Dan M. Roden, M.D.C.M.



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Faculty Appointments
Senior Vice President for Personalized Medicine Professor of Medicine Professor of PharmacologyProfessor of Biomedical InformaticsWilliam Stokes Chair in Experimental Therapeutics
M.D.C.M., Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, CanadaB.Sc., Mathematics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Office Address
1285-B MRB4
Nashville, TN 37232-0575
Research Description
Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm are a common and serious public health problem. However, the therapies used to treat arrhythmias are often ineffective, and can sometimes even exacerbate arrhythmias. Research in this laboratory is directed at elucidating mechanisms underlying abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and mechanisms underlying variable responses to antiarrhythmic drug treatments. Since antiarrhythmic drugs affect the function of cardiac ion channels, it is one working hypothesis in the laboratory that variable responses to drug therapy may reflect variable function or expression of genes encoding ion channels or proteins involved in drug disposition. Thus, a major focus of work in the laboratory is elucidation of factor(s) that determine ion channel gene expression in cardiac tissue. Approaches include identification of new genes, identification of DNA polymorphisms and characterization of their functional effects on disease and drug responses, and modulation of expression in cultured heart cells (e.g. by antisense) and gene knockout in mice.
Research Keywords
Mechanisms and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias
Ramirez AH, Shaffer CM, Delaney JT, Sexton DP, Levy SE, Rieder MJ, Nickerson DA, George AL, Roden DM. Novel rare variants in congenital cardiac arrhythmia genes are frequent in drug-induced torsades de pointes. Pharmacogenomics J [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug; 13(4): 325-9. PMID: 22584458, PMCID: PMC3422407, PII: tpj201214, DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2012.14, ISSN: 1473-1150.

Delaney JT, Muhammad R, Blair MA, Kor K, Fish FA, Roden DM, Darbar D. A KCNJ8 mutation associated with early repolarization and atrial fibrillation. Europace [print-electronic]. 2012 Oct; 14(10): 1428-32. PMID: 22562657, PMCID: PMC3458578, PII: eus150, DOI: 10.1093/europace/eus150, ISSN: 1532-2092.

Ritchie MD, Rowan S, Kucera G, Stubblefield T, Blair M, Carter S, Roden DM, Darbar D. Chromosome 4q25 variants are genetic modifiers of rare ion channel mutations associated with familial atrial fibrillation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Sep 9/25/2012; 60(13): 1173-81. PMID: 22818067, PMCID: PMC3448817, PII: S0735-1097(12)01731-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.04.030, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Lowe JS, Stroud DM, Yang T, Hall L, Atack TC, Roden DM. Increased late sodium current contributes to long QT-related arrhythmia susceptibility in female mice. Cardiovasc. Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug 8/1/2012; 95(3): 300-7. PMID: 22562703, PMCID: PMC3633400, PII: cvs160, DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvs160, ISSN: 1755-3245.

Monahan K, Brewster J, Wang L, Parvez B, Goyal S, Roden DM, Darbar D. Relation of the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in response to anti-arrhythmic drugs in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Am. J. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug 8/1/2012; 110(3): 369-72. PMID: 22516529, PMCID: PMC3398182, PII: S0002-9149(12)01053-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.03.037, ISSN: 1879-1913.

Schildcrout JS, Denny JC, Bowton E, Gregg W, Pulley JM, Basford MA, Cowan JD, Xu H, Ramirez AH, Crawford DC, Ritchie MD, Peterson JF, Masys DR, Wilke RA, Roden DM. Optimizing drug outcomes through pharmacogenetics: a case for preemptive genotyping. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug; 92(2): 235-42. PMID: 22739144, PMCID: PMC3785311, PII: clpt201266, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2012.66, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Yang T, Atack TC, Stroud DM, Zhang W, Hall L, Roden DM. Blocking Scn10a channels in heart reduces late sodium current and is antiarrhythmic. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul 7/20/2012; 111(3): 322-32. PMID: 22723299, PMCID: PMC3412150, PII: CIRCRESAHA.112.265173, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.265173, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Wilke RA, Ramsey LB, Johnson SG, Maxwell WD, McLeod HL, Voora D, Krauss RM, Roden DM, Feng Q, Cooper-Dehoff RM, Gong L, Klein TE, Wadelius M, Niemi M, . The clinical pharmacogenomics implementation consortium: CPIC guideline for SLCO1B1 and simvastatin-induced myopathy. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 92(1): 112-7. PMID: 22617227, PMCID: PMC3384438, PII: clpt201257, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2012.57.

Pulley JM, Denny JC, Peterson JF, Bernard GR, Vnencak-Jones CL, Ramirez AH, Delaney JT, Bowton E, Brothers K, Johnson K, Crawford DC, Schildcrout J, Masys DR, Dilks HH, Wilke RA, Clayton EW, Shultz E, Laposata M, McPherson J, Jirjis JN, Roden DM. Operational implementation of prospective genotyping for personalized medicine: the design of the Vanderbilt PREDICT project. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 92(1): 87-95. PMID: 22588608, PMCID: PMC3581305, PII: clpt2011371, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.371, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Roden DM, Xu H, Denny JC, Wilke RA. Electronic medical records as a tool in clinical pharmacology: opportunities and challenges. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 Jun; 91(6): 1083-86. PMID: 22534870, PMCID: PMC3819803, PII: clpt201242, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2012.42, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Wells QS, Delaney JT, Roden DM. Genetic determinants of response to cardiovascular drugs. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 2012 May; 27(3): 253-61. PMID: 22382501, PMCID: PMC3874723, DOI: 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32835220e3, ISSN: 1531-7080.

Ramirez AH, Shi Y, Schildcrout JS, Delaney JT, Xu H, Oetjens MT, Zuvich RL, Basford MA, Bowton E, Jiang M, Speltz P, Zink R, Cowan J, Pulley JM, Ritchie MD, Masys DR, Roden DM, Crawford DC, Denny JC. Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Pharmacogenomics [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar; 13(4): 407-18. PMID: 22329724, PMCID: PMC3361510, DOI: 10.2217/pgs.11.164, ISSN: 1744-8042.

Delaney JT, Ramirez AH, Bowton E, Pulley JM, Basford MA, Schildcrout JS, Shi Y, Zink R, Oetjens M, Xu H, Cleator JH, Jahangir E, Ritchie MD, Masys DR, Roden DM, Crawford DC, Denny JC. Predicting clopidogrel response using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb; 91(2): 257-63. PMID: 22190063, PMCID: PMC3621954, PII: clpt2011221, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.221, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Parvez B, Chopra N, Rowan S, Vaglio JC, Muhammad R, Roden DM, Darbar D. A common ß1-adrenergic receptor polymorphism predicts favorable response to rate-control therapy in atrial fibrillation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2012 Jan 1/3/2012; 59(1): 49-56. PMID: 22192668, PMCID: PMC3245828, PII: S0735-1097(11)04525-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.08.061, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Delaney JT, Jeff JM, Brown NJ, Pretorius M, Okafor HE, Darbar D, Roden DM, Crawford DC. Characterization of genome-wide association-identified variants for atrial fibrillation in African Americans. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(2): e32338. PMID: 22384221, PMCID: PMC3285683, PII: PONE-D-11-18969, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032338, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Denny JC, Crawford DC, Ritchie MD, Bielinski SJ, Basford MA, Bradford Y, Chai HS, Bastarache L, Zuvich R, Peissig P, Carrell D, Ramirez AH, Pathak J, Wilke RA, Rasmussen L, Wang X, Pacheco JA, Kho AN, Hayes MG, Weston N, Matsumoto M, Kopp PA, Newton KM, Jarvik GP, Li R, Manolio TA, Kullo IJ, Chute CG, Chisholm RL, Larson EB, McCarty CA, Masys DR, Roden DM, de Andrade M. Variants near FOXE1 are associated with hypothyroidism and other thyroid conditions: using electronic medical records for genome- and phenome-wide studies. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2011 Oct 10/7/2011; 89(4): 529-42. PMID: 21981779, PMCID: PMC3188836, PII: S0002-9297(11)00398-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.008, ISSN: 1537-6605.

Kannankeril PJ, Norris KJ, Carter S, Roden DM. Factors affecting the degree of QT prolongation with drug challenge in a large cohort of normal volunteers. Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 8(10): 1530-4. PMID: 21420510, PMCID: PMC3154568, PII: S1547-5271(11)00342-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2011.03.042, ISSN: 1556-3871.

Roden DM, Johnson JA, Kimmel SE, Krauss RM, Medina MW, Shuldiner A, Wilke RA. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics. Circ. Res. 2011 Sep 9/16/2011; 109(7): 807-20. PMID: 21921273, PMCID: PMC3201825, PII: 109/7/807, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.230995, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Barrett TW, Storrow AB, Jenkins CA, Harrell FE, Miller KF, Moser KM, Russ S, Roden DM, Darbar D. Atrial fibrillation and flutter outcomes and risk determination (AFFORD): design and rationale. J Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2011 Sep; 58(2): 124-30. PMID: 21820279, PMCID: PMC3169197, PII: S0914-5087(11)00119-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.06.007, ISSN: 1876-4738.

Watanabe H, Yang T, Stroud DM, Lowe JS, Harris L, Atack TC, Wang DW, Hipkens SB, Leake B, Hall L, Kupershmidt S, Chopra N, Magnuson MA, Tanabe N, Knollmann BC, George AL, Roden DM. Striking In vivo phenotype of a disease-associated human SCN5A mutation producing minimal changes in vitro. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug 8/30/2011; 124(9): 1001-11. PMID: 21824921, PMCID: PMC3297976, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.110.987248, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.987248, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Xu H, Jiang M, Oetjens M, Bowton EA, Ramirez AH, Jeff JM, Basford MA, Pulley JM, Cowan JD, Wang X, Ritchie MD, Masys DR, Roden DM, Crawford DC, Denny JC. Facilitating pharmacogenetic studies using electronic health records and natural-language processing: a case study of warfarin. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2011 Jul; 18(4): 387-91. PMID: 21672908, PMCID: PMC3128409, PII: amiajnl-2011-000208, DOI: 10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000208, ISSN: 1527-974X.

Atack TC, Stroud DM, Watanabe H, Yang T, Hall L, Hipkens SB, Lowe JS, Leake B, Magnuson MA, Yang P, Roden DM. Informatic and functional approaches to identifying a regulatory region for the cardiac sodium channel. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun 6/24/2011; 109(1): 38-46. PMID: 21566215, PMCID: PMC3135383, PII: CIRCRESAHA.110.235630, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.235630, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Roden DM. Personalized medicine and the genotype-phenotype dilemma. J Interv Card Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun; 31(1): 17-23. PMID: 21476088, PMCID: PMC3123434, DOI: 10.1007/s10840-011-9561-5, ISSN: 1572-8595.

Roden DM, Wilke RA, Kroemer HK, Stein CM. Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011 Apr 4/19/2011; 123(15): 1661-70. PMID: 21502584, PMCID: PMC3093198, PII: 123/15/1661, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.914820, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Liu M, Jiang M, Kawai VK, Stein CM, Roden DM, Denny JC, Xu H. Modeling drug exposure data in electronic medical records: an application to warfarin. AMIA Annu Symp Proc [print-electronic]. 2011; 2011: 815-23. PMID: 22195139, PMCID: PMC3243123, ISSN: 1942-597X.

Turner SD, Berg RL, Linneman JG, Peissig PL, Crawford DC, Denny JC, Roden DM, McCarty CA, Ritchie MD, Wilke RA. Knowledge-driven multi-locus analysis reveals gene-gene interactions influencing HDL cholesterol level in two independent EMR-linked biobanks. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(5): e19586. PMID: 21589926, PMCID: PMC3092760, PII: PONE-D-11-00174, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019586, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Oshiro C, Thorn CF, Roden DM, Klein TE, Altman RB. KCNH2 pharmacogenomics summary. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2010 Dec; 20(12): 775-7. PMID: 20150828, PMCID: PMC3086352, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283349e9c, ISSN: 1744-6880.

Limdi NA, Wadelius M, Cavallari L, Eriksson N, Crawford DC, Lee MT, Chen CH, Motsinger-Reif A, Sagreiya H, Liu N, Wu AH, Gage BF, Jorgensen A, Pirmohamed M, Shin JG, Suarez-Kurtz G, Kimmel SE, Johnson JA, Klein TE, Wagner MJ, . Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a single VKORC1 polymorphism is predictive of dose across 3 racial groups. Blood [print-electronic]. 2010 May 5/6/2010; 115(18): 3827-34. PMID: 20203262, PMCID: PMC2865873, PII: blood-2009-12-255992, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2009-12-255992, ISSN: 1528-0020.

Denny JC, Ritchie MD, Basford MA, Pulley JM, Bastarache L, Brown-Gentry K, Wang D, Masys DR, Roden DM, Crawford DC. PheWAS: demonstrating the feasibility of a phenome-wide scan to discover gene-disease associations. Bioinformatics [print-electronic]. 2010 May 5/1/2010; 26(9): 1205-10. PMID: 20335276, PMCID: PMC2859132, PII: btq126, DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq126, ISSN: 1367-4811.

Chopra SS, Stroud DM, Watanabe H, Bennett JS, Burns CG, Wells KS, Yang T, Zhong TP, Roden DM. Voltage-gated sodium channels are required for heart development in zebrafish. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr 4/30/2010; 106(8): 1342-50. PMID: 20339120, PMCID: PMC2869449, PII: CIRCRESAHA.109.213132, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.213132, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Ritchie MD, Denny JC, Crawford DC, Ramirez AH, Weiner JB, Pulley JM, Basford MA, Brown-Gentry K, Balser JR, Masys DR, Haines JL, Roden DM. Robust replication of genotype-phenotype associations across multiple diseases in an electronic medical record. Am. J. Hum. Genet [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr 4/9/2010; 86(4): 560-72. PMID: 20362271, PMCID: PMC2850440, PII: S0002-9297(10)00146-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.03.003, ISSN: 1537-6605.

Drew BJ, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W, , , . Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010 Mar 3/2/2010; 55(9): 934-47. PMID: 20185054, PMCID: PMC3057430, PII: S0735-1097(10)00094-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.01.001, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Drew BJ, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W, . Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar 3/2/2010; 121(8): 1047-60. PMID: 20142454, PMCID: PMC3056123, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192704, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192704.

Ellinor PT, Lunetta KL, Glazer NL, Pfeufer A, Alonso A, Chung MK, Sinner MF, de Bakker PI, Mueller M, Lubitz SA, Fox E, Darbar D, Smith NL, Smith JD, Schnabel RB, Soliman EZ, Rice KM, Van Wagoner DR, Beckmann BM, van Noord C, Wang K, Ehret GB, Rotter JI, Hazen SL, Steinbeck G, Smith AV, Launer LJ, Harris TB, Makino S, Nelis M, Milan DJ, Perz S, Esko T, Köttgen A, Moebus S, Newton-Cheh C, Li M, Möhlenkamp S, Wang TJ, Kao WH, Vasan RS, Nöthen MM, MacRae CA, Stricker BH, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, Levy D, Boerwinkle E, Metspalu A, Topol EJ, Chakravarti A, Gudnason V, Psaty BM, Roden DM, Meitinger T, Wichmann HE, Witteman JC, Barnard J, Arking DE, Benjamin EJ, Heckbert SR, Kääb S. Common variants in KCNN3 are associated with lone atrial fibrillation. Nat. Genet [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar; 42(3): 240-4. PMID: 20173747, PMCID: PMC2871387, PII: ng.537, DOI: 10.1038/ng.537, ISSN: 1546-1718.

Pulley J, Clayton E, Bernard GR, Roden DM, Masys DR. Principles of human subjects protections applied in an opt-out, de-identified biobank. Clin Transl Sci. 2010 Feb; 3(1): 42-8. PMID: 20443953, PMCID: PMC3075971, PII: CTS175, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2010.00175.x, ISSN: 1752-8062.

Abraham RL, Yang T, Blair M, Roden DM, Darbar D. Augmented potassium current is a shared phenotype for two genetic defects associated with familial atrial fibrillation. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan; 48(1): 181-90. PMID: 19646991, PMCID: PMC2813326, PII: S0022-2828(09)00312-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.07.020, ISSN: 1095-8584.

Roden DM. Brugada syndrome: lots of questions, some answers [editorial]. Heart Rhythm. 2010 Jan; 7(1): 47-9. PMID: 20129284, PII: S1547-5271(09)01180-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.10.016, ISSN: 1556-3871.

Watanabe H, Watanabe T, Sasaki S, Nagai K, Roden DM, Aizawa Y. Close bidirectional relationship between chronic kidney disease and atrial fibrillation: the Niigata preventive medicine study. Am. Heart J. 2009 Oct; 158(4): 629-36. PMID: 19781424, PII: S0002-8703(09)00606-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.06.031, ISSN: 1097-6744.

Body SC, Collard CD, Shernan SK, Fox AA, Liu KY, Ritchie MD, Perry TE, Muehlschlegel JD, Aranki S, Donahue BS, Pretorius M, Estrada JC, Ellinor PT, Newton-Cheh C, Seidman CE, Seidman JG, Herman DS, Lichtner P, Meitinger T, Pfeufer A, Kääb S, Brown NJ, Roden DM, Darbar D. Variation in the 4q25 chromosomal locus predicts atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circ Cardiovasc Genet [print-electronic]. 2009 Oct; 2(5): 499-506. PMID: 20031626, PMCID: PMC2801871, PII: CIRCGENETICS.109.849075, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.109.849075, ISSN: 1942-3268.

Raj SR, Stein CM, Saavedra PJ, Roden DM. Cardiovascular effects of noncardiovascular drugs. Circulation. 2009 Sep 9/22/2009; 120(12): 1123-32. PMID: 19770411, PMCID: PMC2773827, PII: 120/12/1123, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.728576, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Watanabe H, Kaiser DW, Makino S, MacRae CA, Ellinor PT, Wasserman BS, Kannankeril PJ, Donahue BS, Roden DM, Darbar D. ACE I/D polymorphism associated with abnormal atrial and atrioventricular conduction in lone atrial fibrillation and structural heart disease: implications for electrical remodeling. Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 6(9): 1327-32. PMID: 19648063, PMCID: PMC2740737, PII: S1547-5271(09)00524-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.05.014, ISSN: 1556-3871.

Postema PG, Wolpert C, Amin AS, Probst V, Borggrefe M, Roden DM, Priori SG, Tan HL, Hiraoka M, Brugada J, Wilde AA. Drugs and Brugada syndrome patients: review of the literature, recommendations, and an up-to-date website (www.brugadadrugs.org). Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 6(9): 1335-41. PMID: 19716089, PMCID: PMC2779019, PII: S1547-5271(09)00739-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.07.002, ISSN: 1556-3871.

Milan DJ, Kim AM, Winterfield JR, Jones IL, Pfeufer A, Sanna S, Arking DE, Amsterdam AH, Sabeh KM, Mably JD, Rosenbaum DS, Peterson RT, Chakravarti A, Kääb S, Roden DM, MacRae CA. Drug-sensitized zebrafish screen identifies multiple genes, including GINS3, as regulators of myocardial repolarization. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2009 Aug 8/18/2009; 120(7): 553-9. PMID: 19652097, PMCID: PMC2771327, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.108.821082, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.821082, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Yang T, Chung SK, Zhang W, Mullins JG, McCulley CH, Crawford J, MacCormick J, Eddy CA, Shelling AN, French JK, Yang P, Skinner JR, Roden DM, Rees MI. Biophysical properties of 9 KCNQ1 mutations associated with long-QT syndrome. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2009 Aug; 2(4): 417-26. PMID: 19808498, PMCID: PMC2748886, PII: CIRCEP.109.850149, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCEP.109.850149, ISSN: 1941-3084.

Yang T, Kanki H, Zhang W, Roden DM. Probing the mechanisms underlying modulation of quinidine sensitivity to cardiac I(Ks) block by protein kinase A-mediated I(Ks) phosphorylation. Br. J. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2009 Jul; 157(6): 952-61. PMID: 19522859, PMCID: PMC2737654, PII: BPH293, DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00293.x, ISSN: 1476-5381.

Watanabe H, Darbar D, Kaiser DW, Jiramongkolchai K, Chopra S, Donahue BS, Kannankeril PJ, Roden DM. Mutations in sodium channel ß1- and ß2-subunits associated with atrial fibrillation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2009 Jun; 2(3): 268-75. PMID: 19808477, PMCID: PMC2727725, PII: CIRCEP.108.779181, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCEP.108.779181, ISSN: 1941-3084.

Bush WS, Crawford DC, Alexander C, George AL, Roden DM, Ritchie MD. Genetic variation in the rhythmonome: ethnic variation and haplotype structure in candidate genes for arrhythmias. Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Jun; 10(6): 1043-53. PMID: 19530973, PMCID: PMC2746955, DOI: 10.2217/pgs.09.67, ISSN: 1744-8042.

McBride BF, Yang T, Roden DM. Influence of the G2677T/C3435T haplotype of MDR1 on P-glycoprotein trafficking and ibutilide-induced block of HERG. Pharmacogenomics J [print-electronic]. 2009 Jun; 9(3): 194-201. PMID: 19204737, PMCID: PMC3775644, PII: tpj20091, DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2009.1, ISSN: 1473-1150.

Li C, Schwarz UI, Ritchie MD, Roden DM, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Relative contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and early INR response to the prediction of warfarin sensitivity during initiation of therapy. Blood [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr 4/23/2009; 113(17): 3925-30. PMID: 19074728, PMCID: PMC2673121, PII: blood-2008-09-176859, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2008-09-176859, ISSN: 1528-0020.

Watanabe H, Chopra N, Laver D, Hwang HS, Davies SS, Roach DE, Duff HJ, Roden DM, Wilde AA, Knollmann BC. Flecainide prevents catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in mice and humans. Nat. Med [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr; 15(4): 380-3. PMID: 19330009, PMCID: PMC2904954, PII: nm.1942, DOI: 10.1038/nm.1942, ISSN: 1546-170X.

Kääb S, Darbar D, van Noord C, Dupuis J, Pfeufer A, Newton-Cheh C, Schnabel R, Makino S, Sinner MF, Kannankeril PJ, Beckmann BM, Choudry S, Donahue BS, Heeringa J, Perz S, Lunetta KL, Larson MG, Levy D, MacRae CA, Ruskin JN, Wacker A, Schömig A, Wichmann HE, Steinbeck G, Meitinger T, Uitterlinden AG, Witteman JC, Roden DM, Benjamin EJ, Ellinor PT. Large scale replication and meta-analysis of variants on chromosome 4q25 associated with atrial fibrillation. Eur. Heart J [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr; 30(7): 813-9. PMID: 19141561, PMCID: PMC2663727, PII: ehn578, DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehn578, ISSN: 1522-9645.

Roden DM, Kannankeri PJ, Darbar D. Arrhythmia pharmacogenomics: methodological considerations. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2009; 15(32): 3734-41. PMID: 19925424, PMCID: PMC2788624, ISSN: 1873-4286.

Kannankeril PJ, Harris PA, Norris KJ, Warsy I, Smith PD, Roden DM. Rate-independent QT shortening during exercise in healthy subjects: terminal repolarization does not shorten with exercise. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 19(12): 1284-8. PMID: 18665873, PMCID: PMC2811883, PII: JCE1266, DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01266.x, ISSN: 1540-8167.

Roden DM, Pulley JM, Basford MA, Bernard GR, Clayton EW, Balser JR, Masys DR. Development of a large-scale de-identified DNA biobank to enable personalized medicine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep; 84(3): 362-9. PMID: 18500243, PMCID: PMC3763939, PII: clpt200889, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2008.89, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Roden DM. Keep the QT interval: it is a reliable predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 5(8): 1213-5. PMID: 18675237, PMCID: PMC3212752, PII: S1547-5271(08)00495-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2008.05.008, ISSN: 1556-3871.

Roden DM. Cellular basis of drug-induced torsades de pointes. Br. J. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 154(7): 1502-7. PMID: 18552874, PMCID: PMC2492095, PII: bjp2008238, DOI: 10.1038/bjp.2008.238, ISSN: 0007-1188.

Watanabe H, Koopmann TT, Le Scouarnec S, Yang T, Ingram CR, Schott JJ, Demolombe S, Probst V, Anselme F, Escande D, Wiesfeld AC, Pfeufer A, Kääb S, Wichmann HE, Hasdemir C, Aizawa Y, Wilde AA, Roden DM, Bezzina CR. Sodium channel ß1 subunit mutations associated with Brugada syndrome and cardiac conduction disease in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 2008 Jun; 118(6): 2260-8. PMID: 18464934, PMCID: PMC2373423, DOI: 10.1172/JCI33891, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Darbar D, Kannankeril PJ, Donahue BS, Kucera G, Stubblefield T, Haines JL, George AL, Roden DM. Cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) variants associated with atrial fibrillation. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2008 Apr 4/15/2008; 117(15): 1927-35. PMID: 18378609, PMCID: PMC2365761, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.107.757955, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.757955, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Darbar D, Hardy A, Haines JL, Roden DM. Prolonged signal-averaged P-wave duration as an intermediate phenotype for familial atrial fibrillation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2008 Mar 3/18/2008; 51(11): 1083-9. PMID: 18342226, PMCID: PMC2279191, PII: S0735-1097(08)00140-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.11.058, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Schwarz UI, Ritchie MD, Bradford Y, Li C, Dudek SM, Frye-Anderson A, Kim RB, Roden DM, Stein CM. Genetic determinants of response to warfarin during initial anticoagulation. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008 Mar 3/6/2008; 358(10): 999-1008. PMID: 18322281, PMCID: PMC3894627, PII: 358/10/999, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0708078, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Rhodes TE, Abraham RL, Welch RC, Vanoye CG, Crotti L, Arnestad M, Insolia R, Pedrazzini M, Ferrandi C, Vege A, Rognum T, Roden DM, Schwartz PJ, George AL. Cardiac potassium channel dysfunction in sudden infant death syndrome. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Mar; 44(3): 571-81. PMID: 18222468, PMCID: PMC2386856, PII: S0022-2828(07)01319-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2007.11.015, ISSN: 1095-8584.

Yang P, Koopmann TT, Pfeufer A, Jalilzadeh S, Schulze-Bahr E, Kääb S, Wilde AA, Roden DM, Bezzina CR. Polymorphisms in the cardiac sodium channel promoter displaying variant in vitro expression activity. Eur. J. Hum. Genet [print-electronic]. 2008 Mar; 16(3): 350-7. PMID: 18059420, PII: 5201952, DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201952, ISSN: 1018-4813.

Darbar D, Kimbrough J, Jawaid A, McCray R, Ritchie MD, Roden DM. Persistent atrial fibrillation is associated with reduced risk of torsades de pointes in patients with drug-induced long QT syndrome. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2008 Feb 2/26/2008; 51(8): 836-42. PMID: 18294569, PMCID: PMC2271078, PII: S0735-1097(07)03788-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.09.066, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Knollmann BC, Roden DM. A genetic framework for improving arrhythmia therapy. Nature. 2008 Feb 2/21/2008; 451(7181): 929-36. PMID: 18288182, PII: nature06799, DOI: 10.1038/nature06799, ISSN: 1476-4687.

Roden DM. Clinical practice. Long-QT syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008 Jan 1/10/2008; 358(2): 169-76. PMID: 18184962, PII: 358/2/169, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcp0706513, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Monahan K, Clair W, Roden DM. A memorable experience. Europace [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov; 9(11): 1091-2. PMID: 17921515, PII: eum197, DOI: 10.1093/europace/eum197, ISSN: 1532-2092.

Fitch RW, Gregory A, Darbar D, Roden DM. A shock in time. Clin J Sport Med. 2007 Nov; 17(6): 497-9. PMID: 17993795, PII: 00042752-200711000-00011, DOI: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31815ad16a, ISSN: 1050-642X.

Pretorius M, Donahue BS, Yu C, Greelish JP, Roden DM, Brown NJ. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 as a predictor of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation. 2007 Sep 9/11/2007; 116(11 Suppl): I1-7. PMID: 17846288, PII: 116/11_suppl/I-1, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.677906, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Smith AH, Norris KJ, Roden DM, Kannankeril PJ. Autonomic tone attenuates drug-induced QT prolongation. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep; 18(9): 960-4. PMID: 17666066, PII: JCE901, DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2007.00901.x, ISSN: 1540-8167.

Roden DM, Kannankeril P, Darbar D. On the relationship among QT interval, atrial fibrillation, and torsade de pointes. Europace. 2007 Sep; 9 Suppl 4: iv1-3. PMID: 17766319, PMCID: PMC2599908, PII: 9/suppl_4/iv1, DOI: 10.1093/europace/eum165, ISSN: 1099-5129.

Darbar D, Motsinger AA, Ritchie MD, Gainer JV, Roden DM. Polymorphism modulates symptomatic response to antiarrhythmic drug therapy in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2007 Jun; 4(6): 743-9. PMID: 17556195, PMCID: PMC1948880, PII: S1547-5271(07)00118-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.02.006, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Darbar D, Hardin B, Harris P, Roden DM. A rate-independent method of assessing QT-RR slope following conversion of atrial fibrillation. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2007 Jun; 18(6): 636-41. PMID: 17488270, PII: JCE817, DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2007.00817.x, ISSN: 1540-8167.

Kannankeril PJ, Roden DM. When should QT be measured? Summer solstice or Christmas Eve? [editorial]. Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2007 Mar; 4(3): 282-3. PMID: 17341388, PII: S1547-5271(06)02225-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2006.11.027, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Kannankeril PJ, Roden DM. Drug-induced long QT and torsade de pointes: recent advances. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 2007 Jan; 22(1): 39-43. PMID: 17143043, PII: 00001573-200701000-00008, DOI: 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32801129eb, ISSN: 0268-4705.

Chopra SS, Watanabe H, Zhong TP, Roden DM. Molecular cloning and analysis of zebrafish voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit genes: implications for the evolution of electrical signaling in vertebrates. BMC Evol. Biol. 2007; 7: 113. PMID: 17623065, PMCID: PMC1971062, PII: 1471-2148-7-113, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-113, ISSN: 1471-2148.

Mohler PJ, Le Scouarnec S, Denjoy I, Lowe JS, Guicheney P, Caron L, Schott J-J, Norris K, Kim RB, Escande D, Roden DM:. Dysfunctional ankyrin-B variants with a spectrum of altered function are present in diverse human populations. Circulation. 2007; 115: 432-41.

Roden DM, Altman RB, Benowitz NL, Flockhart DA, Giacomini KM, Johnson JA, Krauss RM, McLeod HL, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Ring HZ, Shuldiner AR, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST, . Pharmacogenomics: challenges and opportunities. Ann. Intern. Med. 2006 Nov 11/21/2006; 145(10): 749-57. PMID: 17116919, PII: 145/10/749, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Liu K, Hipkens S, Yang T, Abraham R, Zhang W, Chopra N, Knollmann B, Magnuson MA, Roden DM. Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to rapidly and efficiently generate mice with human cardiac sodium channels. Genesis. 2006 Nov; 44(11): 556-64. PMID: 17083109, DOI: 10.1002/dvg.20247, ISSN: 1526-954X.

Knollmann BC, Chopra N, Hlaing T, Akin B, Yang T, Ettensohn K, Knollmann BE, Horton KD, Weissman NJ, Holinstat I, Zhang W, Roden DM, Jones LR, Franzini-Armstrong C, Pfeifer K. Casq2 deletion causes sarcoplasmic reticulum volume increase, premature Ca2+ release, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2006 Sep; 116(9): 2510-20. PMID: 16932808, PMCID: PMC1551934, DOI: 10.1172/JCI29128, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Kannankeril PJ, Mitchell BM, Goonasekera SA, Chelu MG, Zhang W, Sood S, Kearney DL, Danila CI, De Biasi M, Wehrens XH, Pautler RG, Roden DM, Taffet GE, Dirksen RT, Anderson ME, Hamilton SL. Mice with the R176Q cardiac ryanodine receptor mutation exhibit catecholamine-induced ventricular tachycardia and cardiomyopathy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2006 Aug 8/8/2006; 103(32): 12179-84. PMID: 16873551, PMCID: PMC1567715, PII: 0600268103, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0600268103, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Kannankeril PJ, Bhuiyan ZA, Darbar D, Mannens MM, Wilde AA, Roden DM. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy due to a novel plakophilin 2 mutation: wide spectrum of disease in mutation carriers within a family. Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2006 Aug; 3(8): 939-44. PMID: 16876743, PII: S1547-5271(06)01485-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2006.04.028, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Darbar D, Roden DM. Pharmacogenetics of antiarrhythmic therapy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Aug; 7(12): 1583-90. PMID: 16872261, DOI: 10.1517/14656566.7.12.1583, ISSN: 1744-7666.

Darbar D, Roden DM. Future of antiarrhythmic drugs. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 2006 Jul; 21(4): 361-7. PMID: 16755206, PII: 00001573-200607000-00016, DOI: 10.1097/01.hco.0000231407.61683.05, ISSN: 0268-4705.

Roden DM. Long QT syndrome: reduced repolarization reserve and the genetic link. J. Intern. Med. 2006 Jan; 259(1): 59-69. PMID: 16336514, PII: JIM1589, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2005.01589.x, ISSN: 0954-6820.

Motsinger AA, Donahue BS, Brown NJ, Roden DM, Ritchie MD. Risk factor interactions and genetic effects associated with post-operative atrial fibrillation. Pac Symp Biocomput. 2006; 584-95. PMID: 17094271, ISSN: 2335-6936.

Roden DM, Anderson ME. Proarrhythmia. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2006; (171): 73-97. PMID: 16610341, ISSN: 0171-2004.

Bezzina CR, Shimizu W, Yang P, Koopmann T, Tanck MWT, Miyamoto Y, Kamakura S, Roden DM, Wilde AAM. Common sodium channel promoter haplotype in Asian subjects underlies variability in cardiac conduction. Circulation. 2006; 113: 338-44.

Liu K, Yang T, Viswanathan PC, Roden DM. New mechanism contributing to drug-induced arrhythmia: rescue of a misprocessed LQT3 mutant. Circulation. 2005 Nov 11/22/2005; 112(21): 3239-46. PMID: 16301357, PII: 112/21/3239, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.564008, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Darbar D, Yang T, Churchwell K, Wilde AA, Roden DM. Unmasking of brugada syndrome by lithium. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2005 Sep 9/13/2005; 112(11): 1527-31. PMID: 16144991, PMCID: PMC1350464, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.105.548487, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.548487, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Crotti L, Lundquist AL, Insolia R, Pedrazzini M, Ferrandi C, De Ferrari GM, Vicentini A, Yang P, Roden DM, George AL, Schwartz PJ. KCNH2-K897T is a genetic modifier of latent congenital long-QT syndrome. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2005 Aug 8/30/2005; 112(9): 1251-8. PMID: 16116052, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.105.549071, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.549071, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Roden DM. Proarrhythmia as a pharmacogenomic entity: a critical review and formulation of a unifying hypothesis. Cardiovasc. Res. 2005 Aug 8/15/2005; 67(3): 419-25. PMID: 15936006, PII: S0008-6363(05)00207-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.04.022, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Bezzina CR, Wilde AA, Roden DM. The molecular genetics of arrhythmias [editorial]. Cardiovasc. Res. 2005 Aug 8/15/2005; 67(3): 343-6. PMID: 16005449, PII: S0008-6363(05)00308-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.06.004, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Roden DM, Viswanathan PC. Genetics of acquired long QT syndrome. J. Clin. Invest. 2005 Aug; 115(8): 2025-32. PMID: 16075043, PMCID: PMC1180553, DOI: 10.1172/JCI25539, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Drolet B, Simard C, Mizoue L, Roden DM. Human cardiac potassium channel DNA polymorphism modulates access to drug-binding site and causes drug resistance. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2005 Aug; 115(8): 2209-13. PMID: 16025157, PMCID: PMC1174915, DOI: 10.1172/JCI23741, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Temple J, Frias P, Rottman J, Yang T, Wu Y, Verheijck EE, Zhang W, Siprachanh C, Kanki H, Atkinson JB, King P, Anderson ME, Kupershmidt S, Roden DM. Atrial fibrillation in KCNE1-null mice. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2005 Jul 7/8/2005; 97(1): 62-9. PMID: 15947250, PII: 01.RES.0000173047.42236.88, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000173047.42236.88, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Khoo MS, Kannankeril PJ, Li J, Zhang R, Kupershmidt S, Zhang W, Atkinson JB, Colbran RJ, Roden DM, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II activity is required for normal atrioventricular nodal conduction. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Jun; 2(6): 634-40. PMID: 15922273, PII: S1547-5271(05)01441-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.03.019, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Todd SJ, Campbell MJ, Roden DM, Kannankeril PJ. Novel Brugada SCN5A mutation causing sudden death in children. Heart Rhythm. 2005 May; 2(5): 540-3. PMID: 15840483, PII: S1547-5271(05)00201-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.01.029, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Darbar D, Roden DM. Symptomatic burden as an endpoint to evaluate interventions in patients with atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2005 May; 2(5): 544-9. PMID: 15840484, PII: S1547-5271(05)00200-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.01.028, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Roden DM, Temple R. The US Food and Drug Administration Cardiorenal Advisory Panel and the drug approval process. Circulation. 2005 Apr 4/5/2005; 111(13): 1697-702. PMID: 15811869, PII: 111/13/1697, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000161370.77463.0F, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Darbar D, Roden DM, Ali MF, Yang T, Wathen MS. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Himalayan T waves in the congenital long-QT syndrome. Circulation. 2005 Mar 3/22/2005; 111(11): e161. PMID: 15781747, PII: 111/11/e161, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000159092.92366.CD, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Simard C, Drolet B, Yang P, Kim RB, Roden DM. Polymorphism screening in the cardiac K+ channel gene KCNA5. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2005 Mar; 77(3): 138-44. PMID: 15735608, PII: S0009923604003698, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2004.10.008, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Kannankeril PJ, Roden DM, Norris KJ, Whalen SP, George AL, Murray KT. Genetic susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome: pharmacologic challenge in first-degree relatives. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Feb; 2(2): 134-40. PMID: 15851285, PII: S1547-5271(04)00777-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2004.10.039, ISSN: 1547-5271.

Roden DM. An underrecognized challenge in evaluating postmarketing drug safety [editorial]. Circulation. 2005 Jan 1/25/2005; 111(3): 246-8. PMID: 15668350, PII: 111/3/246, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000154578.45378.8C, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Roden DM. Principles of Clinical Pharmacology. In Sixteenth Edition of Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 2005; 13-25.

Roden DM, Viswanathan PC. Genetics of acquired long QT syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 2025-32.

Roden DM:. An under-recognized challenge in evaluating post-marketing drug safety. Circulation. 2005; 111: 246-8.

Roden DM and Temple R. The US Food and Drug Administration Cardiorenal Advisory Panel and the drug approval process. Circulation. 2005; 111: 1697-702.

Roden DM, Yang T. Editorial - Protecting the heart against arrhythmias: potassium current physiology and repolarization reserve. Circulation. 2005; 112: 1376-8.

Page RL, Roden DM. Drug therapy for atrial fibrillation. Nature Drug Discovery. 2005; 4: 899-910.

Petersen CI, McFarland TR, Stepanovic SZ, Yang P, Reiner DJ, Hayashi K, George AL, Roden DM, Thomas JH, Balser JR. In vivo identification of genes that modify ether-a-go-go-related gene activity in Caenorhabditis elegans may also affect human cardiac arrhythmia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2004 Aug 8/10/2004; 101(32): 11773-8. PMID: 15280551, PMCID: PMC511051, PII: 0306005101, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0306005101, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Kanki H, Kupershmidt S, Yang T, Wells S, Roden DM. A structural requirement for processing the cardiac K+ channel KCNQ1. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Aug 8/6/2004; 279(32): 33976-83. PMID: 15140888, PII: M404539200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M404539200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Roden DM. Human genomics and its impact on arrhythmias. Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 2004 Apr; 14(3): 112-6. PMID: 15121159, PII: S1050173804000039, DOI: 10.1016/j.tcm.2004.01.001, ISSN: 1050-1738.

Fenichel RR, Malik M, Antzelevitch C, Sanguinetti M, Roden DM, Priori SG, Ruskin JN, Lipicky RJ, Cantilena LR, . Drug-induced torsades de pointes and implications for drug development. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2004 Apr; 15(4): 475-95. PMID: 15090000, PMCID: PMC1544371, PII: JCE03534, DOI: 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2004.03534.x, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Jay PY, Harris BS, Maguire CT, Buerger A, Wakimoto H, Tanaka M, Kupershmidt S, Roden DM, Schultheiss TM, O'Brien TX, Gourdie RG, Berul CI, Izumo S. Nkx2-5 mutation causes anatomic hypoplasia of the cardiac conduction system. J. Clin. Invest. 2004 Apr; 113(8): 1130-7. PMID: 15085192, PMCID: PMC385399, DOI: 10.1172/JCI19846, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Roden DM. Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004 Mar 3/4/2004; 350(10): 1013-22. PMID: 14999113, PII: 350/10/1013, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra032426, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Drolet B, Simard C, Roden DM. Unusual effects of a QT-prolonging drug, arsenic trioxide, on cardiac potassium currents. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2004 Jan 1/6/2004; 109(1): 26-9. PMID: 14691044, PII: 01.CIR.0000109484.00668.CE, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000109484.00668.CE, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Kannankeril PJ, Roden DM, Fish FA. Suppression of bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and unmasking of prolonged QT interval with verapamil in Andersen's syndrome. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2004 Jan; 15(1): 119. PMID: 15028088, PII: JCE03369, DOI: 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2004.03369.x, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Yang P, Kupershmidt S, Roden DM. Cloning and initial characterization of the human cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) promoter. Cardiovasc. Res. 2004 Jan 1/1/2004; 61(1): 56-65. PMID: 14732202, PII: S0008636303006618, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Roden DM. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics. Circulation. 2003 Dec 12/23/2003; 108(25): 3071-4. PMID: 14691022, PII: 108/25/3071, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000110626.24310.18, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Roden DM. Antiarrhythmic drugs: past, present and future. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2003 Dec; 14(12): 1389-96. PMID: 14678124, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Kupershmidt S, Yang IC, Hayashi K, Wei J, Chanthaphaychith S, Petersen CI, Johns DC, George AL, Roden DM, Balser JR. The IKr drug response is modulated by KCR1 in transfected cardiac and noncardiac cell lines. FASEB J [print-electronic]. 2003 Dec; 17(15): 2263-5. PMID: 14525949, PII: 02-1057fje, DOI: 10.1096/fj.02-1057fje, ISSN: 1530-6860.

Roden DM. Antiarrhythmic drugs: past, present, and future. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003 Dec; 26(12): 2340-9. PMID: 14675028, ISSN: 0147-8389.

Laohakunakorn P, Benson DW, Yang P, Yang T, Roden DM, Kugler JD. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and channelopathy. Am. J. Cardiol. 2003 Oct 10/15/2003; 92(8): 991-5. PMID: 14556882, PII: S0002914903009871, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM. A surprising new arrhythmia mechanism in heart failure [editorial]. Circ. Res. 2003 Oct 10/3/2003; 93(7): 589-91. PMID: 14525920, PII: 93/7/589, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000095382.50153.7D, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Roden DM. Genetic polymorphisms, drugs, and proarrhythmia. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2003 Oct; 9(2): 131-5. PMID: 14574023, PII: 5146633, ISSN: 1383-875X.

Yang T, Kanki H, Roden DM. Phosphorylation of the IKs channel complex inhibits drug block: novel mechanism underlying variable antiarrhythmic drug actions. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2003 Jul 7/15/2003; 108(2): 132-4. PMID: 12835205, PII: 01.CIR.0000082708.86266.B8, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000082708.86266.B8, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Arad M, Moskowitz IP, Patel VV, Ahmad F, Perez-Atayde AR, Sawyer DB, Walter M, Li GH, Burgon PG, Maguire CT, Stapleton D, Schmitt JP, Guo XX, Pizard A, Kupershmidt S, Roden DM, Berul CI, Seidman CE, Seidman JG. Transgenic mice overexpressing mutant PRKAG2 define the cause of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in glycogen storage cardiomyopathy. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2003 Jun 6/10/2003; 107(22): 2850-6. PMID: 12782567, PII: 01.CIR.0000075270.13497.2B, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000075270.13497.2B, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Drolet B, Yang T, Daleau P, Roden DM, Turgeon J. Risperidone prolongs cardiac repolarization by blocking the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2003 Jun; 41(6): 934-7. PMID: 12775973, ISSN: 0160-2446.

Johnson WH, Yang P, Yang T, Lau YR, Mostella BA, Wolff DJ, Roden DM, Benson DW. Clinical, genetic, and biophysical characterization of a homozygous HERG mutation causing severe neonatal long QT syndrome. Pediatr. Res [print-electronic]. 2003 May; 53(5): 744-8. PMID: 12621127, PII: 01.PDR.0000059750.17002.B6, DOI: 10.1203/01.PDR.0000059750.17002.B6, ISSN: 0031-3998.

Kondo RP, Anderson RH, Kupershmidt S, Roden DM, Evans SM. Development of the cardiac conduction system as delineated by minK-lacZ. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2003 Apr; 14(4): 383-91. PMID: 12741710, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Anderson ME, Al-Khatib SM, Roden DM, Califf RM, . Cardiac repolarization: current knowledge, critical gaps, and new approaches to drug development and patient management. Am. Heart J. 2002 Nov; 144(5): 769-81. PMID: 12422144, PII: S0002870302001849, ISSN: 1097-6744.

Kupershmidt S, Yang IC, Sutherland M, Wells KS, Yang T, Yang P, Balser JR, Roden DM. Cardiac-enriched LIM domain protein fhl2 is required to generate I(Ks) in a heterologous system. Cardiovasc. Res. 2002 Oct; 56(1): 93-103. PMID: 12237170, PII: S0008636302004984, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Wu Y, Temple J, Zhang R, Dzhura I, Zhang W, Trimble R, Roden DM, Passier R, Olson EN, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II and arrhythmias in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy. Circulation. 2002 Sep 9/3/2002; 106(10): 1288-93. PMID: 12208807, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Kupershmidt S, Yang T, Chanthaphaychith S, Wang Z, Towbin JA, Roden DM. Defective human Ether-à-go-go-related gene trafficking linked to an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal in the C terminus. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Jul 7/26/2002; 277(30): 27442-8. PMID: 12021266, PII: M112375200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112375200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Roden DM. The problem, challenge and opportunity of genetic heterogeneity in monogenic diseases predisposing to sudden death [editorial]. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2002 Jul 7/17/2002; 40(2): 357-9. PMID: 12106944, PII: S0735109702019630, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Yang P, Kanki H, Drolet B, Yang T, Wei J, Viswanathan PC, Hohnloser SH, Shimizu W, Schwartz PJ, Stanton M, Murray KT, Norris K, George AL, Roden DM. Allelic variants in long-QT disease genes in patients with drug-associated torsades de pointes. Circulation. 2002 Apr 4/23/2002; 105(16): 1943-8. PMID: 11997281, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Kanki H, Yang P, Xie HG, Kim RB, George AL, Roden DM. Polymorphisms in beta-adrenergic receptor genes in the acquired long QT syndrome. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2002 Mar; 13(3): 252-6. PMID: 11942593, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Gbadebo TD, Trimble RW, Khoo MS, Temple J, Roden DM, Anderson ME. Calmodulin inhibitor W-7 unmasks a novel electrocardiographic parameter that predicts initiation of torsade de pointes. Circulation. 2002 Feb 2/12/2002; 105(6): 770-4. PMID: 11839636, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Tan HL, Kupershmidt S, Zhang R, Stepanovic S, Roden DM, Wilde AA, Anderson ME, Balser JR. A calcium sensor in the sodium channel modulates cardiac excitability. Nature. 2002 Jan 1/24/2002; 415(6870): 442-7. PMID: 11807557, PII: 415442a, DOI: 10.1038/415442a, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Roden DM, George AL. The genetic basis of variability in drug responses. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2002 Jan; 1(1): 37-44. PMID: 12119608, DOI: 10.1038/nrd705, ISSN: 1474-1776.

Roden DM, Balser JR, George AL, Anderson ME. Cardiac ion channels. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 2002; 64: 431-75. PMID: 11826275, PII: 64/1/431, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.64.083101.145105, ISSN: 0066-4278.

Roden DM. QT bumps: unraveling the mechanisms [editorial]. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2001 Dec; 12(12): 1379-80. PMID: 11797995, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Yang T, Snyders D, Roden DM. Drug block of I(kr): model systems and relevance to human arrhythmias. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2001 Nov; 38(5): 737-44. PMID: 11602820, ISSN: 0160-2446.

Viswanathan PC, Bezzina CR, George AL, Roden DM, Wilde AA, Balser JR. Gating-dependent mechanisms for flecainide action in SCN5A-linked arrhythmia syndromes. Circulation. 2001 Sep 9/4/2001; 104(10): 1200-5. PMID: 11535580, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Roden DM. Pharmacogenetics and drug-induced arrhythmias. Cardiovasc. Res. 2001 May; 50(2): 224-31. PMID: 11334826, PII: S0008636300003023, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Roden DM, Brown NJ. Preprescription genotyping: not yet ready for prime time, but getting there [editorial]. Circulation. 2001 Mar 3/27/2001; 103(12): 1608-10. PMID: 11273984, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Mazur A, Anderson ME, Bonney S, Roden DM. Pause-dependent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia during long-term treatment with dofetilide: a placebo-controlled, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-based evaluation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2001 Mar 3/15/2001; 37(4): 1100-5. PMID: 11263615, PII: S0735-1097(01)01106-8, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Anderson ME, Mazur A, Yang T, Roden DM. Potassium current antagonist properties and proarrhythmic consequences of quinolone antibiotics. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2001 Mar; 296(3): 806-10. PMID: 11181910, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Roden DM. Defective ion channel function in the long QT syndrome: multiple unexpected mechanisms [editorial]. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2001 Feb; 33(2): 185-7. PMID: 11162124, PII: S0022-2828(00)91323-3, DOI: 10.1006/jmcc.2000.1323, ISSN: 0022-2828.

Darbar D, Fromm MF, Dellorto S, Roden DM. Sympathetic activation enhances QT prolongation by quinidine. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2001 Jan; 12(1): 9-14. PMID: 11204091, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Roden DM. Principles in pharmacogenetics. Epilepsia. 2001; 42 Suppl 5: 44-8. PMID: 11887967, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Wilde AA, Roden DM. Predicting the long-QT genotype from clinical data: from sense to science [editorial]. Circulation. 2000 Dec 12/5/2000; 102(23): 2796-8. PMID: 11104734, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Wu J, Roden DM, Wikswo JP. Delayed activation and retrograde propagation in cardiac muscle: implication of virtual electrode effects. Ann Biomed Eng. 2000 Nov; 28(11): 1318-25. PMID: 11212950, ISSN: 0090-6964.

Sesti F, Abbott GW, Wei J, Murray KT, Saksena S, Schwartz PJ, Priori SG, Roden DM, George AL, Goldstein SA. A common polymorphism associated with antibiotic-induced cardiac arrhythmia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000 Sep 9/12/2000; 97(19): 10613-8. PMID: 10984545, PMCID: PMC27073, PII: 180223197, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.180223197, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Roden DM. Antiarrhythmic drugs: from mechanisms to clinical practice. Heart. 2000 Sep; 84(3): 339-46. PMID: 10956304, PMCID: PMC1760959, ISSN: 1468-201X.

Roden DM, Anderson ME. The pause that refreshes, or does it? Mechanisms in torsades de pointes [editorial]. Heart. 2000 Sep; 84(3): 235-7. PMID: 10956280, PMCID: PMC1760962, ISSN: 1468-201X.

Roden DM. Acquired long QT syndromes and the risk of proarrhythmia. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2000 Aug; 11(8): 938-40. PMID: 10969760, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Camm AJ, Janse MJ, Roden DM, Rosen MR, Cinca J, Cobbe SM. Congenital and acquired long QT syndrome. Eur. Heart J. 2000 Aug; 21(15): 1232-7. PMID: 10924312, PII: S0195668X0092222X, DOI: 10.1053/euhj.2000.2222, ISSN: 0195-668X.

Chiang CE, Roden DM. The long QT syndromes: genetic basis and clinical implications. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2000 Jul; 36(1): 1-12. PMID: 10898405, PII: S0735-1097(00)00716-6, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Wei J, Fish FA, Myerburg RJ, Roden DM, George AL. Novel KCNQ1 mutations associated with recessive and dominant congenital long QT syndromes: evidence for variable hearing phenotype associated with R518X. Hum. Mutat. 2000 Apr; 15(4): 387-8. PMID: 10737999, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(200004)15:4<387::AID-HUMU26>3.0.CO;2-T, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(200004)15:4<387::AID-HUMU26>3.0.CO;2-T, ISSN: 1098-1004.

Roden DM. Impact of recent molecular studies on evaluation of ventricular arrhythmias. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2000 Jan; 4 Suppl 1: 7-16. PMID: 10590483, ISSN: 1383-875X.

Tan HL, Kupershmidt S, Zhang R, Stepanovic S, Roden DM, Wilde AAM, Anderson ME, Balser JR. A Calcium Sensor in the Sodium Channel Modulates Cardiac Excitability. Nature. 2000; 415: 442-7.

Mazur A, Roden DM, Anderson ME. Systemic administration of calmodulin antagonist W-7 or protein kinase A inhibitor H-8 prevents torsade de pointes in rabbits. Circulation. 1999 Dec 12/14/1999; 100(24): 2437-42. PMID: 10595957, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Roden DM, Spooner PM. Inherited long QT syndromes: a paradigm for understanding arrhythmogenesis. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 1999 Dec; 10(12): 1664-83. PMID: 10636197, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Roden DM. Mechanisms underlying variability in response to drug therapy: implications for amiodarone use. Am. J. Cardiol. 1999 Nov 11/4/1999; 84(9A): 29R-36R. PMID: 10568657, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM, Balser JR. A plethora of mechanisms in the HERG-related long QT syndrome. Genetics meets electrophysiology [editorial]. Cardiovasc. Res. 1999 Nov; 44(2): 242-6. PMID: 10690299, PII: S0008-6363(99)00224-2, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Roden DM. An overview of contemporary approaches to antiarrhythmic therapy. Jpn. Circ. J. 1999 Sep; 63(9): 655-8. PMID: 10496478, ISSN: 0047-1828.

Choy AM, Darbar D, Dell'Orto S, Roden DM. Exaggerated QT prolongation after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1999 Aug; 34(2): 396-401. PMID: 10440151, PII: S0735-1097(99)00226-0, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Fromm MF, Darbar D, Dell'Orto S, Roden DM. Modulation of effect of dietary salt on prehepatic first-pass metabolism: effects of beta-blockade and intravenous salt loading. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1999 Jul; 290(1): 253-8. PMID: 10381784, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Wei J, Wang DW, Alings M, Fish F, Wathen M, Roden DM, George AL. Congenital long-QT syndrome caused by a novel mutation in a conserved acidic domain of the cardiac Na+ channel. Circulation. 1999 Jun 6/22/1999; 99(24): 3165-71. PMID: 10377081, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Roden DM, Kupershmidt S. From genes to channels: normal mechanisms. Cardiovasc. Res. 1999 May; 42(2): 318-26. PMID: 10533570, PII: S0008-6363(99)00063-2, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Nattel S, Roden DM, Escande D. A spotlight on electrophysiological remodeling and the molecular biology of ion channels [editorial]. Cardiovasc. Res. 1999 May; 42(2): 267-9. PMID: 10533565, PII: S0008-6363(99)00072-3, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Wu Y, Roden DM, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase inhibition prevents development of the arrhythmogenic transient inward current. Circ. Res. 1999 Apr 4/30/1999; 84(8): 906-12. PMID: 10222337, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR. Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm. Res. 1999 Mar; 16(3): 408-14. PMID: 10213372, ISSN: 0724-8741.

Priori SG, Barhanin J, Hauer RN, Haverkamp W, Jongsma HJ, Kleber AG, McKenna WJ, Roden DM, Rudy Y, Schwartz K, Schwartz PJ, Towbin JA, Wilde AM. Genetic and molecular basis of cardiac arrhythmias: impact on clinical management part III. Circulation. 1999 Feb 2/9/1999; 99(5): 674-81. PMID: 9950666, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Kupershmidt S, Yang T, Anderson ME, Wessels A, Niswender KD, Magnuson MA, Roden DM. Replacement by homologous recombination of the minK gene with lacZ reveals restriction of minK expression to the mouse cardiac conduction system. Circ. Res. 1999 Feb 2/5/1999; 84(2): 146-52. PMID: 9933245, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Fromm MF, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport: A unifying mechanism to explain the interaction between digoxin and quinidine [seecomments]. Circulation. 1999 Feb 2/2/1999; 99(4): 552-7. PMID: 9927403, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Priori SG, Barhanin J, Hauer RN, Haverkamp W, Jongsma HJ, Kleber AG, McKenna WJ, Roden DM, Rudy Y, Schwartz K, Schwartz PJ, Towbin JA, Wilde AM. Genetic and molecular basis of cardiac arrhythmias: impact on clinical management parts I and II. Circulation. 1999 Feb 2/2/1999; 99(4): 518-28. PMID: 9927398, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Roden DM, Wilde AA. Drug-induced J point elevation: a marker for genetic risk of sudden death or ECG curiosity? [editorial]. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 1999 Feb; 10(2): 219-23. PMID: 10090225, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Priori SG, Barhanin J, Hauer RN, Haverkamp W, Jongsma HJ, Kleber AG, McKenna WJ, Roden DM, Rudy Y, Schwartz K, Schwartz PJ, Towbin JA, Wilde A. Genetic and molecular basis of cardiac arrhythmias; impact on clinical management. Study group on molecular basis of arrhythmias of the working group on arrhythmias of the european society of cardiology. Eur. Heart J. 1999 Feb; 20(3): 174-95. PMID: 10082151, PII: S0195668X98912209, ISSN: 0195-668X.

Fromm MF, Leake B, Roden DM, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB. Human MRP3 transporter: identification of the 5'-flanking region, genomic organization and alternative splice variants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1999 Jan 1/8/1999; 1415(2): 369-74. PMID: 9889399, PII: S0005-2736(98)00233-8, ISSN: 0006-3002.

Kupershmidt S, Yang T, Anderson ME, Wessels A, Niswender KD, Magnuson MA, Roden DM. Replacement by homologous recombination of the minK gene with lacZ reveals restriction of minK expression to the mouse cardiac conduction system. Circulation Research. 1999; 84: 146-52.

Darbar D, Fromm MF, Dell'Orto S, Kim RB, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M, Roden DM. Modulation by dietary salt of verapamil disposition in humans. Circulation. 1998 Dec 12/15/1998; 98(24): 2702-8. PMID: 9851956, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Kupershmidt S, Snyders DJ, Raes A, Roden DM. A K+ channel splice variant common in human heart lacks a C-terminal domain required for expression of rapidly activating delayed rectifier current. J. Biol. Chem. 1998 Oct 10/16/1998; 273(42): 27231-5. PMID: 9765245, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Vitola J, Vukanovic J, Roden DM. Cisapride-induced torsades de pointes. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 1998 Oct; 9(10): 1109-13. PMID: 9817562, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Choy AM, Lang CC, Roden DM, Robertson D, Wood AJ, Robertson RM, Biaggioni I. Abnormalities of the QT interval in primary disorders of autonomic failure. Am. Heart J. 1998 Oct; 136(4 Pt 1): 664-71. PMID: 9778070, PII: S0002870398000726, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Kupershmidt S, Yang T, Roden DM. Modulation of cardiac Na+ current phenotype by beta1-subunit expression. Circ. Res. 1998 Aug 8/24/1998; 83(4): 441-7. PMID: 9721701, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Roden DM. Mechanisms and management of proarrhythmia. Am. J. Cardiol. 1998 Aug 8/20/1998; 82(4A): 49I-57I. PMID: 9737654, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Thadani U, Roden DM. FDA Panel report: January 1998. Circulation. 1998 Jun 6/16/1998; 97(23) Sect. 2295,6.

Roden DM. Taking the "idio" out of "idiosyncratic": predicting torsades de pointes [editorial]. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998 May; 21(5): 1029-34. PMID: 9604234, ISSN: 0147-8389.

Roden DM. Cardiovascular and Renal Advisory Panel of the FDA. Circulation. 1998 Mar 3/31/1998; 97(12) Sect. 1107.

Kim RB, Fromm MF, Wandel C, Leake B, Wood AJ, Roden DM, Wilkinson GR. The drug transporter P-glycoprotein limits oral absorption and brain entry of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J. Clin. Invest. 1998 Jan 1/15/1998; 101(2): 289-94. PMID: 9435299, PMCID: PMC508566, DOI: 10.1172/JCI1269, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Kupershmidt S, Yang T, Roden DM. Modulation of cardiac sodium current phenotype by beta1-subunit expression. Circ. 1998; 83: 441-7.

Kupershmidt S, Snyders DJ, Raes A, Roden DM. A K+ channel splice variant common in human heart lacks a C- terminal domain required for expression of rapidly-activating delayed rectifier current. J. Biol. Chem.. 1998; 273: 27231-5.

Kim RB, Fromm MF, Wandel C, Leake B, Wood AJJ, Roden DM, Wilkinson GR. The drug transporter P-glycoprotein limits oral absorption and brain entry of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Clin Invest. 1998; 101: 289-94.

Choy AM, Lang CC, Chomsky DM, Rayos GH, Wilson JR, Roden DM. Normalization of acquired QT prolongation in humans by intravenous potassium. Circulation. 1997 Oct 10/7/1997; 96(7): 2149-54. PMID: 9337183, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Roden DM, George AL. Structure and function of cardiac sodium and potassium channels. Am. J. Physiol. 1997 Aug; 273(2 Pt 2): H511-25. PMID: 9277464, ISSN: 0002-9513.

Yang T, Snyders DJ, Roden DM. Rapid inactivation determines the rectification and [K+]o dependence of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in cardiac cells. Circ. Res. 1997 Jun; 80(6): 782-9. PMID: 9168780, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Darbar D, Dell'Orto S, Mörike K, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM. Dietary salt increases first-pass elimination of oral quinidine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1997 Mar; 61(3): 292-300. PMID: 9084454, PII: S0009-9236(97)90161-2, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(97)90161-2, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Roden DM. A practical approach to torsade de pointes. Clin Cardiol. 1997 Mar; 20(3): 285-90. PMID: 9068917, ISSN: 0160-9289.

Yang T, Snyders DJ, Roden DM. Inhibition of cardiac potassium currents by the vesnarinone analog OPC-18790: comparison with quinidine and dofetilide. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1997 Mar; 280(3): 1170-5. PMID: 9067300, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Kupershmidt ,S., Sutherland, M., King, D., Magnuson,M.A., Roden, D.M. Replacement by homologous recombination of the minK gene with lacZ reveals cell-specific minK expression. Biophys. J. 1997; 72: A226.

Yang, T., Snyders, D.J., Roden, D.M. Inhibition of cardiac potassium currents by the vesnarinone analog OPC- 18790: Comparison with quinidine and dofetilide. J. Phannacol.Exp. Ther. 1997; 280: 1170-5.

Yang, T., Snyders, D.J., Roden, D.M. Rapid inactivation determines the rectification and [K+]o-dependence of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in cardiac cells. Circ. Res. 1997; 80: 782-9.

Rogers RD, Bond AH, Roden DM. Structural Chemistry of Poly(ethylene glycol) Complexes of Lead(II) Nitrate and Lead(II) Bromide. Inorg Chem. 1996 Nov 11/20/1996; 35(24): 6964-73. PMID: 11666874, PII: ic960587b, ISSN: 1520-510X.

Roden DM, Lazzara R, Rosen M, Schwartz PJ, Towbin J, Vincent GM. Multiple mechanisms in the long-QT syndrome. Current knowledge, gaps, and future directions. The SADS Foundation Task Force on LQTS. Circulation. 1996 Oct 10/15/1996; 94(8): 1996-2012. PMID: 8873679, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Fritz JD, Robertson D. Gene targeting approaches to the autonomic nervous system. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 1996 Oct 10/7/1996; 61(1): 1-5. PMID: 8912247, PII: S0165183896000550, ISSN: 0165-1838.

Roden DM. Ibutilide and the treatment of atrial arrhythmias. A new drug--almost unheralded--is now available to US physicians [editorial]. Circulation. 1996 Oct 10/1/1996; 94(7): 1499-502. PMID: 8840835, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Roden DM. Ionic mechanisms for prolongation of refractoriness and their proarrhythmic and antiarrhythmic correlates. Am. J. Cardiol. 1996 Aug 8/29/1996; 78(4A): 12-6. PMID: 8780324, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Kennedy CJ, Roden DM, McAllister IL. Suprachoroidal effusion following argon laser trabeculoplasty. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug; 24(3): 279-82. PMID: 8913133, ISSN: 0814-9763.

Yang T, Roden DM. Regulation of sodium current development in cultured atrial tumor myocytes (AT-1 cells). Am. J. Physiol. 1996 Aug; 271(2 Pt 2): H541-7. PMID: 8770095, ISSN: 0002-9513.

Darbar D, Smith M, Mörike K, Roden DM. Epinephrine-induced changes in serum potassium and cardiac repolarization and effects of pretreatment with propranolol and diltiazem. Am. J. Cardiol. 1996 Jun 6/15/1996; 77(15): 1351-5. PMID: 8677878, PII: S0002914996002044, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Darbar D, Dell'Orto S, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM. Loss of quinidine gluconate injection in a polyvinyl chloride infusion system. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1996 Mar 3/15/1996; 53(6): 655-8. PMID: 8800971, ISSN: 1079-2082.

Roden DM. Is there a need for new antiarrhythmic drugs?. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1996 Feb; 89 Spec No 1: 13-8. PMID: 8734158, ISSN: 0003-9683.

Yang T, Roden DM. Extracellular potassium modulation of drug block of IKr. Implications for torsade de pointes and reverse use-dependence. Circulation. 1996 Feb 2/1/1996; 93(3): 407-11. PMID: 8565156, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Roden DM, George AL. The cardiac ion channels: relevance to management of arrhythmias. Annu. Rev. Med. 1996; 47: 135-48. PMID: 8712768, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.med.47.1.135, ISSN: 0066-4219.

Yang, T., Roden, D.M. Extracellular potassium modulation of drug block of IKr: Implications for Torsades de Pointes and reverse use-dependence. Circulation. 1996; 93: 407-11.

Darbar, D., Smith, M., M?rike, K., Roden, D.M. Epinephrine-induced changes in serum potassium and cardiac repolarization and effects of pre-treatment with propranolol and diltiazem. Am. J. Cardiol. 1996; 77: 1351-5.

Roden, D.M., George, A.L. Jr. The cardiac ion channels: Relevance to management of arrhythmias. Annu. Rev. Med. 1996; 47: 135-48.

Yang, T., Roden, D.M. Regulation of sodium current development in cultured atrial tumor myocytes (AT-1 cells). Am. J. Physiol. 1996; 271: H541-H547.

Roden, D.M., Lazzara, R., Rosen, M.R., Schwartz, P.J., Vincent, G.M., for the SADS Foundation Task Force on LQTS. Multiple mechanisms in the long QT syndrome: Current knowledge, gaps, and future directions. Circulation. 1996; 94: 1996-2012.

Roden, D.M. Ibutilide and treatment of atrial arrhythmias (Editorial). Circulation. 1996; 94: 1499-502.

Choy, A.M.J., Darbar, D., Dell'Orto, S., Roden, D.M. Increased sensitivity to QT prolonging drug therapy immediately after cardioversion to sinus rhythm. Circulation. 1996; 94: 1202.

Yang T, Kupershmidt S, Roden DM. Anti-minK antisense decreases the amplitude of the rapidly activating cardiac delayed rectifier K+ current. Circ. Res. 1995 Dec; 77(6): 1246-53. PMID: 7586238, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Roden DM, George AL, Bennett PB. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the long QT syndrome. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 1995 Nov; 6(11): 1023-31. PMID: 8589871, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Echt DS, Lee JT, Murray KT, Vorperian V, Borganelli SM, Crawford DM, Friedrich T, Roden DM. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of dofetilide in patients with inducible sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 1995 Sep; 6(9): 687-99. PMID: 8556189, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Yang T, Prakash C, Roden DM, Snyders DJ. Mechanism of block of a human cardiac potassium channel by terfenadine racemate and enantiomers. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1995 May; 115(2): 267-74. PMID: 7670728, PMCID: PMC1908306, ISSN: 0007-1188.

Yang T, Snyders DJ, Roden DM. Ibutilide, a methanesulfonanilide antiarrhythmic, is a potent blocker of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) in AT-1 cells. Concentration-, time-, voltage-, and use-dependent effects. Circulation. 1995 Mar 3/15/1995; 91(6): 1799-806. PMID: 7882490, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Yang, T., Snyders, D.J., Roden, D.M. Ibutilide, a methanesulfonanilide antiarrhythmic, is a potent blocker of the rapidly-activating delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) in AT- I cells: Concentration-, time-, voltage- and use-dependent effects. Circulation. 1995; 91: 1799-806.

Yang, T., Prakash, C., Roden, D.M., Snyders, D.J. Mechanism of block of a human cardiac potassium channel by terfenadine racemate and enantiomers. J. Pharmacol. 1995; 15: 267-74.

Echt, D.S., Lee, J.T., Murray, K.T., Vorperian, V., Borganelli, S.M., Crawford, D.M., Friedrich, T., Roden, D.M. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study of dofetilide in patients with inducible sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophys. 1995; 6: 687-99.

Yang, T., Kupershmidt, S., Roden, D.M. Anti-minK antisense decreases the amplitude of the rapidly-activating cardiac delayed rectifier K+ current. Circ. Res. 1995; 77: 1246-53.

Roden, D.M., George, A.L. Jr, Bennett, P.B. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the long QT syndrome. Invited review. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 1995; 6: 1023-31.

Roden, D.M. Antiarrhythmic drugs. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 1995; 9th Edition: 839-74.

Wei, J., Wathen, M., Murray, K., Daw, R., Roden, D., George, A.L. Jr. Absence of HERG and SCN5A mutations in acquired long QT syndrome. Circulation. 1995; 92: 1-275.

Turgeon J, Daleau P, Bennett PB, Wiggins SS, Selby L, Roden DM. Block of IKs, the slow component of the delayed rectifier K+ current, by the diuretic agent indapamide in guinea pig myocytes. Circ. Res. 1994 Nov; 75(5): 879-86. PMID: 7923634, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Yang T, Wathen MS, Felipe A, Tamkun MM, Snyders DJ, Roden DM. K+ currents and K+ channel mRNA in cultured atrial cardiac myocytes (AT-1 cells). Circ. Res. 1994 Nov; 75(5): 870-8. PMID: 7923633, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Roden DM. Risks and benefits of antiarrhythmic therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994 Sep 9/22/1994; 331(12): 785-91. PMID: 8065408, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199409223311207, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Echt DS, Gremillion ST, Lee JT, Roden DM, Murray KT, Borganelli M, Crawford DM, Stewart JR, Hammon JW. Effects of procainamide and lidocaine on defibrillation energy requirements in patients receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillator devices. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 1994 Sep; 5(9): 752-60. PMID: 7827714, ISSN: 1045-3873.

Vorperian VR, Wisialowski TA, Deegan R, Roden DM. Effect of hypercapnic acidemia on anisotropic propagation in the canine ventricle. Circulation. 1994 Jul; 90(1): 456-61. PMID: 8026032, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Roden DM, Levy FE. Oncocytoma of the parotid gland presenting with nerve paralysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994 Jun; 110(6): 587-90. PMID: 8208578, PII: S0194599894000185, ISSN: 0194-5998.

Roden DM. Mirror, mirror on the wall ... stereochemistry in therapeutics [editorial]. Circulation. 1994 May; 89(5): 2451-3. PMID: 7910122, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Mörike KE, Roden DM. Quinidine-enhanced beta-blockade during treatment with propafenone in extensive metabolizer human subjects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1994 Jan; 55(1): 28-34. PMID: 7905369, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Yang, T., Wathen, M.S., Felipe, A., Tamkun, M.M., Snyders, D.J., Roden, D.M. K+ currents and K+ channel mRNA in cultured atrial cardiac myocytes (AT-1 cells). Circ. Res. 1994; 75: 870-8.

Turgeon, J., Daleau, P., Bennett, P.B., Wiggins, S.S., Selby, L., Roden, D.M. Block of IKs, the slow component of the delayed rectifier K+ current, by the diuretic agent indapamide in guinea pig myocytes. Circ. Res. 1994; 75: 879-86.

Roden, D.M. Mirror, mirror on the wall: Stereochemistry in therapeutics (Editorial). Circulation. 1994; 89: 2451-3.

Roden, D.M. Risks and benefits of antiarrhythmic therapy. Invited review. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994; 331: 785-91.

Roden, D.M., Murray, K.T. Pharmacokinetics, phannacodynamics and pharmacogenetics. Zipes, D.P., Jalife, J. (eds): Cardiac Electrophysiology: From Cell to Bedside, 2nd edition, W.B. Saunders. 1994; 1287-96.

Roden, D.M., Tamkun, M.M. Toward a molecular view of cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 1994; 4: 278-85.

Roden DM. Pharmacokinetics of amiodarone: implications for drug therapy. Am. J. Cardiol. 1993 Nov 11/26/1993; 72(16): 45F-50F. PMID: 8237829, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM. Early after-depolarizations and torsade de pointes: implications for the control of cardiac arrhythmias by prolonging repolarization. Eur. Heart J. 1993 Nov; 14 Suppl H: 56-61. PMID: 8293755, ISSN: 0195-668X.

Roden DM, Pomerantz RA. Penetrating injuries to the neck: a safe, selective approach to management. Am Surg. 1993 Nov; 59(11): 750-3. PMID: 8239198, ISSN: 0003-1348.

Roden DM. Torsade de pointes. Clin Cardiol. 1993 Sep; 16(9): 683-6. PMID: 7902224, ISSN: 0160-9289.

Roden DM. Current status of class III antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Am. J. Cardiol. 1993 Aug 8/26/1993; 72(6): 44B-49B. PMID: 8256755, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM. Usefulness of sotalol for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Am. J. Cardiol. 1993 Aug 8/12/1993; 72(4): 51A-55A. PMID: 8346727, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Davies RF, Siddoway LA, Shaw L, Barbey JT, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Immediate- versus controlled-release disopyramide: importance of saturable binding. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1993 Jul; 54(1): 16-22. PMID: 8330460, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Turgeon J, Wisialowski TA, Wong W, Altemeier WA, Wikswo JP, Roden DM. Suppression of longitudinal versus transverse conduction by sodium channel block. Effects of sodium bolus. Circulation. 1992 Jun; 85(6): 2221-6. PMID: 1317273, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Greene HL, Roden DM, Katz RJ, Woosley RL, Salerno DM, Henthorn RW. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial: first CAST ... then CAST-II. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1992 Apr; 19(5): 894-8. PMID: 1552108, PII: 0735-1097(92)90267-Q, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Birgersdotter UM, Wong W, Turgeon J, Roden DM. Stereoselective genetically-determined interaction between chronic flecainide and quinidine in patients with arrhythmias. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Mar; 33(3): 275-80. PMID: 1576047, PMCID: PMC1381275, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Wong W, Pavlou HN, Birgersdotter UM, Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Roden DM. Pharmacology of the class III antiarrhythmic agent sematilide in patients with arrhythmias. Am. J. Cardiol. 1992 Jan 1/15/1992; 69(3): 206-12. PMID: 1731461, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Ware DL, Lee JT, Murray KT, Hanyok JJ, Roden DM, Echt DS. Intravenous 3-methoxy-O-desmethyl-encainide in reentrant supraventricular tachycardia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in patients undergoing EP study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1991 Sep; 14(9): 1343-50. PMID: 1720527, ISSN: 0147-8389.

Turgeon J, Evans WE, Relling MV, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM. Phenotypic debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity among extensive metabolizers is unrelated to genotype as determined by the Xba-I restriction fragment length polymorphism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991 Sep; 32(3): 283-8. PMID: 1685663, PMCID: PMC1368519, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Balser JR, Bennett PB, Hondeghem LM, Roden DM. Suppression of time-dependent outward current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Actions of quinidine and amiodarone. Circ. Res. 1991 Aug; 69(2): 519-29. PMID: 1860189, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Turgeon J, Funck-Brentano C, Gray HT, Pavlou HN, Prakash C, Blair IA, Roden DM. Genetically determined stereoselective excretion of encainide in humans and electrophysiologic effects of its enantiomers in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1991 May; 49(5): 488-96. PMID: 1903098, PII: 0009-9236(91)90002-7, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Pavlou HN, Funck-Brentano C, Lineberry MD, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Prospective pharmacokinetically based development of effective infusion regimens for ACC-9358, a new antiarrhythmic drug. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1991 Mar; 49(3): 314-21. PMID: 2007325, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Tamkun MM, Knoth KM, Walbridge JA, Kroemer H, Roden DM, Glover DM. Molecular cloning and characterization of two voltage-gated K+ channel cDNAs from human ventricle. FASEB J. 1991 Mar 3/1/1991; 5(3): 331-7. PMID: 2001794, ISSN: 0892-6638.

Wikswo JP, Wisialowski TA, Altemeier WA, Balser JR, Kopelman HA, Roden DM. Virtual cathode effects during stimulation of cardiac muscle. Two-dimensional in vivo experiments. Circ. Res. 1991 Feb; 68(2): 513-30. PMID: 1991354, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Balser JR, Roden DM, Bennett PB. Single inward rectifier potassium channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Effects of quinidine. Biophys. J. 1991 Jan; 59(1): 150-61. PMID: 2015380, PMCID: PMC1281127, PII: S0006-3495(91)82207-X, DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(91)82207-X, ISSN: 0006-3495.

Balser, J.R., Bennett, P.B., Hondeghem, L.M., Roden, D.M. Suppression of time-dependent outward current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes: Actions of quinidine and amiodarone. Circ. Res. 1991; 69: 519-29.

Turgeon J, Pavlou HN, Wong W, Funck-Brentano C, Roden DM. Genetically determined steady-state interaction between encainide and quinidine in patients with arrhythmias. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1990 Nov; 255(2): 642-9. PMID: 2123007, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Balser JR, Bennett PB, Roden DM. Time-dependent outward current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Gating kinetics of the delayed rectifier. J. Gen. Physiol. 1990 Oct; 96(4): 835-63. PMID: 2258717, PMCID: PMC2229010, ISSN: 0022-1295.

Fish FA, Prakash C, Roden DM. Suppression of repolarization-related arrhythmias in vitro and in vivo by low-dose potassium channel activators. Circulation. 1990 Oct; 82(4): 1362-9. PMID: 1698129, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Funck-Brentano C, Silberstein DJ, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Woosley RL. A mechanism of D-(+)-sotalol effects on heart rate not related to beta-adrenoceptor antagonism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 Aug; 30(2): 195-202. PMID: 2169833, PMCID: PMC1368218, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Lee JT, Kroemer HK, Silberstein DJ, Funck-Brentano C, Lineberry MD, Wood AJ, Roden DM, Woosley RL. The role of genetically determined polymorphic drug metabolism in the beta-blockade produced by propafenone. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990 Jun 6/21/1990; 322(25): 1764-8. PMID: 1971708, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199006213222502, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Zhou HH, Anthony LB, Roden DM, Wood AJ. Quinidine reduces clearance of (+)-propranolol more than (-)-propranolol through marked reduction in 4-hydroxylation. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1990 Jun; 47(6): 686-93. PMID: 2357863, PII: 0009-9236(90)90221-P, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Balser JR, Roden DM, Bennett PB. Global parameter optimization for cardiac potassium channel gating models. Biophys. J. 1990 Mar; 57(3): 433-44. PMID: 2306494, PMCID: PMC1280738, PII: S0006-3495(90)82560-1, DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(90)82560-1, ISSN: 0006-3495.

Murray KT, Reilly C, Koshakji RP, Roden DM, Lineberry MD, Wood AJ, Siddoway LA, Barbey JT, Woosley RL. Suppression of ventricular arrhythmias in man by d-propranolol independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. J. Clin. Invest. 1990 Mar; 85(3): 836-42. PMID: 2155929, PMCID: PMC296501, DOI: 10.1172/JCI114510, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Funck-Brentano C, Kroemer HK, Lee JT, Roden DM. Propafenone. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990 Feb 2/22/1990; 322(8): 518-25. PMID: 2405273, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199002223220806, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Turgeon J, Kroemer HK, Prakash C, Blair IA, Roden DM. Stereoselective determination of flecainide in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Pharm Sci. 1990 Feb; 79(2): 91-5. PMID: 2109058, ISSN: 0022-3549.

Campbell RM, Woosley RL, Iansmith DH, Roden DM. Lack of triggered automaticity despite repolarization abnormalities due to bepridil and lidoflazine. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1990 Jan; 13(1): 30-6. PMID: 1689032, ISSN: 0147-8389.

Balser, J.R., Bennett, P.B., Roden, D.M. Time-dependent outward current in guinea pig myocytes: Gating kinetics of the delayed rectifier. J. Gen. Physiol. 1990; 96: 835-63.

Roden DM, Lee JT, Woosley RL, Echt DS. Antiarrhythmic efficacy, clinical electrophysiology, and pharmacokinetics of 3-methoxy-O-desmethyl encainide (MODE) in patients with inducible ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Circulation. 1989 Nov; 80(5): 1247-58. PMID: 2805262, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Fish FA, Roden DM. A prolonged QTc interval. Is it an important effect of antiarrhythmic drugs?. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1989 Nov; 4(6): 400-11. PMID: 2689835, ISSN: 0113-5244.

Kroemer HK, Turgeon J, Parker RA, Roden DM. Flecainide enantiomers: disposition in human subjects and electrophysiologic actions in vitro. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1989 Nov; 46(5): 584-90. PMID: 2510963, PII: 0009-9236(89)90419-0, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Bajaj AK, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Acute electrophysiologic effects of sodium administration in dogs treated with O-desmethyl encainide. Circulation. 1989 Oct; 80(4): 994-1002. PMID: 2551538, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Davies RF, Lineberry MD, Funck-Brentano C, Echt DS, Lee JT, Capuzzi DM, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Recainam dose titration and pharmacokinetics in patients with resistant arrhythmias. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1989 Sep; 46(3): 324-34. PMID: 2673622, PII: 0009-9236(89)90471-2, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Funck-Brentano C, Light RT, Lineberry MD, Wright GM, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of N-acetyl procainamide and procainamide in humans. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 1989 Sep; 14(3): 364-73. PMID: 2476614, ISSN: 0160-2446.

Turgeon J, Roden DM. Pharmacokinetic profile of encainide. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1989 Jun; 45(6): 692-4. PMID: 2499439, PII: 0009-9236(89)90032-5, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Turgeon J, Funck-Brentano C, Gray HT, Roden DM. Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for encainide and its metabolites in human body fluids. J. Chromatogr. 1989 May 5/5/1989; 490(1): 165-74. PMID: 2503530.

Kroemer HK, Funck-Brentano C, Silberstein DJ, Wood AJ, Eichelbaum M, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Stereoselective disposition and pharmacologic activity of propafenone enantiomers. Circulation. 1989 May; 79(5): 1068-76. PMID: 2713973, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Murray KT, Barbey JT, Kopelman HA, Siddoway LA, Echt DS, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Mexiletine and tocainide: a comparison of antiarrhythmic efficacy, adverse effects, and predictive value of lidocaine testing. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1989 May; 45(5): 553-61. PMID: 2498025, PII: 0009-9236(89)90454-2, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Roden DM. Magnesium treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Am. J. Cardiol. 1989 Apr 4/18/1989; 63(14): 43G-46G. PMID: 2650516, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Funck-Brentano C, Kroemer HK, Pavlou H, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Genetically-determined interaction between propafenone and low dose quinidine: role of active metabolites in modulating net drug effect. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1989 Apr; 27(4): 435-44. PMID: 2719900, PMCID: PMC1379722, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Funck-Brentano C, Turgeon J, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Effect of low dose quinidine on encainide pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Influence of genetic polymorphism. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1989 Apr; 249(1): 134-42. PMID: 2496225, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Greene HL, Richardson DW, Hallstrom AP, McBride R, Capone RJ, Barker AH, Roden DM, Echt DS. Congestive heart failure after acute myocardial infarction in patients receiving antiarrhythmic agents for ventricular premature complexes (Cardiac Arrhythmia Pilot Study). Am. J. Cardiol. 1989 Feb 2/15/1989; 63(7): 393-8. PMID: 2464919, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Greene HL, Richardson DW, Barker AH, Roden DM, Capone RJ, Echt DS, Friedman LM, Gillespie MJ, Hallstrom AP, Verter J. Classification of deaths after myocardial infarction as arrhythmic or nonarrhythmic (the Cardiac Arrhythmia Pilot Study). Am. J. Cardiol. 1989 Jan 1/1/1989; 63(1): 1-6. PMID: 2462341, ISSN: 0002-9149.

The CAST Investigators. Preliminary Report: Effect of encainide and flecainide on mortality in a randomized trial of arrhythmia suppression after myocardial infarction. 321. 1989; N. Eng. J. Med: 406-12.

Roden DM. Role of the electrocardiogram in determining electrophysiologic end points of drug therapy. Am. J. Cardiol. 1988 Oct 10/19/1988; 62(12): 34H-38H. PMID: 3052007, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Thompson KA, Murray JJ, Blair IA, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Plasma concentrations of quinidine, its major metabolites, and dihydroquinidine in patients with torsades de pointes. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1988 Jun; 43(6): 636-42. PMID: 3378385, PII: 0009-9236(88)90007-0, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Roden DM, Nadeau JH, Primm RK. Electrophysiologic and hemodynamic effects of chronic oral therapy with the alpha 2-agonists clonidine and tiamenidine in hypertensive volunteers. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1988 Jun; 43(6): 648-54. PMID: 2897889, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Kopelman HA, Woosley RL, Lee JT, Roden DM, Echt DS. Electrophysiologic effects of intravenous and oral sotalol for sustained ventricular tachycardia secondary to coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1988 May 5/1/1988; 61(13): 1006-11. PMID: 3284316, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Wang T, Siddoway LA, Thompson KA, Conard GJ, Bergstrand RH, Kvam D, Roden DM, Woosley RL. The development and testing of intravenous dosing regimens: application to flecainide for the suppression of ventricular arrhythmias. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1988 May; 43(5): 499-508. PMID: 3130211, PII: 0009-9236(88)90367-0, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Roden DM, Bennett PB, Snyders DJ, Balser JR, Hondeghem LM. Quinidine delays IK activation in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Circ. Res. 1988 May; 62(5): 1055-8. PMID: 2452034, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Woosley RL, Wood AJ, Roden DM. Drug therapy. Encainide. N. Engl. J. Med. 1988 Apr 4/28/1988; 318(17): 1107-15. PMID: 3127714, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198804283181706, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Thompson KA, Iansmith DH, Siddoway LA, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Potent electrophysiologic effects of the major metabolites of propafenone in canine Purkinje fibers. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1988 Mar; 244(3): 950-5. PMID: 3252042, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Roden DM, Woosley RL. Clinical pharmacokinetics of encainide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1988 Mar; 14(3): 141-7. PMID: 3131058, DOI: 10.2165/00003088-198814030-00002, ISSN: 0312-5963.

Barbey JT, Thompson KA, Echt DS, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Tocainide plus quinidine for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Am. J. Cardiol. 1988 Mar 3/1/1988; 61(8): 570-3. PMID: 3125737, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Barbey JT, Thompson KA, Echt DS, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Antiarrhythmic activity, electrocardiographic effects and pharmacokinetics of the encainide metabolites O-desmethyl encainide and 3-methoxy-O-desmethyl encainide in man. Circulation. 1988 Feb; 77(2): 380-91. PMID: 3123092, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Roden DM, Iansmith DH, Woosley RL. Frequency-dependent interactions of mexiletine and quinidine on depolarization and repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987 Dec; 243(3): 1218-24. PMID: 2447269, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Bajaj AK, Kopelman HA, Wikswo JP, Cassidy F, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Frequency- and orientation-dependent effects of mexiletine and quinidine on conduction in the intact dog heart. Circulation. 1987 May; 75(5): 1065-73. PMID: 2436827, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Woosley RL, Roden DM. Pharmacologic causes of arrhythmogenic actions of antiarrhythmic drugs. Am. J. Cardiol. 1987 Apr 4/30/1987; 59(11): 19E-25E. PMID: 3554949, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Siddoway LA, Thompson KA, McAllister CB, Wang T, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Polymorphism of propafenone metabolism and disposition in man: clinical and pharmacokinetic consequences. Circulation. 1987 Apr; 75(4): 785-91. PMID: 3829342, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Thompson KA, Blair IA, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Comparative in vitro electrophysiology of quinidine, its major metabolites and dihydroquinidine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987 Apr; 241(1): 84-90. PMID: 3572799, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Roden DM, Iansmith DH. Effects of low potassium or magnesium concentrations on isolated cardiac tissue. Am. J. Med. 1987 Mar 3/20/1987; 82(3A): 18-23. PMID: 3565423, ISSN: 0002-9343.

Siddoway LA, Barbey JT, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Pharmacologic evaluation of standard and controlled-release disopyramide. Angiology. 1987 Feb; 38(2 Pt 2): 184-7. PMID: 3103492, ISSN: 0003-3197.

Kolodgie FD, Dawson AK, Roden DM, Forman MB, Virmani R. Effect of Fluosol-DA on infarct morphology and vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmia. Am. Heart J. 1986 Dec; 112(6): 1192-201. PMID: 3788766, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Woosley RL. Disposition kinetics of encainide and metabolites. Am. J. Cardiol. 1986 Aug 8/29/1986; 58(5): 4C-9C. PMID: 3092618, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Bergstrand RH, Wang T, Roden DM, Avant GR, Sutton WW, Siddoway LA, Wolfenden H, Woosley RL, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJ. Encainide disposition in patients with chronic cirrhosis. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1986 Aug; 40(2): 148-54. PMID: 3089668, PII: 0009-9236(86)90044-5, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Roden DM, Woosley RL. Drug therapy. Flecainide. N. Engl. J. Med. 1986 Jul 7/3/1986; 315(1): 36-41. PMID: 3520324, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198607033150106, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Roden DM, Woosley RL. Drug therapy. Tocainide. N. Engl. J. Med. 1986 Jul 7/3/1986; 315(1): 41-5. PMID: 3086724, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198607033150107, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Bergstrand RH, Wang T, Roden DM, Stone WJ, Wolfenden HT, Woosley RL, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJ. Encainide disposition in patients with renal failure. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1986 Jul; 40(1): 64-70. PMID: 3087679, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Duff HJ, Kolodgie FD, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Electropharmacologic synergism with mexiletine and quinidine. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 1986 Jul; 8(4): 840-6. PMID: 2427827, ISSN: 0160-2446.

Roden DM, Thompson KA, Hoffman BF, Woosley RL. Clinical features and basic mechanisms of quinidine-induced arrhythmias. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1986 Jul; 8(1 Suppl A): 73A-78A. PMID: 2423573, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Hammon JW, Echt DS, Merrill WH, Primm KR, Woosley RL, Smith RF, Roden DM, Bender HW. Indications for different modes of surgical therapy in medically refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Ann. Surg. 1986 Jun; 203(6): 679-84. PMID: 3718030, PMCID: PMC1251204, ISSN: 0003-4932.

Roden DM, Woosley RL, Primm RK. Incidence and clinical features of the quinidine-associated long QT syndrome: implications for patient care. Am. Heart J. 1986 Jun; 111(6): 1088-93. PMID: 3716982, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Wang T, Bergstrand RH, Thompson KA, Siddoway LA, Duff HJ, Woosley RL, Roden DM. Concentration-dependent pharmacologic properties of sotalol. Am. J. Cardiol. 1986 May 5/1/1986; 57(13): 1160-5. PMID: 3706170, PII: 0002-9149(86)90692-2, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Woosley RL, Roden DM, Dai GH, Wang T, Altenbern D, Oates J, Wilkinson GR. Co-inheritance of the polymorphic metabolism of encainide and debrisoquin. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1986 Mar; 39(3): 282-7. PMID: 3081292, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Roden DM. Pharmacologic information required for design of programmed electrical stimulation protocols. Circulation. 1986 Feb; 73(2 Pt 2): II39-44. PMID: 3080263, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Woosley RL, Echt DS, Roden DM. Effects of congestive heart failure on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiarrhythmic agents. Am. J. Cardiol. 1986 Jan 1/31/1986; 57(3): 25B-33B. PMID: 3080860, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Duff HJ, Roden DM, Carey EL, Wang T, Primm RK, Woosley RL. Spectrum of antiarrhythmic response to encainide. Am. J. Cardiol. 1985 Nov 11/15/1985; 56(13): 887-91. PMID: 3933319, PII: 0002-9149(85)90776-3, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Woosley RL, Echt DS, Roden DM. Treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in the failing heart: pharmacologic and clinical considerations. Ration Drug Ther. 1985 Oct; 19(10): 1-7. PMID: 4070623, ISSN: 0031-7020.

Roden DM. Antiarrhythmic drugs. Clinical pharmacology of the old and the new agents. Postgrad Med. 1985 Sep 9/15/1985; 78(4): 28-37. PMID: 2412217, ISSN: 0032-5481.

Roden DM, Hoffman BF. Action potential prolongation and induction of abnormal automaticity by low quinidine concentrations in canine Purkinje fibers. Relationship to potassium and cycle length. Circ. Res. 1985 Jun; 56(6): 857-67. PMID: 4006095, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Roden DM. Tocainide and mexiletine. Orally effective lidocaine analogues. Arch. Intern. Med. 1985 Mar; 145(3): 417-8. PMID: 3919665, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Duff HJ, Roden DM, Yacobi A, Robertson D, Wang T, Maffucci RJ, Oates JA, Woosley RL. Bretylium: relations between plasma concentrations and pharmacologic actions in high-frequency ventricular arrhythmias. Am. J. Cardiol. 1985 Feb 2/1/1985; 55(4): 395-401. PMID: 3969876, PII: 0002-9149(85)90383-2, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM, Woosley RL. QT prolongation and arrhythmia suppression. Am. Heart J. 1985 Feb; 109(2): 411-5. PMID: 2578242, PII: 0002-8703(85)90627-1, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Siddoway LA, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Clinical pharmacology of old and new antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiovasc Clin. 1985; 15(3): 199-248. PMID: 2870805, ISSN: 0069-0384.

Roden, D.M., Hoffman, B. Action potential prolongation and induction of abnormnal automaticity by low quinidine concentrations in canine Purkinje fibers: Relationship to potassium and cycle length. Circ. Res. 1985; 56: 857-67.

Siddoway LA, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Clinical pharmacology of propafenone: pharmacokinetics, metabolism and concentration-response relations. Am. J. Cardiol. 1984 Nov 11/14/1984; 54(9): 9D-12D. PMID: 6496371, PII: S0002-9149(84)80278-7, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Dawson AK, Roden DM, Duff HJ, Woosley RL, Smith RF. Differential effects of O-demethyl encainide on induced and spontaneous arrhythmias in the conscious dog. Am. J. Cardiol. 1984 Sep 9/1/1984; 54(6): 654-8. PMID: 6475789, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Woosley RL, Cerskus I, Roden DM. Antiarrhythmic therapy: clinical pharmacology update. J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Jul; 24(7): 295-305. PMID: 6384277, ISSN: 0091-2700.

Duff HJ, Oates JA, Roden DM, Woosley RL. The antiarrhythmic activity of meobentine sulfate in man. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 1984 Jul; 6(4): 650-6. PMID: 6206320, ISSN: 0160-2446.

Roden DM, Dawson AK, Duff HJ, Woosley RL, Smith RF. Electrophysiology of O-demethyl encainide in a canine model of sustained ventricular tachycardia. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 1984 Jul; 6(4): 588-95. PMID: 6206311, ISSN: 0160-2446.

Wang T, Roden DM, Wolfenden HT, Woosley RL, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR. Influence of genetic polymorphism on the metabolism and disposition of encainide in man. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1984 Mar; 228(3): 605-11. PMID: 6423808, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Duff HJ, Roden DM, Marney S, Colley DG, Maffucci R, Primm RK, Oates JA, Woosley RL. Molecular basis for the antigenicity of lidocaine analogs: tocainide and mexiletine. Am. Heart J. 1984 Mar; 107(3): 585-9. PMID: 6421133, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Woosley RL, Siddoway LA, Duff HJ, Roden DM. Flecainide dose-response relations in stable ventricular arrhythmias. Am. J. Cardiol. 1984 Feb 2/27/1984; 53(5): 59B-65B. PMID: 6695819, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Carey EL, Duff HJ, Roden DM, Primm RK, Wilkinson GR, Wang T, Oates JA, Woosley RL. Encainide and its metabolites. Comparative effects in man on ventricular arrhythmia and electrocardiographic intervals. J. Clin. Invest. 1984 Feb; 73(2): 539-47. PMID: 6421879, PMCID: PMC425046, DOI: 10.1172/JCI111241, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Woosley RL, Siddoway LA, Thompson K, Cerskus I, Roden DM. Potential applications of free drug level monitoring in cardiovascular therapy. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1984 Jan; 9 Suppl 1: 79-83. PMID: 6705429, ISSN: 0312-5963.

Riddell JG, McAllister CB, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJ, Roden DM. A new method for constant plasma drug concentrations: application to lidocaine. Ann. Intern. Med. 1984 Jan; 100(1): 25-8. PMID: 6691655, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Duff HJ, Roden DM, Brorson L, Wood AJ, Dawson AK, Primm RK, Oates JA, Smith RF, Woosley RL. Electrophysiologic actions of high plasma concentrations of propranolol in human subjects. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1983 Dec; 2(6): 1134-40. PMID: 6630784, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Siddoway LA, McAllister CB, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM, Woosley RL. Amiodarone dosing: a proposal based on its pharmacokinetics. Am. Heart J. 1983 Oct; 106(4 Pt 2): 951-6. PMID: 6613842, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Woosley RL, Roden DM. Importance of metabolites in antiarrhythmic therapy. Am. J. Cardiol. 1983 Sep 9/22/1983; 52(6): 3C-7C. PMID: 6194679, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Duff HJ, Dawson AK, Roden DM, Oates JA, Smith RF, Woosley RL. Electrophysiologic actions of O-demethyl encainide: an active metabolite. Circulation. 1983 Aug; 68(2): 385-91. PMID: 6861313, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Roden DM, Woosley RL. Class I antiarrhythmic agents: quinidine, procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide, disopyramide. Pharmacol. Ther. 1983; 23(2): 179-91. PMID: 6199801, PII: 0163-7258(83)90012-8, ISSN: 0163-7258.

Woosley RL, Reele SB, Roden DM, Nies AS, Oates JA. Pharmacologic reversal of hypotensive effect complicating antiarrhythmic therapy with bretylium. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1982 Sep; 32(3): 313-21. PMID: 7105622, PII: 0009-9236(82)90150-3, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Duff HJ, Roden DM, Dawson AK, Oates JA, Smith RF, Woosley RL. Comparison of the effects of placebo and encainide on programmed electrical stimulation and ventricular arrhythmia frequency. Am. J. Cardiol. 1982 Aug; 50(2): 305-12. PMID: 6808820, PII: 0002-9149(82)90181-3, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM, Duff HJ, Altenbern D, Woosley RL. Antiarrhythmic activity of the O-demethyl metabolite of encainide. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1982 Jun; 221(3): 552-7. PMID: 6806461, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Woosley RL, Roden DM, Duff HJ, Oates JA. Selection of an antiarrhythmic drug for a sudden-death-prevention trial. Am. Heart J. 1982 Apr; 103(4 Pt 2): 737-45. PMID: 6175198, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Duff HJ, Roden DM, Maffucci RJ, Vesper BS, Conard GJ, Higgins SB, Oates JA, Smith RF, Woosley RL. Suppression of resistant ventricular arrhythmias by twice daily dosing with flecainide. Am. J. Cardiol. 1981 Dec; 48(6): 1133-40. PMID: 7304461, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM, Duff HJ, Primm RK, Kronenberg MW, Woosley RL. Control of ventricular preexcitation and associated arrhythmias by encainide. Am. Heart J. 1981 Oct; 102(4): 794-7. PMID: 6792894, PII: 0002-8703(81)90111-3, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Roden DM, Duff HJ, Reele SB, Woosley RL, Oates JA, Smith RF, Friesinger GC. Recurrent ventricular tachycardia in the absence of overt heart disease: clinical characteristics and response to drug therapy. South. Med. J. 1981 Sep; 74(9): 1090-4. PMID: 7280757, ISSN: 0038-4348.

Roden DM, Reele SB, Higgins SB, Wilkinson GR, Smith RF, Oates JA, Woosley RL. Antiarrhythmic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of N-acetylprocainamide in human subjects: comparison with procainamide. Am. J. Cardiol. 1980 Sep; 46(3): 463-8. PMID: 6158263, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Roden DM, Roden DM, Reele SB, Reele SB, Higgins SB, Higgins SB, Carr RK, Carr RK, Smith RF, Smith RF, Oates JA, Oates JA, Woosley RL, Woosley RL. Tocainide therapy for refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Am. Heart J. 1980 Jul; 100(1): 15-22. PMID: 6770666, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Roden DM, Reele SB, Higgins SB, Mayol RF, Gammans RE, Oates JA, Woosley RL. Total suppression of ventricular arrhythmias by encainide. Pharmacokinetic and electrocardiographic characteristics. N. Engl. J. Med. 1980 Apr 4/17/1980; 302(16): 877-82. PMID: 6767186, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198004173021601, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Darbar D, Hardin B, Harris P, Roden DM. Marked steepening of QT restitution following conversion of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol.