Carlos G. Grijalva, M.D.

Associate Professor

Visit Lab Site

Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Health Policy
M.P.H., Public Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeM.D., Human Medicine, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, PeruB.S., Human Medicine, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Peru
Office Address
1500 21st. Ave. S.
The Village at Vanderbilt, Suite #2650
Nashville, TN 37212
Research Description
Dr. Grijalva is an Associate Professor in the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Health Policy, and Co-Director of the Vanderbilt’s Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) research center. Dr. Grijalva is also, a member of the Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, a Scholar at the Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research, and an investigator at the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center. His interests include the evaluation of medications’ safety and effectiveness; the design of observational studies; and, methodologies for comparative effectiveness research.
Dr. Grijalva is experienced designing and conducting studies of medications effects using large databases, and his research focuses on the assessments of medications used for diabetes, opioid analgesics, biologic medications, vaccine-preventable respiratory diseases - especially pneumococcal and influenza infections - and the evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccination and other preventive programs.
Dr. Grijalva is also the Principal Investigator for a prospective cohort study that was recently conducted among Peruvian Andean children to evaluate the burden of viral respiratory infections and the interaction between respiratory viruses and bacteria. Dr. Grijalva serves as the Course Director for Epidemiology I in the Vanderbilt Master of Public Health program. He has published more than 120 peer-reviewed articles and mentored several junior investigators. His current work is supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, among other sources.
Williams DJ, Hall M, Gerber JS, Neuman MI, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Parikh K, Mahant S, Blaschke AJ, Shah SS, Grijalva CG, . Impact of a National Guideline on Antibiotic Selection for Hospitalized Pneumonia. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2017 Mar 3/8/2017; PMID: 28275204, PII: peds.2016-3231, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3231, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Stockmann C, Ampofo K, Killpack J, Williams DJ, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, Self WH, Bramley A, Jain S, Pavia AT, Blaschke AJ. Procalcitonin Accurately Identifies Hospitalized Children With Low Risk of Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc [print-electronic]. 2017 Feb 2/3/2017; PMID: 28158460, PII: 2966998, DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw091, ISSN: 2048-7207.

Zhang Y, Sakthivel SK, Bramley A, Jain S, Haynes A, Chappell JD, Hymas W, Lenny N, Patel A, Qi C, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Self WH, Williams DJ, Hillyard D, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, McCullers JA, Erdman DD. Serology Enhances Molecular Diagnosis of Respiratory Virus Infections Other than Influenza in Children and Adults Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. J. Clin. Microbiol [electronic-print]. 2017 Jan; 55(1): 79-89. PMID: 27795341, PII: JCM.01701-16, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01701-16, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Upchurch CP, Grijalva CG, Russ S, Collins SP, Semler MW, Rice TW, Liu D, Ehrenfeld JM, High K, Barrett TW, McNaughton CD, Self WH. Comparison of Etomidate and Ketamine for Induction During Rapid Sequence Intubation of Adult Trauma Patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jan; 69(1): 24-33.e2. PMID: 27993308, PMCID: PMC5180365, PII: S0196-0644(16)30467-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.08.009, ISSN: 1097-6760.

Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Liu X, Murff HJ, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR. Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Line Agents for the Treatment of Diabetes Type 2 in Preventing Kidney Function Decline. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2016 Dec 12/7/2016; 11(12): 2177-85. PMID: 27827311, PMCID: PMC5142060, PII: CJN.02630316, DOI: 10.2215/CJN.02630316, ISSN: 1555-905X.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Changes in empyema among U.S. children in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2016 Dec 12/7/2016; 34(50): 6243-9. PMID: 27832918, PII: S0264-410X(16)30997-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.062, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Fan RR, Howard LM, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Williams JV, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density and Evolution of Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Young Children, Peru, 2009-2011. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2016 Nov; 22(11): 1996-9. PMID: 27767919, DOI: 10.3201/eid2211.160902, ISSN: 1080-6059.

Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Harrell FE, Reed C, Stockmann C, Arnold SR, Ampofo KK, Anderson EJ, Bramley AM, Wunderink RG, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Jain S, Edwards KM. Predicting Severe Pneumonia Outcomes in Children. Pediatrics. 2016 Oct; 138(4): PMID: 27688362, PII: peds.2016-1019, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1019, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Harrell FE, Reed C, Stockmann C, Arnold SR, Ampofo KK, Anderson EJ, Bramley AM, Wunderink RG, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Jain S, Edwards KM. Predicting Severe Pneumonia Outcomes in Children. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/29/2016; PMID: 27688362, PII: peds.2016-1019, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1019, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Cherry CB, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Gil AI, Verastegui H, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Spatial and Temporal Spread of Acute Viral Respiratory Infections in Young Children Living in High-Altitude Rural Communities: A Prospective Household-Based Study. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/11/2016; PMID: 27404599, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001234, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Waterer GW, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, . Reply to Chalmers, et al. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/8/2016; PMID: 27402823, PII: ciw466, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw466, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Wiese AD, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2016 Jun; 22(6): PMID: 27197048, PMCID: PMC4880071, DOI: 10.3201/eid2206.152023, ISSN: 1080-6059.

de St Maurice A, Schaffner W, Griffin MR, Halasa N, Grijalva CG. Persistent Sex Disparities in Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in the Conjugate Vaccine Era. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/30/2016; PMID: 27247342, PII: jiw222, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiw222, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Havers F, Bramley AM, Finelli L, Reed C, Self WH, Trabue C, Fakhran S, Balk R, Courtney DM, Girard TD, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Jain S. Statin Use and Hospital Length of Stay Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-acquired Pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/10/2016; PMID: 27169476, PII: ciw174, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw174, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Anderson EJ, Balk RA, Fakhran SS, Chappell JD, Casimir G, Courtney DM, Trabue C, Waterer GW, Bramley A, Magill S, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG. Staphylococcus aureus Community-acquired Pneumonia: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/8/2016; PMID: 27161775, PII: ciw300, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw300, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Self WH, Grijalva CG, Williams DJ, Woodworth A, Balk RA, Fakhran S, Zhu Y, Courtney DM, Chappell J, Anderson EJ, Qi C, Waterer GW, Trabue C, Bramley AM, Jain S, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG. Procalcitonin as an Early Marker of the Need for Invasive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Adults with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Chest [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/20/2016; PMID: 27107491, PII: S0012-3692(16)48560-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.04.010, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Roumie CL, Min JY, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Elasy T, Griffin MR. Risk of hypoglycemia following intensification of metformin treatment with insulin versus sulfonylurea. CMAJ [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/5/2016; 188(6): E104-12. PMID: 26811361, PMCID: PMC4818151, PII: cmaj.150904, DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.150904, ISSN: 1488-2329.

Hanke CR, Grijalva CG, Chochua S, Pletz MW, Hornberg C, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Verastegui H, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Klugman KP, Vidal JE. Bacterial Density, Serotype Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance of Pneumococcal Strains from the Nasopharynx of Peruvian Children Before and After Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 7. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2016 Apr; 35(4): 432-9. PMID: 26974749, PMCID: PMC4820239, PII: 00006454-201604000-00020, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001030, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Millman AJ, Finelli L, Bramley AM, Peacock G, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, McCullers JA, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Jain S. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization among Children with Neurologic Disorders. J. Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/17/2016; PMID: 27017483, PII: S0022-3476(16)00271-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.02.049, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Diaz MH, Cross KE, Benitez AJ, Hicks LA, Kutty P, Bramley AM, Chappell JD, Hymas W, Patel A, Qi C, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Self WH, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Jain S, Winchell JM. Identification of Bacterial and Viral Codetections With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Using the TaqMan Array Card in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Mar; 3(2): ofw071. PMID: 27191004, PMCID: PMC4867659, PII: ofw071, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofw071, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Min JY, Griffin MR, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Greevy RA, Liu X, Elasy T, Roumie CL. Comparative Effectiveness of Insulin versus Combination Sulfonylurea and Insulin: a Cohort Study of Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes. J Gen Intern Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb 2/26/2016; PMID: 26921160, PII: 10.1007/s11606-016-3633-2, DOI: 10.1007/s11606-016-3633-2, ISSN: 1525-1497.

Roumie CL, Min JY, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Elasy T, Griffin MR. Risk of hypoglycemia following intensification of metformin treatment with insulin versus sulfonylurea. CMAJ [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/25/2016; PMID: 26811361, PII: cmaj.150904, DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.150904, ISSN: 1488-2329.

Parikh K, Hall M, Blaschke AJ, Grijalva CG, Brogan TV, Neuman MI, Williams DJ, Gerber JS, Hersh AL, Shah SS. Aggregate and hospital-level impact of national guidelines on diagnostic resource utilization for children with pneumonia at children's hospitals. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/13/2016; PMID: 26762571, DOI: 10.1002/jhm.2534, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Howard LM, Johnson M, Gil AI, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Lanata CF, Williams JV, Grijalva CG. Molecular Epidemiology of Rhinovirus Detections in Young Children. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Jan; 3(1): ofw001. PMID: 26900577, PMCID: PMC4759584, PII: ofw001, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofw001, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Griffin MR. Diabetes treatment intensification and associated changes in HbA1c and body mass index: a cohort study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016; 16(1): 32. PMID: 27255309, PMCID: PMC4890276, PII: 10.1186/s12902-016-0101-2, DOI: 10.1186/s12902-016-0101-2, ISSN: 1472-6823.

Grijalva CG, Wunderink RG, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Balk R, Fakhran S, Courtney DM, Anderson EJ, Qi C, Trabue C, Pavia AT, Moore MR, Jain S, Edwards KM, Self WH. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Dec; 2(4): ofv135. PMID: 26512357, PMCID: PMC4621456, PII: ofv135, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv135, ISSN: 2328-8957.

de St Maurice A, Grijalva CG, Fonnesbeck C, Schaffner W, Halasa NB. Racial and Regional Differences in Rates of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov; 136(5): e1186-94. PMID: 26459652, PMCID: PMC4621799, PII: peds.2015-1773, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-1773, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Opioid analgesics and the risk of serious infections among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A self-controlled case series study. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/16/2015; PMID: 26473742, DOI: 10.1002/art.39462, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Self WH, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Stockmann CR, McCullers J, Arnold SR, Wunderink RG, Anderson EJ, Lindstrom S, Fry AM, Foppa IM, Finelli L, Bramley AM, Jain S, Griffin MR, Edwards KM. Association Between Hospitalization With Community-Acquired Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Pneumonia and Prior Receipt of Influenza Vaccination. JAMA. 2015 Oct 10/13/2015; 314(14): 1488-97. PMID: 26436611, PMCID: PMC4688454, PII: 2450326, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2015.12160, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Ahn A, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Zhu Y, Chappell JD, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Bramley AM, Jain S, Williams DJ. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Illness Severity among Children Hospitalized with Pneumonia. J. Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct; 167(4): 869-874.e1. PMID: 26231828, PMCID: PMC4586387, PII: S0022-3476(15)00687-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.049, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Howard LM, Johnson M, Williams JV, Zhu Y, Gil AI, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG, . Respiratory Viral Detections During Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Periods in Young Andean Children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2015 Oct; 34(10): 1074-80. PMID: 26121205, PMCID: PMC4570861, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000812, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Grijalva CG. Is Pneumonia a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker for Long-Term Mortality? [editorial]. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Sep 9/1/2015; 192(5): 532-4. PMID: 26325152, PMCID: PMC4595697, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201506-1171ED, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Cross KE, Hicks LA, Kutty P, Bramley AM, Chappell JD, Hymas W, Patel A, Qi C, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Self WH, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Jain S, Winchell JM. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Among Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the United States. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Sep; 2(3): ofv106. PMID: 26284257, PMCID: PMC4536330, PII: ofv106, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv106, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, Fakhran S, Balk R, Bramley AM, Reed C, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, Courtney DM, Chappell JD, Qi C, Hart EM, Carroll F, Trabue C, Donnelly HK, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Waterer GW, Levine M, Lindstrom S, Winchell JM, Katz JM, Erdman D, Schneider E, Hicks LA, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Finelli L, . Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/30/2015; 373(5): 415-27. PMID: 26172429, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1500245, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Self WH, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Chappell JD, Hymas WC, Stockmann C, Bramley AM, Schneider E, Erdman D, Finelli L, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG. Respiratory Viral Detection in Children and Adults: Comparing Asymptomatic Controls and Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/14/2015; PMID: 26180044, PII: jiv323, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiv323, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Williams DJ, Edwards KM, Self WH, Zhu Y, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Hersh AL, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Hicks LA, Bramley AM, Jain S, Grijalva CG. Antibiotic Choice for Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia and Adherence to National Guidelines. Pediatrics. 2015 Jul; 136(1): 44-52. PMID: 26101356, PMCID: PMC4485005, PII: peds.2014-3047, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-3047, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Barrett TW, Baughman AH, Grijalva CG. Comparison of clinical prediction models for resistant bacteria in community-onset pneumonia. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 22(6): 730-40. PMID: 25996620, PMCID: PMC4464985, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12672, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Wolf RB, Edwards K, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Zhu Y, Chappell J, Bramley AM, Jain S, Williams DJ. Time to clinical stability among children hospitalized with pneumonia. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 10(6): 380-3. PMID: 25919391, PMCID: PMC4456292, DOI: 10.1002/jhm.2370, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Patrick SW, Dudley J, Martin PR, Harrell FE, Warren MD, Hartmann KE, Ely EW, Grijalva CG, Cooper WO. Prescription opioid epidemic and infant outcomes. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 135(5): 842-50. PMID: 25869370, PMCID: PMC4411781, PII: peds.2014-3299, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-3299, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Restraining the pneumococcus. Lancet Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 15(5): 491-2. PMID: 25801457, PII: S1473-3099(15)70085-X, DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)70085-X, ISSN: 1474-4457.

Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Bramley AM, Reed C, Stockmann C, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Zhu Y, Patel A, Hymas W, Chappell JD, Kaufman RA, Kan JH, Dansie D, Lenny N, Hillyard DR, Haynes LM, Levine M, Lindstrom S, Winchell JM, Katz JM, Erdman D, Schneider E, Hicks LA, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, McCullers JA, Finelli L, . Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. N. Engl. J. Med. 2015 Feb 2/26/2015; 372(9): 835-45. PMID: 25714161, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405870, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Wu A, Budge PJ, Williams J, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Johnson M, Zhu Y, Hartinger S, Verastegui H, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Incidence and Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections among Children in the Remote Highlands of Peru. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(6): e0130233. PMID: 26107630, PMCID: PMC4479592, PII: PONE-D-15-02449, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130233, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Grijalva CG, Goeyvaerts N, Verastegui H, Edwards KM, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Hens N, . A household-based study of contact networks relevant for the spread of infectious diseases in the highlands of Peru. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(3): e0118457. PMID: 25734772, PMCID: PMC4348542, PII: PONE-D-14-33053, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118457, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Jules A, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot HK, Williams JV, Poehling KA, Chaves SS, Edwards KM, Schaffner W, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Influenza-related hospitalization and ED visits in children less than 5 years: 2000-2011. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 135(1): e66-74. PMID: 25489015, PMCID: PMC4279064, PII: peds.2014-1168, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-1168, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva CG, Roumie CL, Murff HJ, Hung AM, Beck C, Liu X, Griffin MR, Greevy RA. The role of matching when adjusting for baseline differences in the outcome variable of comparative effectiveness studies. J Comp Eff Res. 2015; 4(4): 341-9. PMID: 26274795, DOI: 10.2217/cer.15.16, ISSN: 2042-6313.

Murff HJ, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AH, Liu X, Griffin MR. Thiazolidinedione and Metformin Use and the Risk of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Veterans with Diabetes Mellitus. J Mens Health. 2014 Dec 12/1/2014; 11(4): 157-62. PMID: 25798210, PMCID: PMC4364420, DOI: 10.1089/jomh.2014.0051, ISSN: 1875-6867.

Griffin MR, Mitchel E, Moore MR, Whitney CG, Grijalva CG, . Declines in pneumonia hospitalizations of children aged <2 years associated with the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines - Tennessee, 1998-2012. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2014 Nov 11/7/2014; 63(44): 995-8. PMID: 25375070, PII: mm6344a3, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Baddley JW, Winthrop KL, Chen L, Liu L, Grijalva CG, Delzell E, Beukelman T, Patkar NM, Xie F, Saag KG, Herrinton LJ, Solomon DH, Lewis JD, Curtis JR. Non-viral opportunistic infections in new users of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy: results of the SAfety Assessment of Biologic ThERapy (SABER) study. Ann. Rheum. Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 73(11): 1942-8. PMID: 23852763, PMCID: PMC4273901, PII: annrheumdis-2013-203407, DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203407, ISSN: 1468-2060.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Prevention of invasive pneumococcal diseases: beyond cultures. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep; 2(9): 676-7. PMID: 25127243, PII: S2213-2600(14)70143-2, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70143-2, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Gil AI, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Lanata CF. Cohort profile: The study of respiratory pathogens in Andean children. Int J Epidemiol [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 43(4): 1021-30. PMID: 23771719, PMCID: PMC4121548, PII: dyt065, DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyt065, ISSN: 1464-3685.

Neuman MI, Hall M, Gay JC, Blaschke AJ, Williams DJ, Parikh K, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Gerber JS, Grijalva CG, Shah SS. Readmissions among children previously hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics. 2014 Jul; 134(1): 100-9. PMID: 24958590, PMCID: PMC4531280, PII: peds.2014-0331, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-0331, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Johnson M, Gil AI, Verástegui H, Lanata CF, Williams JV. Concordance between RT-PCR-based detection of respiratory viruses from nasal swabs collected for viral testing and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for bacterial testing. J. Clin. Virol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul; 60(3): 309-12. PMID: 24875136, PMCID: PMC4055503, PII: S1386-6532(14)00144-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.04.011, ISSN: 1873-5967.

Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR. Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2014 Jun 6/11/2014; 311(22): 2288-96. PMID: 24915260, PMCID: PMC4149288, PII: 1878717, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.4312, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Gil AI, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Lanata CF. The role of influenza and parainfluenza infections in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal acquisition among young children. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 58(10): 1369-76. PMID: 24621951, PMCID: PMC4001292, PII: ciu148, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu148, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Budge PJ, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Johnson M, Klemenc JM, Zhu Y, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG, . A household-based study of acute viral respiratory illnesses in Andean children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2014 May; 33(5): 443-7. PMID: 24378948, PMCID: PMC4223552, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000135, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Self WH, Mickanin J, Grijalva CG, Grant FH, Henderson MC, Corley G, Blaschke Ii DG, McNaughton CD, Barrett TW, Talbot TR, Paul BR. Reducing blood culture contamination in community hospital emergency departments: a multicenter evaluation of a quality improvement intervention. Acad Emerg Med. 2014 Mar; 21(3): 274-82. PMID: 24628752, PMCID: PMC3984048, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12337, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Grijalva CG. Decrease in antibiotic use, an added benefit of PCVs. Lancet Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar; 14(3): 175-7. PMID: 24287185, PII: S1473-3099(13)70356-6, DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70356-6, ISSN: 1474-4457.

Self WH, Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Dupont WD, Barrett TW, Grijalva CG. The high burden of pneumonia on US emergency departments during the 2009 influenza pandemic. J. Infect [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb; 68(2): 156-64. PMID: 24140066, PMCID: PMC3947237, PII: S0163-4453(13)00306-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2013.10.005, ISSN: 1532-2742.

Budge PJ, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Mäusezahl D, Johnson M, Klemenc JM, Zhu Y, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grigalva CG, . Impact of home environment interventions on the risk of influenza-associated ARI in Andean children: observations from a prospective household-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e91247. PMID: 24622044, PMCID: PMC3951509, PII: PONE-D-13-40507, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091247, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Distribution of pneumococcal serotypes in adult pneumococcal pneumonia cases: filling the evidence gap to inform vaccination policies [editorial]. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec 12/1/2013; 208(11): 1734-6. PMID: 24092844, PII: jit510, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit510, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Williams DJ, Hall M, Shah SS, Parikh K, Tyler A, Neuman MI, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Blaschke AJ, Grijalva CG. Narrow vs broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy for children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 132(5): e1141-8. PMID: 24167170, PMCID: PMC4530302, PII: peds.2013-1614, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-1614, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Hospitalizations after a decade of pneumococcal vaccination [letter]. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 Oct 10/24/2013; 369(17): 1662-3. PMID: 24152270, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1310477, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Shibao C, Grijalva CG, Lipsitz LA, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR. Early discontinuation of treatment in patients with orthostatic hypotension. Auton Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 177(2): 291-6. PMID: 24008021, PMCID: PMC3988581, PII: S1566-0702(13)00673-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.autneu.2013.08.064, ISSN: 1872-7484.

Self WH, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, McNaughton CD, Barrett TW, Collins SP, Storrow AB, Griffin MR. Rates of emergency department visits due to pneumonia in the United States, July 2006-June 2009. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 20(9): 957-60. PMID: 24033659, PMCID: PMC3907184, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12203, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Hall CB, Weinberg GA, Blumkin AK, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Schultz AF, Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Griffin MR, Williams JV, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Prill MM, Iwane MK. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than 24 months of age. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug; 132(2): e341-8. PMID: 23878043, PII: peds.2013-0303, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-0303, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Moore MR, Whitney CG, Grijalva CG. U.S. hospitalizations for pneumonia after a decade of pneumococcal vaccination. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 Jul 7/11/2013; 369(2): 155-63. PMID: 23841730, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1209165, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Kawai VK, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Curtis JR, Solomon DH, Delzell E, Chen L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Herrinton L, Liu L, Mitchell EF, Stein CM, Griffin MR. Initiation of tumor necrosis factor a antagonists and risk of fractures in patients with selected rheumatic and autoimmune diseases. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Jul; 65(7): 1085-94. PMID: 23281339, PMCID: PMC3631448, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21937, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Halasa NB, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Talbot TR, Craig AS, Griffin MR, Schaffner W. Nearly complete elimination of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes in Tennessee. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2013 Jun; 32(6): 604-9. PMID: 23348816, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318287fe0d, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Griffin MR. Kidney function decline in metformin versus sulfonylurea initiators: assessment of time-dependent contribution of weight, blood pressure, and glycemic control. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Jun; 22(6): 623-31. PMID: 23592561, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3432, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Beukelman T, Xie F, Baddley JW, Chen L, Delzell E, Grijalva CG, Mannion ML, Patkar NM, Saag KG, Winthrop KL, Curtis JR, . Brief report: incidence of selected opportunistic infections among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 May; 65(5): 1384-9. PMID: 23460423, PMCID: PMC3636167, DOI: 10.1002/art.37866, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Ferolla FM, Hijano DR, Acosta PL, Rodríguez A, Dueñas K, Sancilio A, Barboza E, Caría A, Gago GF, Almeida RE, Castro L, Pozzolo C, Martínez MV, Grimaldi LA, Rebec B, Calvo M, Henrichsen J, Nocito C, González M, Barbero G, Losada JV, Caballero MT, Zurankovas V, Raggio M, Schavlovsky G, Kobylarz A, Wimmenauer V, Bugna J, Williams JV, Sastre G, Flamenco E, Pérez AR, Ferrero F, Libster R, Grijalva CG, Polack FP. Macronutrients during pregnancy and life-threatening respiratory syncytial virus infections in children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2013 May 5/1/2013; 187(9): 983-90. PMID: 23449690, PII: rccm.201301-0016OC, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201301-0016OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Pelton SI, Pettigrew MM, Barenkamp SJ, Godfroid F, Grijalva CG, Leach A, Patel J, Murphy TF, Selak S, Bakaletz LO. Panel 6: Vaccines. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Apr; 148(4 Suppl): E90-101. PMID: 23536534, PMCID: PMC4029613, PII: 148/4_suppl/E90, DOI: 10.1177/0194599812466535, ISSN: 1097-6817.

Winthrop KL, Baddley JW, Chen L, Liu L, Grijalva CG, Delzell E, Beukelman T, Patkar NM, Xie F, Saag KG, Herrinton LJ, Solomon DH, Lewis JD, Curtis JR. Association between the initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and the risk of herpes zoster. JAMA. 2013 Mar 3/6/2013; 309(9): 887-95. PMID: 23462785, PMCID: PMC3773213, PII: 1660380, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.1099, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Niesner K, Murff HJ, Griffin MR, Wasserman B, Greevy R, Grijalva CG, Roumie CL. Validation of VA administrative data algorithms for identifying cardiovascular disease hospitalization [letter]. Epidemiology. 2013 Mar; 24(2): 334-5. PMID: 23377095, PMCID: PMC4667547, PII: 00001648-201303000-00025, DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182821e75, ISSN: 1531-5487.

Madhi SA, De Wals P, Grijalva CG, Grimwood K, Grossman R, Ishiwada N, Lee PI, Nascimento-Carvalho C, Nohynek H, O'Brien KL, Vergison A, Wolter J. The burden of childhood pneumonia in the developed world: a review of the literature. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2013 Mar; 32(3): e119-27. PMID: 23099423, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182784b26, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Curtis JR, Sharma P, Arora T, Bharat A, Barnes I, Morrisey MA, Kilgore M, Saag KG, Wright NC, Yun HG, Delzell E. Physicians' explanations for apparent gaps in the quality of rheumatology care: results from the US Medicare Physician Quality Reporting System. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Feb; 65(2): 235-43. PMID: 22556118, PMCID: PMC3414685, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21713, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Winthrop KL, Chen L, Fraunfelder FW, Ku JH, Varley CD, Suhler E, Hills WL, Gattey D, Baddley JW, Liu L, Grijalva CG, Delzell E, Beukelman T, Patkar NM, Xie F, Herrinton LJ, Fraunfelder FT, Saag KG, Lewis JD, Solomon DH, Curtis JR. Initiation of anti-TNF therapy and the risk of optic neuritis: from the safety assessment of biologic ThERapy (SABER) Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 155(1): 183-189.e1. PMID: 22967869, PMCID: PMC4142597, PII: S0002-9394(12)00478-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2012.06.023, ISSN: 1879-1891.

Chien YW, Vidal JE, Grijalva CG, Bozio C, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Griffin MR, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Klugman KP. Density interactions among Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx of young Peruvian children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2013 Jan; 32(1): 72-7. PMID: 22935873, PMCID: PMC3525793, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318270d850, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Self WH, Speroff T, Grijalva CG, McNaughton CD, Ashburn J, Liu D, Arbogast PG, Russ S, Storrow AB, Talbot TR. Reducing blood culture contamination in the emergency department: an interrupted time series quality improvement study. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jan; 20(1): 89-97. PMID: 23570482, PMCID: PMC3623801, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12057, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Sakai F, Talekar SJ, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG, Klugman KP, Vidal JE, . Expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence-Related Genes in the Nasopharynx of Healthy Children. PLoS ONE [electronic-print]. 2013; 8(6): e67147. PMID: 23825636, PMCID: PMC3688971, PII: PONE-D-13-13401, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067147, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Roumie CL, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR. Comparative effectiveness of sulfonylurea and metformin monotherapy on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Ann. Intern. Med. 2012 Nov 11/6/2012; 157(9): 601-10. PMID: 23128859, PMCID: PMC4667563, PII: 1389845, DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-157-9-201211060-00003, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Self WH, McNaughton CD, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Chappell JD, Williams JV, Talbot HK, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Diagnostic performance of the BinaxNow Influenza A&B rapid antigen test in ED patients. Am J Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov; 30(9): 1955-61. PMID: 22795995, PII: S0735-6757(12)00182-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2012.04.018, ISSN: 1532-8171.

Neuman MI, Hall M, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Parikh K, Newland JG, Blaschke AJ, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Tyler A, Shah SS. Influence of hospital guidelines on management of children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov; 130(5): e823-30. PMID: 23090342, PII: peds.2012-1285, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-1285, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Brogan TV, Hall M, Williams DJ, Neuman MI, Grijalva CG, Farris RW, Shah SS. Variability in processes of care and outcomes among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2012 Oct; 31(10): 1036-41. PMID: 22653486, PMCID: PMC3504613, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31825f2b10, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Curtis JR, Xie F, Chen L, Muntner P, Grijalva CG, Spettell C, Fernandes J, McMahan RM, Baddley JW, Saag KG, Beukelman T, Delzell E. Use of a disease risk score to compare serious infections associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy among high- versus lower-risk rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Oct; 64(10): 1480-9. PMID: 22833479, PMCID: PMC3687540, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21805, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Beukelman T, Xie F, Chen L, Baddley JW, Delzell E, Grijalva CG, Lewis JD, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Patkar NM, Saag KG, Winthrop KL, Curtis JR, . Rates of hospitalized bacterial infection associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and its treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Aug; 64(8): 2773-80. PMID: 22569881, PMCID: PMC3409300, DOI: 10.1002/art.34458, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Fiske CT, Griffin MR, Mitchel E, Sterling TR, Grijalva CG. Accuracy of pharmacy and coded-diagnosis information in identifying tuberculosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun; 21(6): 666-9. PMID: 22532509, PMCID: PMC3371104, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3243, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Roumie CL, Beck C, Hung AM, Murff HJ, Liu X, Griffin MR. Reweighted Mahalanobis distance matching for cluster-randomized trials with missing data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 May; 21 Suppl 2: 148-54. PMID: 22552990, PMCID: PMC3760213, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3260, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Self WH, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot HK, Jules A, Widmer KE, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Emergency department visits for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Davidson County, Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2012 May; 18(5): 863-5. PMID: 22516043, PMCID: PMC3358080, DOI: 10.3201/eid1805.111233, ISSN: 1080-6059.

Roumie CL, Liu X, Choma NN, Greevy RA, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Initiation of sulfonylureas versus metformin is associated with higher blood pressure at one year. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 21(5): 515-23. PMID: 22431419, PMCID: PMC4667555, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3249, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Toh S, Li L, Harrold LR, Bayliss EA, Curtis JR, Liu L, Chen L, Grijalva CG, Herrinton LJ. Comparative safety of infliximab and etanercept on the risk of serious infections: does the association vary by patient characteristics?. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 21(5): 524-34. PMID: 22411435, PMCID: PMC3330193, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3238, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Culqui DR, Munayco E CV, Grijalva CG, Cayla JA, Horna-Campos O, Alva Ch K, Suarez O LA. Factors associated with the non-completion of conventional anti-tuberculosis treatment in Peru. Arch. Bronconeumol [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 48(5): 150-5. PMID: 22377140, PII: S0300-2896(12)00007-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.arbres.2011.12.008, ISSN: 1579-2129.

Jules A, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot KH, Williams JV, Dupont WD, Edwards KM, Schaffner W, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Estimating age-specific influenza-related hospitalization rates during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Davidson Co, TN. Influenza Other Respir Viruses [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 6(3): e63-71. PMID: 22360812, PMCID: PMC3773818, DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00343.x, ISSN: 1750-2659.

Bharat A, Xie F, Baddley JW, Beukelman T, Chen L, Calabrese L, Delzell E, Grijalva CG, Patkar NM, Saag K, Winthrop KL, Curtis JR. Incidence and risk factors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy among patients with selected rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Apr; 64(4): 612-5. PMID: 22162369, PMCID: PMC3310319, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21564, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR. Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function. Kidney Int [print-electronic]. 2012 Apr; 81(7): 698-706. PMID: 22258320, PMCID: PMC3306005, PII: ki2011444, DOI: 10.1038/ki.2011.444, ISSN: 1523-1755.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Unveiling the burden of influenza-associated pneumococcal pneumonia [editorial]. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb 2/1/2012; 205(3): 355-7. PMID: 22158562, PII: jir753, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir753, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Grijalva CG, Chen L, Delzell E, Baddley JW, Beukelman T, Winthrop KL, Griffin MR, Herrinton LJ, Liu L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Patkar NM, Solomon DH, Lewis JD, Xie F, Saag KG, Curtis JR. Initiation of tumor necrosis factor-a antagonists and the risk of hospitalization for infection in patients with autoimmune diseases. JAMA [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec 12/7/2011; 306(21): 2331-9. PMID: 22056398, PMCID: PMC3428224, PII: jama.2011.1692, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.1692, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Greevy RA, Huizinga MM, Roumie CL, Grijalva CG, Murff H, Liu X, Griffin MR. Comparisons of persistence and durability among three oral antidiabetic therapies using electronic prescription-fill data: the impact of adherence requirements and stockpiling. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec; 90(6): 813-9. PMID: 22048232, PII: clpt2011228, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.228, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Herrinton LJ, Curtis JR, Chen L, Liu L, Delzell E, Lewis JD, Solomon DH, Griffin MR, Ouellet-Hellstom R, Beukelman T, Grijalva CG, Haynes K, Kuriya B, Lii J, Mitchel E, Patkar N, Rassen J, Winthrop KL, Nourjah P, Saag KG. Study design for a comprehensive assessment of biologic safety using multiple healthcare data systems. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov; 20(11): 1199-209. PMID: 21919113, PMCID: PMC3312584, DOI: 10.1002/pds.2196, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Grijalva CG, Moore MR, Griffin MR. Assessing the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: what is the value of routinely collected surveillance data?. Lancet Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 11(10): 724-6. PMID: 21621465, PII: S1473-3099(11)70143-8, DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70143-8, ISSN: 1474-4457.

Kawai VK, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Curtis JR, Solomon DH, Delzell E, Chen L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Herrinton L, Liu L, Mitchel EF, Stein CM, Griffin MR. Changes in cotherapies after initiation of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Oct; 63(10): 1415-24. PMID: 22121511, PMCID: PMC3227007, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Nuorti JP, Griffin MR. Emergence of parapneumonic empyema in the USA. Thorax [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 66(8): 663-8. PMID: 21617169, PII: thx.2010.156406, DOI: 10.1136/thx.2010.156406, ISSN: 1468-3296.

Huang SS, Johnson KM, Ray GT, Wroe P, Lieu TA, Moore MR, Zell ER, Linder JA, Grijalva CG, Metlay JP, Finkelstein JA. Healthcare utilization and cost of pneumococcal disease in the United States. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr 4/18/2011; 29(18): 3398-412. PMID: 21397721, PII: S0264-410X(11)00336-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.02.088, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Grijalva CG, Pelton SI. A second-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for prevention of pneumococcal diseases in children. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 2011 Feb; 23(1): 98-104. PMID: 21191300, PMCID: PMC3357900, DOI: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e328341d1f5, ISSN: 1531-698X.

Roumie CL, Huizinga MM, Liu X, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Hung AM, Griffin MR. The effect of incident antidiabetic regimens on lipid profiles in veterans with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 20(1): 36-44. PMID: 21182152, DOI: 10.1002/pds.2029, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Hung AM, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR, Glenn K, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Siew ED, Crawford DC. CRP polymorphisms and chronic kidney disease in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. BMC Med. Genet. 2011; 12: 65. PMID: 21569369, PMCID: PMC3119179, PII: 1471-2350-12-65, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-65, ISSN: 1471-2350.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Simonsen L, Griffin MR. Establishing the baseline burden of influenza in preparation for the evaluation of a countywide school-based influenza vaccination campaign. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2010 Dec 12/10/2010; 29(1): 123-9. PMID: 21050905, PII: S0264-410X(10)01242-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.072, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Huizinga MM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Murff HJ, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Glycemic and weight changes after persistent use of incident oral diabetes therapy: a Veterans Administration retrospective cohort study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Nov; 19(11): 1108-12. PMID: 20878643, DOI: 10.1002/pds.2035, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Grijalva CG, Kaltenbach L, Arbogast PG, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and the effects of exposure misclassification on the risk of hospital admission. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 May; 62(5): 730-4. PMID: 20191470, PMCID: PMC2945370, DOI: 10.1002/acr.20087, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Zhu Y, Griffin MR. Increasing incidence of empyema complicating childhood community-acquired pneumonia in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2010 Mar 3/15/2010; 50(6): 805-13. PMID: 20166818, DOI: 10.1086/650573, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Grijalva CG, Kaltenbach L, Arbogast PG, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Initiation of rheumatoid arthritis treatments and the risk of serious infections. Rheumatology (Oxford) [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan; 49(1): 82-90. PMID: 19906833, PMCID: PMC2909794, PII: kep325, DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kep325, ISSN: 1462-0332.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Simonsen L, Mitchel E, Griffin MR. The population impact of a large school-based influenza vaccination campaign. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(11): e15097. PMID: 21209872, PMCID: PMC3013075, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015097, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Nohynek H, Madhi S, Grijalva CG. Childhood bacterial respiratory diseases: past, present, and future. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2009 Oct; 28(10 Suppl): S127-32. PMID: 19918135, PII: 00006454-200910001-00003, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181b6d800, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Grijalva CG. Recognising pneumonia burden through prevention. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2009 Aug 8/21/2009; 27 Suppl 3: C6-8. PMID: 19540635, PII: S0264-410X(09)00848-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.009, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Griffin MR. Antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections in US ambulatory settings. JAMA. 2009 Aug 8/19/2009; 302(7): 758-66. PMID: 19690308, PII: 302/7/758, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.1163, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Pont SJ, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Scott TA, Cooper WO. National rates of diarrhea-associated ambulatory visits in children. J. Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2009 Jul; 155(1): 56-61. PMID: 19394047, PII: S0022-3476(09)00111-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.01.075, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Griffin MR. Evidence of effectiveness from a large county-wide school-based influenza immunization campaign. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2009 May 5/5/2009; 27(20): 2633-6. PMID: 19428871, PII: S0264-410X(09)00290-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.039, ISSN: 0264-410X.

Hall CB, Weinberg GA, Iwane MK, Blumkin AK, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Auinger P, Griffin MR, Poehling KA, Erdman D, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Szilagyi P. The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 2009 Feb 2/5/2009; 360(6): 588-98. PMID: 19196675, PII: 360/6/588, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0804877, ISSN: 1533-4406.

CG Grijalva, MR Griffin, JP Nuorti, ND Walter. Pneumonia Hospitalizations Among Young Children Before and After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine � United States, 1997�2006. MMWR. 2009; 58: 1-4.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Stein CM, Gideon PS, Dyer SM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Computerized definitions showed high positive predictive values for identifying hospitalizations for congestive heart failure and selected infections in Medicaid enrollees with rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008 Sep; 17(9): 890-5. PMID: 18543352, DOI: 10.1002/pds.1625, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Changing patterns of medication use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a Medicaid population. Rheumatology (Oxford) [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 47(7): 1061-4. PMID: 18499716, PII: ken193, DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken193, ISSN: 1462-0332.

Tsai CJ, Griffin MR, Nuorti JP, Grijalva CG. Changing epidemiology of pneumococcal meningitis after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008 Jun 6/1/2008; 46(11): 1664-72. PMID: 18433334, DOI: 10.1086/587897, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Munayco CV, Grijalva CG, Culqui DR, Bolarte JL, Suárez-Ognio LA, Quispe N, Calderon R, Ascencios L, Del Solar M, Salomón M, Bravo F, Gotuzzo E. Outbreak of persistent cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae after mesotherapy sessions, Lima, Peru. Rev Saude Publica. 2008 Feb; 42(1): 146-9. PMID: 18200353, PII: S0034-89102008000100020, ISSN: 0034-8910.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Population-based impact of routine infant immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Feb; 7(1): 83-95. PMID: 18251696, DOI: 10.1586/14760584.7.1.83, ISSN: 1744-8395.

Zetola NM, Grijalva CG, Gertler S, Hare CB, Kaplan B, Dowling T, Colfax G, Katz MH, Klausner JD. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(7): e2591. PMID: 18596933, PMCID: PMC2435630, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002591, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Shibao C, Grijalva CG, Raj SR, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR. Orthostatic hypotension-related hospitalizations in the United States. Am. J. Med. 2007 Nov; 120(11): 975-80. PMID: 17976425, PII: S0002-9343(07)00655-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.05.009, ISSN: 1555-7162.

Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Griffin MR. Statins and influenza/COPD mortality [letter]. Chest. 2007 Oct; 132(4): 1407; author reply 1407-8. PMID: 17934131, PII: 132/4/1407, DOI: 10.1378/chest.07-0952, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Arbogast PG, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Assessment of adherence to and persistence on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Med Care. 2007 Oct; 45(10 Supl 2): S66-76. PMID: 17909386, PII: 00005650-200710002-00013, DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e318041384c, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Grijalva CG, Weinberg GA, Bennett NM, Staat MA, Craig AS, Dupont WD, Iwane MK, Postema AS, Schaffner W, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Estimating the undetected burden of influenza hospitalizations in children. Epidemiol. Infect [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 135(6): 951-8. PMID: 17156502, PMCID: PMC2870647, PII: S095026880600762X, DOI: 10.1017/S095026880600762X, ISSN: 0950-2688.

Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Arbogast PG, Martin SW, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Decline in pneumonia admissions after routine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA: a time-series analysis. Lancet. 2007 Apr 4/7/2007; 369(9568): 1179-86. PMID: 17416262, PII: S0140-6736(07)60564-9, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60564-9, ISSN: 1474-547X.

Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Grijalva CG, Martin SW, LaFleur B, Mitchel E, Barth RD, Nuorti JP, Griffin MR. Reduction of frequent otitis media and pressure-equalizing tube insertions in children after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr; 119(4): 707-15. PMID: 17403841, PII: 119/4/707, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2138, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva CG, Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Schaffner W, Griffin MR. Accuracy and interpretation of rapid influenza tests in children. Pediatrics. 2007 Jan; 119(1): e6-11. PMID: 17200259, PII: 119/1/e6, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-1694, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva, CG, Nuorti, JP, Edwards, KM, Griffin, MR. Herd immunity after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination - Authors' reply. Lancet. 2007; 370((9583)): 219-20.

Grijalva CG, Edwards KM. Promises and challenges of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for the developing world [editorial]. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2006 Sep 9/15/2006; 43(6): 680-2. PMID: 16912938, PII: CID40231, DOI: 10.1086/506945, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Grijalva CG, Poehling KA, Nuorti JP, Zhu Y, Martin SW, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. National impact of universal childhood immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on outpatient medical care visits in the United States. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep; 118(3): 865-73. PMID: 16950975, PII: 118/3/865, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-0492, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi P, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Bridges CB, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Bernstein DI, Herrera G, Erdman D, Hall CB, Seither R, Griffin MR, . The underrecognized burden of influenza in young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006 Jul 7/6/2006; 355(1): 31-40. PMID: 16822994, PII: 355/1/31, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa054869, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Grijalva CG, Craig AS, Dupont WD, Bridges CB, Schrag SJ, Iwane MK, Schaffner W, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Estimating influenza hospitalizations among children. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2006 Jan; 12(1): 103-9. PMID: 16494725, PMCID: PMC3372368, DOI: 10.3201/eid1201.050308, ISSN: 1080-6040.

Roumie CL, Halasa NB, Grijalva CG, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Dittus RS, Griffin MR. Trends in antibiotic prescribing for adults in the United States--1995 to 2002. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Aug; 20(8): 697-702. PMID: 16050877, PMCID: PMC1490171, PII: JGI05620, DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0148.x, ISSN: 1525-1497.

Culqui DR, Grijalva CG, Reategui Sdel R, Cajo JM, Suárez LA. [Predictive factors for noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment in an endemic region of Peru]. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica. 2005 Jul; 18(1): 14-20. PMID: 16105321, PII: S1020-49892005000600003, ISSN: 1020-4989.