Wayne A. Ray, Ph.D.

Professor

wayne.ray@vanderbilt.edu
Faculty Appointments
Professor of Health Policy
Education
Ph.D., Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeM.S., Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeB.S., Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Office Address
Suite 2600
1500 21st Ave S
Nashville, TN 37232-4093
Research Keywords
schizophrenia
Publications
Cooper WO, Hernandez-Diaz S, Arbogast PG, Dudley JA, Dyer S, Gideon PS, Hall K, Ray WA. Major congenital malformations after first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006 Jun 6/8/2006; 354(23): 2443-51. PMID: 16760444, PII: 354/23/2443, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa055202, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Cooper WO, Arbogast PG, Ding H, Hickson GB, Fuchs DC, Ray WA. Trends in prescribing of antipsychotic medications for US children. Ambul Pediatr. 2006 Mar; 6(2): 79-83. PMID: 16530143, PII: S1530-1567(05)00020-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ambp.2005.11.002, ISSN: 1530-1567.

Ray WA, Stein CM. Reform of drug regulation--beyond an independent drug-safety board. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006 Jan 1/12/2006; 354(2): 194-201. PMID: 16407517, PII: 354/2/194, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsb053432, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Ray WA. Observational studies of drugs and mortality. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005 Dec 12/1/2005; 353(22): 2319-21. PMID: 16319379, PII: 353/22/2319, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp058267, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Ray WA, Taylor JA, Brown AK, Gideon P, Hall K, Arbogast P, Meredith S. Prevention of fall-related injuries in long-term care: a randomized controlled trial of staff education. Arch. Intern. Med. 2005 Oct 10/24/2005; 165(19): 2293-8. PMID: 16246997, PII: 165/19/2293, DOI: 10.1001/archinte.165.19.2293, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Cooper WO, Arbogast PG, Hickson GB, Daugherty JR, Ray WA. Gaps in enrollment from a Medicaid managed care program: effects on emergency department visits and hospitalizations for children with asthma. Med Care. 2005 Jul; 43(7): 718-25. PMID: 15970788, PII: 00005650-200507000-00012, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Poulose BK, Ray WA, Arbogast PG, Needleman J, Buerhaus PI, Griffin MR, Abumrad NN, Beauchamp RD, Holzman MD. Resident work hour limits and patient safety. Ann. Surg. 2005 Jun; 241(6): 847-56; discussion 856. PMID: 15912034, PMCID: PMC1357165, PII: 00000658-200506000-00002, ISSN: 0003-4932.

Murray KT, Rottman JN, Arbogast PG, Shemanski L, Primm RK, Campbell WB, Solomon AJ, Olgin JE, Wilson MJ, Dimarco JP, Beckman KJ, Dennish G, Naccarelli GV, Ray WA, . Inhibition of angiotensin II signaling and recurrence of atrial fibrillation in AFFIRM. Heart Rhythm. 2004 Dec; 1(6): 669-75. PMID: 15851238, PII: S1547-5271(04)00419-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2004.08.008, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Ray WA, Murray KT, Meredith S, Narasimhulu SS, Hall K, Stein CM. Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004 Sep 9/9/2004; 351(11): 1089-96. PMID: 15356306, PII: 351/11/1089, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040582, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Cooper WO, Hickson GB, Fuchs C, Arbogast PG, Ray WA. New users of antipsychotic medications among children enrolled in TennCare. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Aug; 158(8): 753-9. PMID: 15289247, PII: 158/8/753, DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.158.8.753, ISSN: 1072-4710.

Butler J, Arbogast PG, Daugherty J, Jain MK, Ray WA, Griffin MR. Outpatient utilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors among heart failure patients after hospital discharge. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2004 Jun 6/2/2004; 43(11): 2036-43. PMID: 15172409, PII: S0735109704005753, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.01.041, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Griffin MR, Stein CM, Ray WA. Postmarketing surveillance for drug safety: surely we can do better. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004 Jun; 75(6): 491-4. PMID: 15179403, PII: S0009923604000438, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2004.01.017, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Griffin MR, Stein CM, Graham DJ, Daugherty JR, Arbogast PG, Ray WA. High frequency of use of rofecoxib at greater than recommended doses: cause for concern. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2004 Jun; 13(6): 339-43. PMID: 15170762, DOI: 10.1002/pds.879, ISSN: 1053-8569.

Rogers SO, Ray WA, Smalley WE. A population-based study of survival among elderly persons diagnosed with colorectal cancer: does race matter if all are insured? (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2004 Mar; 15(2): 193-9. PMID: 15017132, PII: 5264940, DOI: 10.1023/B:CACO.0000019511.67989.09, ISSN: 0957-5243.

Ray WA, Meredith S, Thapa PB, Hall K, Murray KT. Cyclic antidepressants and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004 Mar; 75(3): 234-41. PMID: 15001975, PII: S000992360300331X, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2003.09.019, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Cooper WO, Hickson GB, Ray WA. Prescriptions for contraindicated category X drugs in pregnancy among women enrolled in TennCare. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2004 Mar; 18(2): 106-11. PMID: 14996249, PII: 542, ISSN: 0269-5022.

Khaitan L, Ray WA, Holzman MD, Smalley WE. Health care utilization after medical and surgical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study, 1996 to 2000. Arch Surg. 2003 Dec; 138(12): 1356-61. PMID: 14662539, PII: 138/12/1356, DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.138.12.1356, ISSN: 0004-0010.

Ray WA. Evaluating medication effects outside of clinical trials: new-user designs. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2003 Nov 11/1/2003; 158(9): 915-20. PMID: 14585769, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Meador KG. Effect of a mental health "carve-out" program on the continuity of antipsychotic therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003 May 5/8/2003; 348(19): 1885-94. PMID: 12736282, PII: 348/19/1885, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa020584, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Ray WA, MacDonald TM, Solomon DH, Graham DJ, Avorn J. COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2003 Jan; 12(1): 67-70. PMID: 12616850, DOI: 10.1002/pds.798, ISSN: 1053-8569.

Ray WA, Thapa PB, Gideon P. Misclassification of current benzodiazepine exposure by use of a single baseline measurement and its effects upon studies of injuries. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2002 Dec; 11(8): 663-9. PMID: 12512242, DOI: 10.1002/pds.728, ISSN: 1053-8569.

Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Lipid-lowering agents and the risk of hip fracture in a Medicaid population. Inj. Prev. 2002 Dec; 8(4): 276-9. PMID: 12460961, PMCID: PMC1756571, ISSN: 1353-8047.

Butler J, Arbogast PG, BeLue R, Daugherty J, Jain MK, Ray WA, Griffin MR. Outpatient adherence to beta-blocker therapy after acute myocardial infarction. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2002 Nov 11/6/2002; 40(9): 1589-95. PMID: 12427410, PII: S0735109702023793, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Ray WA, Stein CM, Daugherty JR, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Griffin MR. COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of serious coronary heart disease. Lancet. 2002 Oct 10/5/2002; 360(9339): 1071-3. PMID: 12383990, PII: S0140-6736(02)11131-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11131-7, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Meredith S, Feldman P, Frey D, Giammarco L, Hall K, Arnold K, Brown NJ, Ray WA. Improving medication use in newly admitted home healthcare patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Sep; 50(9): 1484-91. PMID: 12383144, PII: jgs50402, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Cooper WO, Staffa JA, Renfrew JW, Graham DJ, Ray WA. Oral corticosteroid use among children in TennCare. Ambul Pediatr. 2002 Sep; 2(5): 375-81. PMID: 12241133, ISSN: 1530-1567.

Smalley W, Stein CM, Arbogast PG, Eisen G, Ray WA, Griffin M. Underutilization of gastroprotective measures in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Aug; 46(8): 2195-200. PMID: 12209525, DOI: 10.1002/art.10425, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Cooper WO, Ray WA, Griffin MR. Prenatal prescription of macrolide antibiotics and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Jul; 100(1): 101-6. PMID: 12100810, PII: S002978440202001X, ISSN: 0029-7844.

Cooper WO, Griffin MR, Arbogast P, Hickson GB, Gautam S, Ray WA. Very early exposure to erythromycin and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Jul; 156(7): 647-50. PMID: 12090829, PII: poa10338, ISSN: 1072-4710.

Ray WA, Stein CM, Hall K, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of serious coronary heart disease: an observational cohort study. Lancet. 2002 Jan 1/12/2002; 359(9301): 118-23. PMID: 11809254, PII: S0140-6736(02)07370-1, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07370-1, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Ray WA, Meredith S, Thapa PB, Meador KG, Hall K, Murray KT. Antipsychotics and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2001 Dec; 58(12): 1161-7. PMID: 11735845, PII: yoa20305, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Meredith S, Feldman PH, Frey D, Hall K, Arnold K, Brown NJ, Ray WA. Possible medication errors in home healthcare patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001 Jun; 49(6): 719-24. PMID: 11454109, PII: jgs49147, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Stein CM, Griffin MR, Taylor JA, Pichert JW, Brandt KD, Ray WA. Educational program for nursing home physicians and staff to reduce use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Med Care. 2001 May; 39(5): 436-45. PMID: 11317092, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Ray WA, Stein CM, Byrd V, Shorr R, Pichert JW, Gideon P, Arnold K, Brandt KD, Pincus T, Griffin MR. Educational program for physicians to reduce use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among community-dwelling elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial. Med Care. 2001 May; 39(5): 425-35. PMID: 11317091, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Holzman MD, Mitchel EF, Ray WA, Smalley WE. Use of healthcare resources among medically and surgically treated patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2001 Jan; 192(1): 17-24. PMID: 11192919, PII: S1072-7515(00)00746-8, ISSN: 1072-7515.

Smalley W, Shatin D, Wysowski DK, Gurwitz J, Andrade SE, Goodman M, Chan KA, Platt R, Schech SD, Ray WA. Contraindicated use of cisapride: impact of food and drug administration regulatory action. JAMA. 2000 Dec 12/20/2000; 284(23): 3036-9. PMID: 11122591, PII: joc00932, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Ray WA, Thapa PB, Gideon P. Benzodiazepines and the risk of falls in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 Jun; 48(6): 682-5. PMID: 10855607, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Griffin MR, Yared A, Ray WA. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and acute renal failure in elderly persons. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2000 Mar 3/1/2000; 151(5): 488-96. PMID: 10707917, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Cooper WO, Hickson GB, Gray CL, Ray WA. Changes in continuity of enrollment among high-risk children following implementation of TennCare. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Nov; 153(11): 1145-9. PMID: 10555715, ISSN: 1072-4710.

Cooper WO, Hickson GB, Mitchel EF, Edwards KM, Thapa PB, Ray WA. Early childhood mortality from community-acquired infections. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1999 Sep 9/1/1999; 150(5): 517-27. PMID: 10472952, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Cooper WO, Hickson GB, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Comparison of perinatal outcomes among TennCare managed care organizations. Pediatrics. 1999 Sep; 104(3 Pt 1): 525-9. PMID: 10469780, ISSN: 0031-4005.

Scholer SJ, Hickson GB, Ray WA. Sociodemographic factors identify US infants at high risk of injury mortality. Pediatrics. 1999 Jun; 103(6 Pt 1): 1183-8. PMID: 10353926, ISSN: 0031-4005.

Smalley W, Ray WA, Daugherty J, Griffin MR. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and incidence of colorectal cancer: a population-based study. Arch. Intern. Med. 1999 Jan 1/25/1999; 159(2): 161-6. PMID: 9927099, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Brown NJ, Griffin MR, Ray WA, Meredith S, Beers MH, Marren J, Robles M, Stergachis A, Wood AJ, Avorn J. A model for improving medication use in home health care patients. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1998 Nov; 38(6): 696-702. PMID: 9861787, ISSN: 1086-5802.

Thapa PB, Whitlock JA, Brockman Worrell KG, Gideon P, Mitchel EF, Roberson P, Pais R, Ray WA. Prenatal exposure to metronidazole and risk of childhood cancer: a retrospective cohort study of children younger than 5 years. Cancer. 1998 Oct 10/1/1998; 83(7): 1461-8. PMID: 9762949, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19981001)83:7<1461::AID-CNCR25>3.0.CO;2-1, ISSN: 0008-543X.

Thapa PB, Gideon P, Cost TW, Milam AB, Ray WA. Antidepressants and the risk of falls among nursing home residents. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998 Sep 9/24/1998; 339(13): 875-82. PMID: 9744971, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199809243391303, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Smalley WE, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. No association between calcium channel blocker use and confirmed bleeding peptic ulcer disease. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1998 Aug 8/15/1998; 148(4): 350-4. PMID: 9717878, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Ray WA, Gigante J, Mitchel EF, Hickson GB. Perinatal outcomes following implementation of TennCare. JAMA. 1998 Jan 1/28/1998; 279(4): 314-6. PMID: 9450717, PII: jcu71008, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Scholer SJ, Hickson GB, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Persistently increased injury mortality rates in high-risk young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997 Dec; 151(12): 1216-9. PMID: 9412596, ISSN: 1072-4710.

Ray WA. Policy and program analysis using administrative databases. Ann. Intern. Med. 1997 Oct 10/15/1997; 127(8 Pt 2): 712-8. PMID: 9382385, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Scholer SJ, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Predictors of injury mortality in early childhood. Pediatrics. 1997 Sep; 100(3 Pt 1): 342-7. PMID: 9282703, ISSN: 0031-4005.

Ray WA, Taylor JA, Meador KG, Thapa PB, Brown AK, Kajihara HK, Davis C, Gideon P, Griffin MR. A randomized trial of a consultation service to reduce falls in nursing homes. JAMA. 1997 Aug 8/20/1997; 278(7): 557-62. PMID: 9268276, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Incidence and risk factors for serious hypoglycemia in older persons using insulin or sulfonylureas. Arch. Intern. Med. 1997 Aug 8/11/1997; 157(15): 1681-6. PMID: 9250229, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Ray WA, Mitchel EF, Piper JM. Effect of Medicaid expansions on preterm birth. Am J Prev Med. 1997 Jul; 13(4): 292-7. PMID: 9236967, ISSN: 0749-3797.

Meador KG, Taylor JA, Thapa PB, Fought RL, Ray WA. Predictors of antipsychotic withdrawal or dose reduction in a randomized controlled trial of provider education. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997 Feb; 45(2): 207-10. PMID: 9033521, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Ray WA. Safety and mobility of the older driver: A research challenge. JAMA. 1997; 278: 66-7.

Piper JM, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Obstetric care provider density and delayed onset of prenatal care. Med Care. 1996 Oct; 34(10): 1066-70. PMID: 8843931, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Thapa PB, Gideon P, Brockman KG, Fought RL, Ray WA. Clinical and biomechanical measures of balance as fall predictors in ambulatory nursing home residents. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 1996 Sep; 51(5): M239-46. PMID: 8808996, ISSN: 1079-5006.

Smalley WE, Griffin MR, Fought RL, Ray WA. Excess costs from gastrointestinal disease associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Gen Intern Med. 1996 Aug; 11(8): 461-9. PMID: 8872783, ISSN: 0884-8734.

Ray WA. Clinical studies of drug effects in humans. Clin. Chem. 1996 Aug; 42(8 Pt 2): 1306-11. PMID: 8697603, ISSN: 0009-9147.

Brown NJ, Ray WA, Snowden M, Griffin MR. Black Americans have an increased rate of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1996 Jul; 60(1): 8-13. PMID: 8689816, PII: S0009-9236(96)90161-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(96)90161-7, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Individual sulfonylureas and serious hypoglycemia in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996 Jul; 44(7): 751-5. PMID: 8675920, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Piper JM, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Evaluation of a program for prenatal care case management. Fam Plann Perspect. 1996 Mar; 28(2): 65-8. PMID: 8777941, ISSN: 0014-7354.

Thapa PB, Brockman KG, Gideon P, Fought RL, Ray WA. Injurious falls in nonambulatory nursing home residents: a comparative study of circumstances, incidence, and risk factors. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996 Mar; 44(3): 273-8. PMID: 8600195, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Griffin MR, Brandt KD, Liang MH, Pincus T, Ray WA. Practical management of osteoarthritis. Integration of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures. Arch Fam Med. 1995 Dec; 4(12): 1049-55. PMID: 7496554, ISSN: 1063-3987.

Thapa PB, Gideon P, Fought RL, Ray WA. Psychotropic drugs and risk of recurrent falls in ambulatory nursing home residents. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 7/15/1995; 142(2): 202-11. PMID: 7598120, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Smalley WE, Griffin MR, Fought RL, Sullivan L, Ray WA. Effect of a prior-authorization requirement on the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by Medicaid patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995 Jun 6/15/1995; 332(24): 1612-7. PMID: 7753141, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199506153322406, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Smalley WE, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1995 Mar 3/15/1995; 141(6): 539-45. PMID: 7900721, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Piper JM, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Presumptive eligibility for pregnant Medicaid enrollees: its effects on prenatal care and perinatal outcome. Am J Public Health. 1994 Oct; 84(10): 1626-30. PMID: 7943482, PMCID: PMC1615092, ISSN: 0090-0036.

Thapa PB, Gideon P, Fought RL, Kormicki M, Ray WA. Comparison of clinical and biomechanical measures of balance and mobility in elderly nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994 May; 42(5): 493-500. PMID: 8176143, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Piper JM, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Expanded Medicaid coverage for pregnant women to 100 percent of the federal poverty level. Am J Prev Med. 1994 Mar; 10(2): 97-102. PMID: 8037938, ISSN: 0749-3797.

Thapa PB, Meador KG, Gideon P, Fought RL, Ray WA. Effects of antipsychotic withdrawal in elderly nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994 Mar; 42(3): 280-6. PMID: 7907098, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Shorr RI, Fought RL, Ray WA. Changes in antipsychotic drug use in nursing homes during implementation of the OBRA-87 regulations. JAMA. 1994 Feb 2/2/1994; 271(5): 358-62. PMID: 8283585, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, Avorn J. Evaluating drugs after their approval for clinical use. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993 Dec 12/30/1993; 329(27): 2029-32. PMID: 8018139, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199312303292710, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Reserpine reconsidered: no association with serious peptic ulcer disease. J Gen Intern Med. 1993 Sep; 8(9): 510-2. PMID: 8410424, ISSN: 0884-8734.

Piper JM, Mitchel EF, Ray WA. Prenatal use of metronidazole and birth defects: no association. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Sep; 82(3): 348-52. PMID: 8355932, ISSN: 0029-7844.

Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Concurrent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral anticoagulants places elderly persons at high risk for hemorrhagic peptic ulcer disease. Arch. Intern. Med. 1993 Jul 7/26/1993; 153(14): 1665-70. PMID: 8333804, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Ray WA, Thapa PB, Shorr RI. Medications and the older driver. Clin. Geriatr. Med. 1993 May; 9(2): 413-38. PMID: 8504389, ISSN: 0749-0690.

Ray WA, Taylor JA, Meador KG, Lichtenstein MJ, Griffin MR, Fought R, Adams ML, Blazer DG. Reducing antipsychotic drug use in nursing homes. A controlled trial of provider education. Arch. Intern. Med. 1993 Mar 3/22/1993; 153(6): 713-21. PMID: 8447709, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Thapa PB, Ray WA. Can thiazide diuretics be recommended routinely to reduce hip fracture risk?. Drugs Aging. 1993 Mar; 3(2): 99-105. PMID: 8477150, ISSN: 1170-229X.

Griffin MR, Ray WA, Fought RL, Melton LJ. Black-white differences in fracture rates. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1992 Dec 12/1/1992; 136(11): 1378-85. PMID: 1488964, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Ray WA. Psychotropic drugs and injuries among the elderly: a review. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992 Dec; 12(6): 386-96. PMID: 1474177, ISSN: 0271-0749.

Ray WA, Fought RL, Decker MD. Psychoactive drugs and the risk of injurious motor vehicle crashes in elderly drivers. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1992 Oct 10/1/1992; 136(7): 873-83. PMID: 1442753, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Piper JM, Ray WA, Rosa FW. Pregnancy outcome following exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Sep; 80(3 Pt 1): 429-32. PMID: 1495700, ISSN: 0029-7844.

Shorr RI, Griffin MR, Daugherty JR, Ray WA. Opioid analgesics and the risk of hip fracture in the elderly: codeine and propoxyphene. J Gerontol. 1992 Jul; 47(4): M111-5. PMID: 1624693, ISSN: 0022-1422.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, Fought RL, Adams ML. Identification of fractures from computerized Medicare files. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992 Jul; 45(7): 703-14. PMID: 1619449, PII: 0895-4356(92)90047-Q, ISSN: 0895-4356.

Griffin MR, Taylor JA, Daugherty JR, Ray WA. No increased risk for invasive bacterial infection found following diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization. Pediatrics. 1992 Apr; 89(4 Pt 1): 640-2. PMID: 1557243, ISSN: 0031-4005.

Ray WA, Gurwitz J, Decker MD, Kennedy DL. Medications and the safety of the older driver: is there a basis for concern?. Hum Factors. 1992 Feb; 34(1): 33-47; discussion 49. PMID: 1577502, ISSN: 0018-7208.

Ray WA, Taylor JA, Lichtenstein MJ, Meador KG. The Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale. J Gerontol. 1992 Jan; 47(1): M9-16. PMID: 1730851, ISSN: 0022-1422.

Griffin MR, Ray WA, Mortimer EA, Fenichel GM, Schaffner W. Risk of seizures after measles-mumps-rubella immunization. Pediatrics. 1991 Nov; 88(5): 881-5. PMID: 1945626, ISSN: 0031-4005.

O'Day DM, Ray WA, Head WS, Robinson RD, Williams TE. Influence of corticosteroid on experimentally induced keratomycosis. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1991 Nov; 109(11): 1601-4. PMID: 1755744, ISSN: 0003-9950.

Piper JM, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Corticosteroid use and peptic ulcer disease: role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ann. Intern. Med. 1991 May 5/1/1991; 114(9): 735-40. PMID: 2012355, ISSN: 0003-4819.

O'Day DM, Ray WA, Robinson RD, Head WS, Williams TE. Differences in response in vivo to amphotericin B among Candida albicans strains. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1991 Apr; 32(5): 1569-72. PMID: 2016138, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, Malcolm E. Cyclic antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture. Arch. Intern. Med. 1991 Apr; 151(4): 754-6. PMID: 2012459, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Griffin MR, Piper JM, Daugherty JR, Snowden M, Ray WA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and increased risk for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Ann. Intern. Med. 1991 Feb 2/15/1991; 114(4): 257-63. PMID: 1987872, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Piper JM, Ray WA, Griffin MR. Effects of Medicaid eligibility expansion on prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in Tennessee. JAMA. 1990 Nov 11/7/1990; 264(17): 2219-23. PMID: 2214099, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, Baugh DK. Mortality following hip fracture before and after implementation of the prospective payment system. Arch. Intern. Med. 1990 Oct; 150(10): 2109-14. PMID: 2222096, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Piper JM, Ray WA, Griffin MR, Fought R, Daughtery JR, Mitchel E. Methodological issues in evaluating expanded Medicaid coverage for pregnant women. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1990 Sep; 132(3): 561-71. PMID: 2202203, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Griffin MR, Ray WA, Mortimer EA, Fenichel GM, Schaffner W. Risk of seizures and encephalopathy after immunization with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. JAMA. 1990 Mar 3/23/1990; 263(12): 1641-5. PMID: 2308203, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, West R, Strand L, Melton LJ. Incidence of hip fracture in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1976-1985. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1990 Mar; 131(3): 502-9. PMID: 2301358, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, Shorr RI. Adverse drug reactions and the elderly. Health Aff (Millwood). 1990; 9(3): 114-22. PMID: 2227772, ISSN: 0278-2715.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, Downey W. Benzodiazepines of long and short elimination half-life and the risk of hip fracture. JAMA. 1989 Dec 12/15/1989; 262(23): 3303-7. PMID: 2573741, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Ray WA, Griffin MR. Use of Medicaid data for pharmacoepidemiology. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1989 Apr; 129(4): 837-49. PMID: 2646920, ISSN: 0002-9262.

Ray WA, Griffin MR, Downey W, Melton LJ. Long-term use of thiazide diuretics and risk of hip fracture. Lancet. 1989 Apr 4/1/1989; 1(8640): 687-90. PMID: 2564506, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Griffin MR, Ray WA, Livengood JR, Schaffner W. Risk of sudden infant death syndrome after immunization with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. 1988 Sep 9/8/1988; 319(10): 618-23. PMID: 3261837, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198809083191006, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Griffin MR, Ray WA, Schaffner W. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and death from peptic ulcer in elderly persons. Ann. Intern. Med. 1988 Sep 9/1/1988; 109(5): 359-63. PMID: 3261560, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Griffin MR, Ray WA, Fought RL, Foster MA, Hays A, Schaffner W. Monitoring the safety of childhood immunizations: methods of linking and augmenting computerized data bases for epidemiologic studies. Am J Prev Med. 1988; 4(2 Suppl): 5-13. PMID: 3079351, ISSN: 0749-3797.

Ray WA, Blazer DG, Schaffner W, Federspiel CF. Reducing antipsychotic drug prescribing for nursing home patients: a controlled trial of the effect of an educational visit. Am J Public Health. 1987 Nov; 77(11): 1448-50. PMID: 2889382, PMCID: PMC1647107, ISSN: 0090-0036.

Kaisary A, Smith P, Jaczq E, McAllister CB, Wilkinson GR, Ray WA, Branch RA. Genetic predisposition to bladder cancer: ability to hydroxylate debrisoquine and mephenytoin as risk factors. Cancer Res. 1987 Oct 10/15/1987; 47(20): 5488-93. PMID: 3652049, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Ray WA, Federspiel CF, Baugh DK, Dodds S. Interstate variation in elderly Medicaid nursing home populations. Comparisons of resident characteristics and medical care utilization. Med Care. 1987 Aug; 25(8): 738-52. PMID: 3121956, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Branch RA, Jackson EK, Jacqz E, Stein R, Ray WA, Ohnhaus EE, Meusers P, Heidemann H. Amphotericin-B nephrotoxicity in humans decreased by sodium supplements with coadministration of ticarcillin or intravenous saline. Klin. Wochenschr. 1987 Jun 6/1/1987; 65(11): 500-6. PMID: 3475498, ISSN: 0023-2173.