10.2337/db13-1845, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. ß-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 99(6): 1983-92. PMID: 24712577, DOI: 10.1210/jc.2014-1425, ISSN: 1945-7197.

Hang Y, Yamamoto T, Benninger RK, Brissova M, Guo M, Bush W, Piston DW, Powers AC, Magnuson M, Thurmond DC, Stein R. The MafA transcription factor becomes essential to islet ß-cells soon after birth. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 63(6): 1994-2005. PMID: 24520122, PMCID: PMC4030115, PII: db13-1001, DOI: 10.2337/db13-1001, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. ß-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 37(6): 1751-8. PMID: 24812433, PMCID: PMC4179518, PII: dc14-0396, DOI: 10.2337/dc14-0396, ISSN: 1935-5548.

Reinert RB, Cai Q, Hong JY, Plank JL, Aamodt K, Prasad N, Aramandla R, Dai C, Levy SE, Pozzi A, Labosky PA, Wright CV, Brissova M, Powers AC. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding. Development [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 141(7): 1480-91. PMID: 24574008, PMCID: PMC3957372, PII: dev.098657, DOI: 10.1242/dev.098657, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Brissova M, Aamodt K, Brahmachary P, Prasad N, Hong JY, Dai C, Mellati M, Shostak A, Poffenberger G, Aramandla R, Levy SE, Powers AC. Islet microenvironment, modulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling, promotes ß cell regeneration. Cell Metab [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar 3/4/2014; 19(3): 498-511. PMID: 24561261, PMCID: PMC4012856, PII: S1550-4131(14)00057-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.02.001, ISSN: 1932-7420.

Patel M, Gleason A, O'Malley S, Connolly B, Suresch D, Virostko J, Phillips N, Lin SA, Chen TB, Klimas M, Hargreaves RJ, Sur C, Williams DL, Powers AC, Bednar B. Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging of ß-cell function in obese-hyperglycemic [ob/ob] mice. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(9): e106693. PMID: 25198535, PMCID: PMC4157804, PII: PONE-D-14-08285, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106693, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Dou S, Virostko J, Rusckowski M, Greiner DL, Powers AC, Liu G. Differentiation between temporary and real non-clearability of biotinylated IgG antibody by avidin in mice. Front Pharmacol. 2014; 5: 172. PMID: 25104938, PMCID: PMC4109569, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00172, ISSN: 1663-9812.

Reinert RB, Brissova M, Shostak A, Pan FC, Poffenberger G, Cai Q, Hundemer GL, Kantz J, Thompson CS, Dai C, McGuinness OP, Powers AC. Vascular endothelial growth factor-a and islet vascularization are necessary in developing, but not adult, pancreatic islets. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec; 62(12): 4154-64. PMID: 23884891, PMCID: PMC3837071, PII: db13-0071, DOI: 10.2337/db13-0071, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Dai C, Brissova M, Reinert RB, Nyman L, Liu EH, Thompson C, Shostak A, Shiota M, Takahashi T, Powers AC. Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec; 62(12): 4144-53. PMID: 23630302, PMCID: PMC3837044, PII: db12-1657, DOI: 10.2337/db12-1657, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Longuet C, Robledo AM, Dean ED, Dai C, Ali S, McGuinness I, de Chavez V, Vuguin PM, Charron MJ, Powers AC, Drucker DJ. Liver-specific disruption of the murine glucagon receptor produces a-cell hyperplasia: evidence for a circulating a-cell growth factor. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 62(4): 1196-205. PMID: 23160527, PMCID: PMC3609565, PII: db11-1605, DOI: 10.2337/db11-1605, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Virostko J, Radhika A, Poffenberger G, Dula AN, Moore DJ, Powers AC. Bioluminescence imaging reveals dynamics of beta cell loss in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2013; 8(3): e57784. PMID: 23483929, PMCID: PMC3590285, PII: PONE-D-12-38112, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057784, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Cai Q, Brissova M, Reinert RB, Pan FC, Brahmachary P, Jeansson M, Shostak A, Radhika A, Poffenberger G, Quaggin SE, Jerome WG, Dumont DJ, Powers AC. Enhanced expression of VEGF-A in ß cells increases endothelial cell number but impairs islet morphogenesis and ß cell proliferation. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul 7/1/2012; 367(1): 40-54. PMID: 22546694, PMCID: PMC3391601, PII: S0012-1606(12)00211-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.04.022, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Brehm MA, Powers AC, Shultz LD, Greiner DL. Advancing animal models of human type 1 diabetes by engraftment of functional human tissues in immunodeficient mice. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012 May; 2(5): a007757. PMID: 22553498, PMCID: PMC3331686, PII: a007757, DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a007757, ISSN: 2157-1422.

Dai C, Brissova M, Hang Y, Thompson C, Poffenberger G, Shostak A, Chen Z, Stein R, Powers AC. Islet-enriched gene expression and glucose-induced insulin secretion in human and mouse islets. Diabetologia [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar; 55(3): 707-18. PMID: 22167125, PMCID: PMC3268985, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-011-2369-0, ISSN: 1432-0428.

Reinert RB, Kantz J, Misfeldt AA, Poffenberger G, Gannon M, Brissova M, Powers AC. Tamoxifen-Induced Cre-loxP Recombination Is Prolonged in Pancreatic Islets of Adult Mice. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(3): e33529. PMID: 22470452, PMCID: PMC3314663, PII: PONE-D-11-23105, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033529, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Virostko J, Henske J, Vinet L, Lamprianou S, Dai C, Radhika A, Baldwin RM, Ansari MS, Hefti F, Skovronsky D, Kung HF, Herrera PL, Peterson TE, Meda P, Powers AC. Multimodal image coregistration and inducible selective cell ablation to evaluate imaging ligands. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec 12/20/2011; 108(51): 20719-24. PMID: 22143775, PMCID: PMC3251115, PII: 1109480108, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1109480108, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Greiner DL, Brehm MA, Hosur V, Harlan DM, Powers AC, Shultz LD. Humanized mice for the study of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2011 Dec; 1245: 55-8. PMID: 22211980, PMCID: PMC3384500, DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06318.x, ISSN: 1749-6632.

Diiorio P, Jurczyk A, Yang C, Racki WJ, Brehm MA, Atkinson MA, Powers AC, Shultz LD, Greiner DL, Bortell R. Hyperglycemia-induced proliferation of adult human beta cells engrafted into spontaneously diabetic immunodeficient NOD-Rag1null IL2r¿null Ins2Akita mice [letter]. Pancreas. 2011 Oct; 40(7): 1147-9. PMID: 21926555, PMCID: PMC3176417, PII: 00006676-201110000-00030, DOI: 10.1097/MPA.0b013e31821ffabe, ISSN: 1536-4828.

Luther JM, Luo P, Kreger MT, Brissova M, Dai C, Whitfield TT, Kim HS, Wasserman DH, Powers AC, Brown NJ. Aldosterone decreases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo in mice and in murine islets. Diabetologia [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 54(8): 2152-63. PMID: 21519965, PMCID: PMC3216479, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-011-2158-9, ISSN: 1432-0428.

Wicksteed B, Brissova M, Yan W, Opland DM, Plank JL, Reinert RB, Dickson LM, Tamarina NA, Philipson LH, Shostak A, Bernal-Mizrachi E, Elghazi L, Roe MW, Labosky PA, Myers MG, Gannon M, Powers AC, Dempsey PJ. Conditional gene targeting in mouse pancreatic ß-Cells: analysis of ectopic Cre transgene expression in the brain. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2010 Dec; 59(12): 3090-8. PMID: 20802254, PMCID: PMC2992770, PII: db10-0624, DOI: 10.2337/db10-0624, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Zhao A, Ohara-Imaizumi M, Brissova M, Benninger RK, Xu Y, Hao Y, Abramowitz J, Boulay G, Powers AC, Piston D, Jiang M, Nagamatsu S, Birnbaumer L, Gu G. Gao represses insulin secretion by reducing vesicular docking in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2010 Oct; 59(10): 2522-9. PMID: 20622165, PMCID: PMC3279551, PII: db09-1719, DOI: 10.2337/db09-1719, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Brehm MA, Bortell R, Diiorio P, Leif J, Laning J, Cuthbert A, Yang C, Herlihy M, Burzenski L, Gott B, Foreman O, Powers AC, Greiner DL, Shultz LD. Human immune system development and rejection of human islet allografts in spontaneously diabetic NOD-Rag1null IL2rgammanull Ins2Akita mice. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 59(9): 2265-70. PMID: 20570944, PMCID: PMC2927949, PII: db10-0323, DOI: 10.2337/db10-0323, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Nyman LR, Ford E, Powers AC, Piston DW. Glucose-dependent blood flow dynamics in murine pancreatic islets in vivo. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 298(4): E807-14. PMID: 20071562, PMCID: PMC2853211, PII: ajpendo.00715.2009, DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00715.2009, ISSN: 1522-1555.

Virostko J, Radhika A, Poffenberger G, Chen Z, Brissova M, Gilchrist J, Coleman B, Gannon M, Jansen ED, Powers AC. Bioluminescence imaging in mouse models quantifies beta cell mass in the pancreas and after islet transplantation. Mol Imaging Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan; 12(1): 42-53. PMID: 19548035, PMCID: PMC3822006, DOI: 10.1007/s11307-009-0240-1, ISSN: 1860-2002.

Gauthier BR, Wiederkehr A, Baquié M, Dai C, Powers AC, Kerr-Conte J, Pattou F, MacDonald RJ, Ferrer J, Wollheim CB. PDX1 deficiency causes mitochondrial dysfunction and defective insulin secretion through TFAM suppression. Cell Metab. 2009 Aug; 10(2): 110-8. PMID: 19656489, PMCID: PMC4012862, PII: S1550-4131(09)00198-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2009.07.002, ISSN: 1932-7420.

Virostko J, Powers AC. Molecular imaging of the pancreas in small animal models. Gastroenterology [print-electronic]. 2009 Feb; 136(2): 407-9. PMID: 19105957, PMCID: PMC3740180, PII: S0016-5085(08)02203-8, DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.12.024, ISSN: 1528-0012.

Powers AC. Insulin therapy versus cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus: what lies ahead?. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 4(12): 664-5. PMID: 18825138, PMCID: PMC3740175, PII: ncpendmet0971, DOI: 10.1038/ncpendmet0971, ISSN: 1745-8374.

Nyman LR, Wells KS, Head WS, McCaughey M, Ford E, Brissova M, Piston DW, Powers AC. Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov; 118(11): 3790-7. PMID: 18846254, PMCID: PMC2564611, DOI: 10.1172/JCI36209, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Brissova M, Powers AC. Revascularization of transplanted islets: can it be improved?. Diabetes. 2008 Sep; 57(9): 2269-71. PMID: 18753672, PMCID: PMC2518476, PII: 57/9/2269, DOI: 10.2337/db08-0814, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Berglund ED, Li CY, Poffenberger G, Ayala JE, Fueger PT, Willis SE, Jewell MM, Powers AC, Wasserman DH. Glucose metabolism in vivo in four commonly used inbred mouse strains. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 57(7): 1790-9. PMID: 18398139, PMCID: PMC2453626, PII: db07-1615, DOI: 10.2337/db07-1615, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Cheng Q, Kantz J, Poffenberger G, Powers AC, Gailani D. Factor XI protein in human pancreas and kidney [letter]. Thromb. Haemost. 2008 Jul; 100(1): 158-60. PMID: 18612554, PMCID: PMC2690650, PII: 08070158, DOI: 10.1160/TH08-04-0260, ISSN: 0340-6245.

Virostko J, Powers AC, Jansen ED. Validation of luminescent source reconstruction using single-view spectrally resolved bioluminescence images. Appl Opt. 2007 May 5/1/2007; 46(13): 2540-7. PMID: 17429468, PII: 131902, ISSN: 0003-6935.

Tweedie E, Artner I, Crawford L, Poffenberger G, Thorens B, Stein R, Powers AC, Gannon M. Maintenance of hepatic nuclear factor 6 in postnatal islets impairs terminal differentiation and function of beta-cells. Diabetes. 2006 Dec; 55(12): 3264-70. PMID: 17130469, PII: 55/12/3264, DOI: 10.2337/db06-0090, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Brissova M, Shostak A, Shiota M, Wiebe PO, Poffenberger G, Kantz J, Chen Z, Carr C, Jerome WG, Chen J, Baldwin HS, Nicholson W, Bader DM, Jetton T, Gannon M, Powers AC. Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor--a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function. Diabetes. 2006 Nov; 55(11): 2974-85. PMID: 17065333, PII: 55/11/2974, DOI: 10.2337/db06-0690, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Boyer DF, Fujitani Y, Gannon M, Powers AC, Stein RW, Wright CV. Complementation rescue of Pdx1 null phenotype demonstrates distinct roles of proximal and distal cis-regulatory sequences in pancreatic and duodenal expression. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Oct 10/15/2006; 298(2): 616-31. PMID: 16962573, PII: S0012-1606(06)01026-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.07.020, ISSN: 0012-1606.

Virostko J, Jansen ED, Powers AC. Current status of imaging pancreatic islets. Curr. Diab. Rep. 2006 Aug; 6(4): 328-32. PMID: 16879787, ISSN: 1534-4827.

Roth DJ, Jansen ED, Powers AC, Wang TG. A novel method of monitoring response to islet transplantation: bioluminescent imaging of an NF-kB transgenic mouse model. Transplantation. 2006 Apr 4/27/2006; 81(8): 1185-90. PMID: 16641606, PII: 00007890-200604270-00017, DOI: 10.1097/, ISSN: 0041-1337.

Wetzel JD, Barton ES, Chappell JD, Baer GS, Mochow-Grundy M, Rodgers SE, Shyr Y, Powers AC, Thomas JW, Dermody TS. Reovirus delays diabetes onset but does not prevent insulitis in nonobese diabetic mice. J. Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(6): 3078-82. PMID: 16501117, PMCID: PMC1395416, PII: 80/6/3078, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.80.6.3078-3082.2006, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Brissova M, Fowler MJ, Nicholson WE, Chu A, Hirshberg B, Harlan DM, Powers AC. Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy. J. Histochem. Cytochem [print-electronic]. 2005 Sep; 53(9): 1087-97. PMID: 15923354, PII: jhc.5C6684.2005, DOI: 10.1369/jhc.5C6684.2005, ISSN: 0022-1554.

Hu X, Friedman D, Hill S, Caprioli R, Nicholson W, Powers AC, Hunter L, Limbird LE. Proteomic exploration of pancreatic islets in mice null for the alpha2A adrenergic receptor. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 2005 Aug; 35(1): 73-88. PMID: 16087723, PII: 35/1/73, DOI: 10.1677/jme.1.01764, ISSN: 0952-5041.

Fowler M, Virostko J, Chen Z, Poffenberger G, Radhika A, Brissova M, Shiota M, Nicholson WE, Shi Y, Hirshberg B, Harlan DM, Jansen ED, Powers AC. Assessment of pancreatic islet mass after islet transplantation using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Transplantation. 2005 Apr 4/15/2005; 79(7): 768-76. PMID: 15818318, PII: 00007890-200504150-00005, ISSN: 0041-1337.

Brissova M, Blaha M, Spear C, Nicholson W, Radhika A, Shiota M, Charron MJ, Wright CV, Powers AC. Reduced PDX-1 expression impairs islet response to insulin resistance and worsens glucose homeostasis. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2005 Apr; 288(4): E707-14. PMID: 15562255, PII: 00252.2004, DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00252.2004, ISSN: 0193-1849.

Whitesell RR, Ardehali H, Beechem JM, Powers AC, Van der Meer W, Perriott LM, Granner DK. Compartmentalization of transport and phosphorylation of glucose in a hepatoma cell line. Biochem. J. 2005 Mar 3/1/2005; 386(Pt 2): 245-53. PMID: 15473866, PMCID: PMC1134788, PII: BJ20040901, DOI: 10.1042/BJ20040901, ISSN: 1470-8728.

Nguyen CV, Powers AC, Greenspan DL, Elasy TA. Diabetes referrals at a Veterans Administration tertiary facility: who are the patients and why are they referred?. Diabetes Care. 2005 Feb; 28(2): 423-4. PMID: 15677805, PII: 28/2/423, ISSN: 0149-5992.

Steffner RJ, Wu L, Powers AC, May JM. Ascorbic acid recycling by cultured beta cells: effects of increased glucose metabolism. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2004 Nov 11/15/2004; 37(10): 1612-21. PMID: 15477012, PII: S0891-5849(04)00608-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.07.032, ISSN: 0891-5849.

Virostko J, Chen Z, Fowler M, Poffenberger G, Powers AC, Jansen ED. Factors influencing quantification of in vivo bioluminescence imaging: application to assessment of pancreatic islet transplants. Mol Imaging. 2004 Oct; 3(4): 333-42. PMID: 15802050, DOI: 10.1162/1535350042973508, ISSN: 1535-3508.

Brissova M, Fowler M, Wiebe P, Shostak A, Shiota M, Radhika A, Lin PC, Gannon M, Powers AC. Intraislet endothelial cells contribute to revascularization of transplanted pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 2004 May; 53(5): 1318-25. PMID: 15111502, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Wu L, Nicholson W, Knobel SM, Steffner RJ, May JM, Piston DW, Powers AC. Oxidative stress is a mediator of glucose toxicity in insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cell lines. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Mar 3/26/2004; 279(13): 12126-34. PMID: 14688272, PII: M307097200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M307097200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Brissova M, Fowler M, Wiebe P, Shostak A, Shiota M, Radhika A, Lin PC, Gannon M, and Powers AC. Intra-islet Endothelial Cells Contribute to Revascularization of Transplanted Pancreatic Islets. Diabetes. 2004; 53(()): 1318-25.

Gustavson SM, Nishizawa M, Farmer B, Neal D, Brissova M, Powers AC, Cherrington AD. A fall in portal vein insulin does not cause the alpha-cell response to mild, non-insulin-induced hypoglycemia in conscious dogs. Metab. Clin. Exp. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1418-25. PMID: 14624400, PII: S0026049503003214, ISSN: 0026-0495.

Wu L, Nicholson W, Wu CY, Xu M, McGaha A, Shiota M, Powers AC. Engineering physiologically regulated insulin secretion in non-beta cells by expressing glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Gene Ther. 2003 Sep; 10(19): 1712-20. PMID: 12923570, PII: 3302055, DOI: 10.1038/, ISSN: 0969-7128.

Solomon SS, Tom SC, Pichert J, Wasserman D, Powers AC. Impact of medical student research in the development of physician-scientists. J. Investig. Med. 2003 May; 51(3): 149-56. PMID: 12769197, ISSN: 1081-5589.

Brissova M, Nicholson WE, Shiota M, Powers AC. Assessment of insulin secretion in the mouse. Methods Mol. Med. 2003; 83: 23-45. PMID: 12619713, DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-377-1:023, ISSN: 1543-1894.

Rocheleau JV, Head WS, Nicholson WE, Powers AC, Piston DW. Pancreatic islet beta-cells transiently metabolize pyruvate. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Aug 8/23/2002; 277(34): 30914-20. PMID: 12070148, PII: M202314200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M202314200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Brissova M, Shiota M, Nicholson WE, Gannon M, Knobel SM, Piston DW, Wright CV, Powers AC. Reduction in pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1 impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Mar 3/29/2002; 277(13): 11225-32. PMID: 11781323, PII: M111272200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111272200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Boord JB, Graber AL, Christman JW, Powers AC. Practical management of diabetes in critically ill patients. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001 Nov 11/15/2001; 164(10 Pt 1): 1763-7. PMID: 11734423, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.164.10.2103068, ISSN: 1073-449X.

Perriott LM, Kono T, Whitesell RR, Knobel SM, Piston DW, Granner DK, Powers AC, May JM. Glucose uptake and metabolism by cultured human skeletal muscle cells: rate-limiting steps. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001 Jul; 281(1): E72-80. PMID: 11404224, ISSN: 0193-1849.

Powers AC, Bavik K, Tremble J, Daw K, Scherbaum WA, Banga JP. Comparative analysis of epitope recognition of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) by autoantibodies from different autoimmune disorders. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1999 Dec; 118(3): 349-56. PMID: 10594551, PMCID: PMC1905454, PII: cei1030, ISSN: 0009-9104.

Muller M, Brissova M, Rieser T, Powers AC, Lunkwitz K. Deposition and properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers studied by ATR-FITR Spectroscopy. Materials Science & Engineering C. 1999; 8-9: 167-73.

Wu L, Fritz JD, Powers AC. Different functional domains of GLUT2 glucose transporter are required for glucose affinity and substrate specificity. Endocrinology. 1998 Oct; 139(10): 4205-12. PMID: 9751501, DOI: 10.1210/endo.139.10.6245, ISSN: 0013-7227.

Brissová M, Lacík I, Powers AC, Anilkumar AV, Wang T. Control and measurement of permeability for design of microcapsule cell delivery system. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1998 Jan; 39(1): 61-70. PMID: 9429097, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(199801)39:1<61::AID-JBM8>3.0.CO;2-G, ISSN: 0021-9304.

Lacík I, Brissová M, Anilkumar AV, Powers AC, Wang T. New capsule with tailored properties for the encapsulation of living cells. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1998 Jan; 39(1): 52-60. PMID: 9429096, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(199801)39:1<52::AID-JBM7>3.0.CO;2-H, ISSN: 0021-9304.

Prokop A, Hunkeler D, Powers AC, Whitesell RR, Wang TG. Water soluble polymers for immunoisolation II: evaluation of multicomponent microencapsulation systems. Advances in Polymer Science. 1998; 136: 53-73.

Powers AC, Brissová M, Lacík I, Anilkumar AV, Shahrokhi K, Wang TG. Permeability assessment of capsules for islet transplantation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1997 Dec 12/31/1997; 831: 208-16. PMID: 9616712, ISSN: 0077-8923.

Tremble J, Morgenthaler NG, Vlug A, Powers AC, Christie MR, Scherbaum WA, Banga JP. Human B cells secreting immunoglobulin G to glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 from a nondiabetic patient with multiple autoantibodies and Graves' disease: a comparison with those present in type 1 diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1997 Aug; 82(8): 2664-70. PMID: 9253351, DOI: 10.1210/jcem.82.8.4171, ISSN: 0021-972X.

Wang T, Lacík I, Brissová M, Anilkumar AV, Prokop A, Hunkeler D, Green R, Shahrokhi K, Powers AC. An encapsulation system for the immunoisolation of pancreatic islets. Nat. Biotechnol. 1997 Apr; 15(4): 358-62. PMID: 9094138, DOI: 10.1038/nbt0497-358, ISSN: 1087-0156.

Fritz JD, Utz AL, Hale NM, Wu L, Powers AC, Verdoorn TA, Robertson D. Gene-based neurotransmitter modulation in cerebellar granule neurons. J. Neurochem. 1997 Jan; 68(1): 204-12. PMID: 8978727, ISSN: 0022-3042.

Brissová M, Petro M, Lacík I, Powers AC, Wang T. Evaluation of microcapsule permeability via inverse size exclusion chromatography. Anal. Biochem. 1996 Nov 11/1/1996; 242(1): 104-11. PMID: 8923972, PII: S0003269796904352, ISSN: 0003-2697.

Wandel S, Buchs A, Schürmann A, Summers SA, Powers AC, Shanahan MF, Joost HG. Glucose transport activity and ligand binding (cytochalasin B, IAPS-forskolin) of chimeric constructs of GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressed in COS-7-cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1996 Oct 10/2/1996; 1284(1): 56-62. PMID: 8865815, ISSN: 0006-3002.

Ziegler B, Schlosser M, Lühder F, Strebelow M, Augstein P, Northemann W, Powers AC, Ziegler M. Murine monoclonal glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 antibodies recognize autoimmune-associated GAD epitope regions targeted in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and stiff-man syndrome. Acta Diabetol. 1996 Sep; 33(3): 225-31. PMID: 8904930, ISSN: 0940-5429.

Bhisitkul DM, Vinik AI, Morrow AL, She JX, Shults J, Powers AC, Maclaren NK. Prediabetic markers in children with stress hyperglycemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996 Sep; 150(9): 936-41. PMID: 8790124, ISSN: 1072-4710.

Weaver CD, Yao TL, Powers AC, Verdoorn TA. Differential expression of glutamate receptor subtypes in rat pancreatic islets. J. Biol. Chem. 1996 May 5/31/1996; 271(22): 12977-84. PMID: 8662728, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Daw K, Ujihara N, Atkinson M, Powers AC. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in stiff-man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus exhibit similarities and differences in epitope recognition. J. Immunol. 1996 Jan 1/15/1996; 156(2): 818-25. PMID: 8543838, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Buchs A, Wu L, Morita H, Whitesell RR, Powers AC. Two regions of GLUT 2 glucose transporter protein are responsible for its distinctive affinity for glucose. Endocrinology. 1995 Oct; 136(10): 4224-30. PMID: 7664639, DOI: 10.1210/endo.136.10.7664639, ISSN: 0013-7227.

Vinik AI, Leichter SB, Pittenger GL, Stansberry KB, Holland MT, Powers AC, Suwanwalaikorn S. Phospholipid and glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1995 Sep; 18(9): 1225-32. PMID: 8612435, ISSN: 0149-5992.

Due AD, Qu ZC, Thomas JM, Buchs A, Powers AC, May JM. Role of the C-terminal tail of the GLUT1 glucose transporter in its expression and function in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochemistry. 1995 Apr 4/25/1995; 34(16): 5462-71. PMID: 7727404, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Due AD, Cook JA, Fletcher SJ, Qu ZC, Powers AC, May JM. A "cysteineless" GLUT1 glucose transporter has normal function when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1995 Mar 3/17/1995; 208(2): 590-6. PMID: 7695611, PII: S0006-291X(85)71379-4, DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1995.1379, ISSN: 0006-291X.

Daw K, Powers AC. Two distinct glutamic acid decarboxylase auto-antibody specificities in IDDM target different epitopes. Diabetes. 1995 Feb; 44(2): 216-20. PMID: 7532143, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Due AD, Cook JA, Fletcher SJ, Zhi-chao Q, Powers AC, May JM. A "cysteineless" GLUT1 glucose transporter has normal function when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 1995; 208: 590-6.

Morita H, Yano Y, Niswender KD, May JM, Whitesell RR, Wu L, Printz RL, Granner DK, Magnuson MA, Powers AC. Coexpression of glucose transporters and glucokinase in Xenopus oocytes indicates that both glucose transport and phosphorylation determine glucose utilization. J. Clin. Invest. 1994 Oct; 94(4): 1373-82. PMID: 7929812, PMCID: PMC295259, DOI: 10.1172/JCI117472, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Ujihara N, Daw K, Gianani R, Boel E, Yu L, Powers AC. Identification of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody heterogeneity and epitope regions in type I diabetes. Diabetes. 1994 Aug; 43(8): 968-75. PMID: 8039604, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Ujihara N, Daw K, Gianani R, Boel E, Yu L, Powers AC. Identification of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody heterogeneity and epitope regions in Type I diabetes. Diabetes. 1994; 43: 968-75.

Whitesell RR, Aboumrad MK, Powers AC, Regen DM, Le C, Beechem JM, May JM, Abumrad NA. Coupling of glucose transport and phosphorylation in Xenopus oocytes and cultured cells: determination of the rate-limiting step. J. Cell. Physiol. 1993 Dec; 157(3): 509-18. PMID: 8253862, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.1041570310, ISSN: 0021-9541.

Pietropaolo M, Castaño L, Babu S, Buelow R, Kuo YL, Martin S, Martin A, Powers AC, Prochazka M, Naggert J. Islet cell autoantigen 69 kD (ICA69). Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel diabetes-associated autoantigen. J. Clin. Invest. 1993 Jul; 92(1): 359-71. PMID: 8326004, PMCID: PMC293615, DOI: 10.1172/JCI116574, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Pietropaolo M, Casta?o L, Babu S, Buelow R, Kuo Y-LS, Martin S, Martin A, Powers AC, Prochazka M, Naggert J, Leiter EH, Eisenbarth GS. Islet Cell Autoantigen 65 kD (ICA69): molecular cloning and characterization of a novel diabetes-associated autoantigen. J Clin Invest. 1993; 92: 359-71.

Whitesell RR, Powers AC, Regen DM, Abumrad NA. Transport and metabolism of glucose in an insulin-secreting cell line, beta TC-1. Biochemistry. 1991 Dec 12/10/1991; 30(49): 11560-6. PMID: 1747375, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Whitesell RR, Powers AC, Regen DM, Abumrad NA. Transport and metabolism of glucose in an insulin-secreting cell line, beta TC-1. Biochemistry. 1991; 30: 11560-6.

Powers AC, Efrat S, Mojsov S, Spector D, Habener JF, Hanahan D. Proglucagon processing similar to normal islets in pancreatic alpha-like cell line derived from transgenic mouse tumor. Diabetes. 1990 Apr; 39(4): 406-14. PMID: 2156740, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Powers AC, Efrat S, Mojsov S, Spector D, Habener JF, Hanahan D. Proglucagon processing similar to normal islets in pancreatic alpha-like cell line derived from transgenic mouse tumor. Diabetes. 1990; 39: 406-14.

Powers AC, Tedeschi F, Wright KE, Chan JS, Habener JF. Somatostatin gene expression in pancreatic islet cells is directed by cell-specific DNA control elements and DNA-binding proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 1989 Jun 6/15/1989; 264(17): 10048-56. PMID: 2566613, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Jameson JL, Powers AC, Gallagher GD, Habener JF. Enhancer and promoter element interactions dictate cyclic adenosine monophosphate mediated and cell-specific expression of the glycoprotein hormone alpha-gene. Mol. Endocrinol. 1989 May; 3(5): 763-72. PMID: 2474127, DOI: 10.1210/mend-3-5-763, ISSN: 0888-8809.

Ron D, Powers AC, Pandian MR, Godine JE, Axelrod L. Increased insulin-like growth factor II production and consequent suppression of growth hormone secretion: a dual mechanism for tumor-induced hypoglycemia. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1989 Apr; 68(4): 701-6. PMID: 2646313, DOI: 10.1210/jcem-68-4-701, ISSN: 0021-972X.

Jameson JL, Powers AC, Gallagher GD, Habener JF. Enhancer and promoter element interactions dictate cyclic adenosine monophosphate mediated and cell-specific expression of the glycoprotein hormone alpha gene. Mol Endocrinol. 1989; 3: 763-72.

Powers AC, Tedeschi F, Wright KE, Chan JS, Habener JF. Somatostatin gene expression in pancreatic islet cells is directed by cell-specific DNA control elements and DNA-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 1989; 264: 10048-56.

Philippe J, Powers AC, Mojsov S, Drucker DJ, Comi R, Habener JF. Expression of peptide hormone genes in human islet cell tumors. Diabetes. 1988 Dec; 37(12): 1647-51. PMID: 2903836, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Powers AC, Philippe J, Hermann H, Habener JF. Sodium butyrate increases glucagon and insulin gene expression by recruiting immunocytochemically negative cells to produce hormone. Diabetes. 1988 Oct; 37(10): 1405-10. PMID: 2843409, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Philippe J, Powers AC, Brand SJ. Cholecystokinin and glucagonoma [letter]. N. Engl. J. Med. 1988 Jan 1/14/1988; 318(2): 121-2. PMID: 2827024, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198801143180215, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Philippe J, Powers AC, Mojsov S, Cosmi R, Habener JF. Expression of polypeptide hormone genes in human islet cell tumors. Diabetes. 1988; 37: 1647-51.

Powers AC, Philippe J, Hermann H, Habener JF. Sodium butyrate increases glucagon and insulin gene expression by recruiting immunocytochemically negative cells to produce hormone. Diabetes. 1988; 37: 1405-10.

Kwok YC, Nemenoff RA, Powers AC, Avruch J. Kinetic properties of the insulin receptor tyrosine protein kinase: activation through an insulin-stimulated tyrosine-specific, intramolecular autophosphorylation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1986 Jan; 244(1): 102-13. PMID: 3004334, PII: 0003-9861(86)90098-6, ISSN: 0003-9861.

Powers AC, Eisenbarth GS. Autoimmunity to islet cells in diabetes mellitus. Annu. Rev. Med. 1985; 36: 533-44. PMID: 3888064, DOI: 10.1146/, ISSN: 0066-4219.

Powers AC, Rabizadeh A, Akeson R, Eisenbarth GS. Characterization of monoclonal antibody 3G5 and utilization of this antibody to immobilize pancreatic islet cell gangliosides in a solid phase radioassay. Endocrinology. 1984 Apr; 114(4): 1338-43. PMID: 6368201, DOI: 10.1210/endo-114-4-1338, ISSN: 0013-7227.

Powers AC, Rabizadeh A, Akeson R, Eisenbarth GS. Characterization of monoclonal antibody 3G5 and utilization of this antibody to immobilize pancreatic islet cell gangliosides in solid-phase radioassay. Endocrinology. 1984; 114: 1338-43.

Powers AC, Solomon SS, Duckworth WC. Insulin degradation by mononuclear cells. Diabetes. 1980 Jan; 29(1): 27-32. PMID: 6991313, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Powers AC, Solomon SS, Duckworth WC. Insulin degradation by mononuclear cells. Diabetes. 1980; 29: 27-31.