MacRae F. Linton, M.D.

Professor

macrae.linton@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Medicine Dr. Stephen J. Schillig, Jr. and Mary Schillig Chair in MedicineProfessor of Pharmacology
Education
M.D., Medicine, University of Tennessee Center for Health Science, Memphis, TennesseeB.S., Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
Office Address
383 PRB, Cardiovascular Medicine
TN 6300
Research Description
Research in Dr. Linton's laboratory focuses on the areas of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. A major focus is the investigation of the role of the macrophage in atherosclerosis. The first recognizable lesion of atherosclerosis is the fatty streak which consists primarily of cholesterol loaded macrophages or foam cells. The macrophage expresses genes for a number of lipoprotein receptors, apoproteins, enzymes, and cytokines that may influence foam cell formation and atherogenesis. Since tissue macrophages are derived from monocytes, bone marrow transplantation in gene targeted mice is being used to deliver genetically altered macrophages to the atherosclerotic lesion, providing an in vivo model in which to examine the role of expression of various candidate genes by the macrophage in atherogenesis. Recent studies have focused on the role of apolipoprotein (apo) E secretion by the macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ApoE is a ligand for receptor mediated lipoprotein clearance, and studies in Dr. Linton's laboratory have demonstrated that expression of apoE by the macrophage in the artery wall is a protective mechanism that retards foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Gene transfer studies are in progress to investigate the potential of the macrophage as a vehicle for cellular gene therapy of atherosclerotic lesions.
Research Keywords
The Macrophage in Artherosclerosis; Gene Therapy
Publications
Linton MF, Tao H, Linton EF, Yancey PG. SR-BI: A Multifunctional Receptor in Cholesterol Homeostasis and Atherosclerosis. Trends Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2017 Jun; 28(6): 461-72. PMID: 28259375, PMCID: PMC5438771, PII: S1043-2760(17)30017-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2017.02.001, ISSN: 1879-3061.

Beigneux AP, Miyashita K, Ploug M, Blom DJ, Ai M, Linton MF, Khovidhunkit W, Dufour R, Garg A, McMahon MA, Pullinger CR, Sandoval NP, Hu X, Allan CM, Larsson M, Machida T, Murakami M, Reue K, Tontonoz P, Goldberg IJ, Moulin P, Charrière S, Fong LG, Nakajima K, Young SG. Autoantibodies against GPIHBP1 as a Cause of Hypertriglyceridemia. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr 4/27/2017; 376(17): 1647-58. PMID: 28402248, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1611930, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Hu X, Sleeman MW, Miyashita K, Linton MF, Allan CM, He C, Larsson M, Tu Y, Sandoval NP, Jung RS, Mapar A, Machida T, Murakami M, Nakajima K, Ploug M, Fong LG, Young SG, Beigneux AP. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to the Ly6 domain of GPIHBP1 abolish the binding of LPL. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2017 Jan; 58(1): 208-15. PMID: 27875259, PMCID: PMC5234723, PII: jlr.M072462, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M072462, ISSN: 1539-7262.

Ormseth MJ, Yancey PG, Yamamoto S, Oeser AM, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Linton MF, Fazio S, Davies SS, Roberts LJ, Vickers KC, Raggi P, Kon V, Stein CM. Net cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL enriched serum and coronary atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. IJC Metab Endocr [print-electronic]. 2016 Dec; 13: 6-11. PMID: 28243578, PMCID: PMC5325720, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcme.2016.08.002.

Linton MF, Babaev VR, Huang J, Linton EF, Tao H, Yancey PG. Macrophage Apoptosis and Efferocytosis in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. Circ. J [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct 10/25/2016; 80(11): 2259-68. PMID: 27725526, PMCID: PMC5459487, DOI: 10.1253/circj.CJ-16-0924, ISSN: 1347-4820.

Ahmad ZS, Andersen RL, Andersen LH, O'Brien EC, Kindt I, Shrader P, Vasandani C, Newman CB, deGoma EM, Baum SJ, Hemphill LC, Hudgins LC, Ahmed CD, Kullo IJ, Gidding SS, Duffy D, Neal W, Wilemon K, Roe MT, Rader DJ, Ballantyne CM, Linton MF, Duell PB, Shapiro MD, Moriarty PM, Knowles JW. US physician practices for diagnosing familial hypercholesterolemia: data from the CASCADE-FH registry. J Clin Lipidol [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep; 10(5): 1223-9. PMID: 27678440, PMCID: PMC5381273, PII: S1933-2874(16)30274-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacl.2016.07.011, ISSN: 1933-2874.

Ormseth MJ, Yancey PG, Solus JF, Louis Bridges S, Curtis JR, Linton MF, Fazio S, Davies SS, Roberts LJ, Vickers KC, Kon V, Michael Stein C, . Effect of Drug Therapy on Net Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of High-Density Lipoprotein-Enriched Serum in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 2016 Sep; 68(9): 2099-105. PMID: 26991245, PMCID: PMC5001900, DOI: 10.1002/art.39675, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Zhu L, Giunzioni I, Tavori H, Covarrubias R, Ding L, Zhang Y, Ormseth M, Major AS, Stafford JM, Linton MF, Fazio S. Loss of Macrophage Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 Confers Resistance to the Antiatherogenic Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Inhibition. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug; 36(8): 1483-95. PMID: 27365402, PMCID: PMC5346022, PII: ATVBAHA.116.307736, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.307736, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Babaev VR, Yeung M, Erbay E, Ding L, Zhang Y, May JM, Fazio S, Hotamisligil GS, Linton MF. Jnk1 Deficiency in Hematopoietic Cells Suppresses Macrophage Apoptosis and Increases Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Null Mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 36(6): 1122-31. PMID: 27102962, PMCID: PMC4882236, PII: ATVBAHA.116.307580, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.307580, ISSN: 1524-4636.

deGoma EM, Ahmad ZS, O'Brien EC, Kindt I, Shrader P, Newman CB, Pokharel Y, Baum SJ, Hemphill LC, Hudgins LC, Ahmed CD, Gidding SS, Duffy D, Neal W, Wilemon K, Roe MT, Rader DJ, Ballantyne CM, Linton MF, Duell PB, Shapiro MD, Moriarty PM, Knowles JW. Treatment Gaps in Adults With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in the United States: Data From the CASCADE-FH Registry. Circ Cardiovasc Genet [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 9(3): 240-9. PMID: 27013694, PMCID: PMC5315030, PII: CIRCGENETICS.116.001381, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.116.001381, ISSN: 1942-3268.

Tavori H, Giunzioni I, Predazzi IM, Plubell D, Shivinsky A, Miles J, Devay RM, Liang H, Rashid S, Linton MF, Fazio S. Human PCSK9 promotes hepatic lipogenesis and atherosclerosis development via apoE- and LDLR-mediated mechanisms. Cardiovasc. Res [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/15/2016; 110(2): 268-78. PMID: 26980204, PMCID: PMC4836631, PII: cvw053, DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvw053, ISSN: 1755-3245.

Babaev VR, Ding L, Zhang Y, May JM, Lin PC, Fazio S, Linton MF. Macrophage IKKa Deficiency Suppresses Akt Phosphorylation, Reduces Cell Survival, and Decreases Early Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr; 36(4): 598-607. PMID: 26848161, PMCID: PMC4808396, PII: ATVBAHA.115.306931, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.306931, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Kon V, Linton MF. HDL: Beyond Atheroprotection [editorial]. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb; 27(2): 341-4. PMID: 26319243, PMCID: PMC4731133, PII: ASN.2015070793, DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2015070793, ISSN: 1533-3450.

Giunzioni I, Tavori H, Covarrubias R, Major AS, Ding L, Zhang Y, DeVay RM, Hong L, Fan D, Predazzi IM, Rashid S, Linton MF, Fazio S. Local effects of human PCSK9 on the atherosclerotic lesion. J. Pathol [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan; 238(1): 52-62. PMID: 26333678, PMCID: PMC5346023, DOI: 10.1002/path.4630, ISSN: 1096-9896.

Yamamoto S, Zhong J, Yancey PG, Zuo Y, Linton MF, Fazio S, Yang H, Narita I, Kon V. Atherosclerosis following renal injury is ameliorated by pioglitazone and losartan via macrophage phenotype. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 242(1): 56-64. PMID: 26184694, PMCID: PMC4850906, PII: S0021-9150(15)30016-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.06.055, ISSN: 1879-1484.

Tao H, Yancey PG, Babaev VR, Blakemore JL, Zhang Y, Ding L, Fazio S, Linton MF. Macrophage SR-BI mediates efferocytosis via Src/PI3K/Rac1 signaling and reduces atherosclerotic lesion necrosis. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 56(8): 1449-60. PMID: 26059978, PMCID: PMC4513986, PII: jlr.M056689, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M056689, ISSN: 1539-7262.

Predazzi IM, Sobota RS, Sanna S, Bush WS, Bartlett J, Lilley JS, Linton MF, Schlessinger D, Cucca F, Fazio S, Williams SM. Sex-Specific Parental Effects on Offspring Lipid Levels. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jun 6/30/2015; 4(7): PMID: 26126546, PMCID: PMC4608079, PII: JAHA.115.001951, DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.115.001951, ISSN: 2047-9980.

Guo L, Chen Z, Amarnath V, Yancey PG, Van Lenten BJ, Savage JR, Fazio S, Linton MF, Davies SS. Isolevuglandin-type lipid aldehydes induce the inflammatory response of macrophages by modifying phosphatidylethanolamines and activating the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts. Antioxid. Redox Signal [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun 6/20/2015; 22(18): 1633-45. PMID: 25751734, PMCID: PMC4485367, DOI: 10.1089/ars.2014.6078, ISSN: 1557-7716.

Rashid S, Tavori H, Brown PE, Linton MF, He J, Giunzioni I, Fazio S. Response to letter regarding article, "Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 promotes intestinal overproduction of triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B lipoproteins through both low-density lipoprotein receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms" [letter]. Circulation. 2015 May 5/5/2015; 131(18): e428. PMID: 25940973, PMCID: PMC4547604, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013729, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013729, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Tavori H, Su YR, Yancey PG, Giunzioni I, Wilhelm AJ, Blakemore JL, Zabalawi M, Linton MF, Sorci-Thomas MG, Fazio S. Macrophage apoAI protects against dyslipidemia-induced dermatitis and atherosclerosis without affecting HDL. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2015 Mar; 56(3): 635-43. PMID: 25593328, PMCID: PMC4340310, PII: jlr.M056408, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M056408, ISSN: 1539-7262.

Kaseda R, Jabs K, Hunley TE, Jones D, Bian A, Allen RM, Vickers KC, Yancey PG, Linton MF, Fazio S, Kon V. Dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins in children with chronic kidney disease. Metab. Clin. Exp [print-electronic]. 2015 Feb; 64(2): 263-73. PMID: 25467845, PMCID: PMC4277938, PII: S0026-0495(14)00329-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.10.020, ISSN: 1532-8600.

Wu SH, Shu XO, Milne G, Xiang YB, Zhang X, Cai Q, Fazio S, Linton MF, Chen H, Purdue M, Rothman N, Gao YT, Zheng W, Yang G. Uric acid correlates to oxidation and inflammation in opposite directions in women. Biomarkers. 2015; 20(4): 225-31. PMID: 26301880, PMCID: PMC4989504, DOI: 10.3109/1354750X.2015.1068852, ISSN: 1366-5804.

Segedy AK, Pyle AL, Li B, Zhang Y, Babaev VR, Jat P, Fazio S, Atkinson JB, Linton MF, Young PP. Identification of small proline-rich repeat protein 3 as a novel atheroprotective factor that promotes adaptive Akt signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 34(12): 2527-36. PMID: 25278290, PMCID: PMC4239161, PII: ATVBAHA.114.303644, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303644, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Babaev VR, Hebron KE, Wiese CB, Toth CL, Ding L, Zhang Y, May JM, Fazio S, Vickers KC, Linton MF. Macrophage deficiency of Akt2 reduces atherosclerosis in Ldlr null mice. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 55(11): 2296-308. PMID: 25240046, PMCID: PMC4617132, PII: jlr.M050633, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M050633, ISSN: 1539-7262.

Tavori H, Fan D, Giunzioni I, Zhu L, Linton MF, Fogo AB, Fazio S. Macrophage-derived apoESendai suppresses atherosclerosis while causing lipoprotein glomerulopathy in hyperlipidemic mice. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2014 Oct; 55(10): 2073-81. PMID: 25183802, PMCID: PMC4174000, PII: jlr.M049874, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M049874, ISSN: 1539-7262.

Rashid S, Tavori H, Brown PE, Linton MF, He J, Giunzioni I, Fazio S. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 promotes intestinal overproduction of triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B lipoproteins through both low-density lipoprotein receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul 7/29/2014; 130(5): 431-41. PMID: 25070550, PMCID: PMC4115295, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006720, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006720, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Tavori H, Giunzioni I, Linton MF, Fazio S. Response to Duell et al [letter]. Circ. Res. 2014 Jun 6/20/2014; 115(1): e5. PMID: 24951770, PII: CIRCRESAHA.114.304199, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.304199, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Tavori H, Giunzioni I, Linton MF, Fazio S. Loss of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) after lipoprotein apheresis. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec 12/6/2013; 113(12): 1290-5. PMID: 24122718, PMCID: PMC3939022, PII: CIRCRESAHA.113.302655, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.302655, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Lilley JS, Linton MF, Fazio S. Oral retinoids and plasma lipids. Dermatol Ther. 2013 Sep; 26(5): 404-10. PMID: 24099071, DOI: 10.1111/dth.12085, ISSN: 1529-8019.

Tavori H, Fan D, Blakemore JL, Yancey PG, Ding L, Linton MF, Fazio S. Serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 and cell surface low-density lipoprotein receptor: evidence for a reciprocal regulation. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun 6/18/2013; 127(24): 2403-13. PMID: 23690465, PMCID: PMC3806304, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.113.001592, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.001592, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Ormseth MJ, Swift LL, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raggi P, Solus JF, Oeser A, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Free fatty acids are associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance but not inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 22(1): 26-33. PMID: 23060481, PMCID: PMC3684362, PII: 0961203312462756, DOI: 10.1177/0961203312462756, ISSN: 1477-0962.

Yamamoto S, Yancey PG, Ikizler TA, Jerome WG, Kaseda R, Cox B, Bian A, Shintani A, Fogo AB, Linton MF, Fazio S, Kon V. Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein in patients on chronic hemodialysis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec 12/11/2012; 60(23): 2372-9. PMID: 23141484, PII: S0735-1097(12)04651-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.09.013, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Fazio S, Linton MF. When it looks like familial hypercholesterolemia...but is not [editorial]. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012 Dec; 5(6): 599-601. PMID: 23250898, PII: 5/6/599, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.965137, ISSN: 1942-3268.

Levin MC, Lidberg U, Jirholt P, Adiels M, Wramstedt A, Gustafsson K, Greaves DR, Li S, Fazio S, Linton MF, Olofsson SO, Borén J, Gjertsson I. Evaluation of macrophage-specific promoters using lentiviral delivery in mice. Gene Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov; 19(11): 1041-7. PMID: 22130447, PMCID: PMC3697098, PII: gt2011195, DOI: 10.1038/gt.2011.195, ISSN: 1476-5462.

Fazio S, Linton MF. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 as transducer of physiologic influences on cellular cholesterol: a case for resistin [editorial]. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2012 May 5/8/2012; 59(19): 1706-8. PMID: 22554601, PII: S0735-1097(12)00636-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.01.034, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Villegas R, Xiang YB, Elasy T, Xu WH, Cai H, Cai Q, Linton MF, Fazio S, Zheng W, Shu XO. Purine-rich foods, protein intake, and the prevalence of hyperuricemia: the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 22(5): 409-16. PMID: 21277179, PMCID: PMC3150417, PII: S0939-4753(10)00185-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.07.012, ISSN: 1590-3729.

Fazio S, Linton MF. Inhibition of apolipoprotein(a) synthesis by farnesoid X receptor and fibroblast growth factor 15/19: a step toward selective lipoprotein(a) therapeutics [editorial]. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2012 May; 32(5): 1060-2. PMID: 22517359, PII: 32/5/1060, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.245571, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Villegas R, Xiang YB, Cai H, Elasy T, Cai Q, Zhang X, Fazio S, Linton MF, Li H, Xu WH, Yang G, Zheng W, Shu XO. Lifestyle determinants of C-reactive protein in middle-aged, urban Chinese men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar; 22(3): 223-30. PMID: 21111583, PMCID: PMC3143269, PII: S0939-4753(10)00180-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.07.007, ISSN: 1590-3729.

Lilley JS, Linton MF, Fazio S. Dyslipidemias in children. Pediatr Ann. 2012 Feb; 41(2): e1-7. PMID: 22299622, DOI: 10.3928/00904481-20120110-08, ISSN: 0090-4481.

Sampson UK, Fazio S, Linton MF. Residual cardiovascular risk despite optimal LDL cholesterol reduction with statins: the evidence, etiology, and therapeutic challenges. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012 Feb; 14(1): 1-10. PMID: 22102062, PMCID: PMC3697085, DOI: 10.1007/s11883-011-0219-7, ISSN: 1534-6242.

Prins PA, Perati PR, Kon V, Guo Z, Ramesh A, Linton MF, Fazio S, Sampson UK. Benzo[a]pyrene potentiates the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Cell. Physiol. Biochem [print-electronic]. 2012; 29(1-2): 121-30. PMID: 22415081, PMCID: PMC3711770, PII: 000337593, DOI: 10.1159/000337593, ISSN: 1421-9778.

Du F, Hui Y, Zhang M, Linton MF, Fazio S, Fan D. Novel domain interaction regulates secretion of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) protein. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec 12/16/2011; 286(50): 43054-61. PMID: 22027821, PMCID: PMC3234880, PII: M111.273474, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.273474, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Fazio S, Linton MF. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol due to lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase mutations increase carotid atherosclerosis [editorial]. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2011 Dec 12/6/2011; 58(24): 2488-90. PMID: 22133848, PII: S0735-1097(11)03423-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.11.091, ISSN: 1558-3597.

Yamamoto S, Yancey PG, Zuo Y, Ma LJ, Kaseda R, Fogo AB, Ichikawa I, Linton MF, Fazio S, Kon V. Macrophage polarization by angiotensin II-type 1 receptor aggravates renal injury-acceleration of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec; 31(12): 2856-64. PMID: 21979434, PMCID: PMC3227118, PII: ATVBAHA.111.237198, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.237198, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Ormseth MJ, Swift LL, Fazio S, Linton MF, Chung CP, Raggi P, Rho YH, Solus J, Oeser A, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Free fatty acids are associated with insulin resistance but not coronary artery atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec; 219(2): 869-74. PMID: 21974844, PMCID: PMC3226875, PII: S0021-9150(11)00861-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.09.005, ISSN: 1879-1484.

Villegas R, Xiang YB, Elasy T, Cai Q, Xu W, Li H, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raiford D, Zheng W, Shu XO. Liver enzymes, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged, urban Chinese men. Metab Syndr Relat Disord [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 9(4): 305-11. PMID: 21495862, PMCID: PMC3142636, DOI: 10.1089/met.2011.0016, ISSN: 1557-8518.

Yamamoto S, Zuo Y, Ma J, Yancey PG, Hunley TE, Motojima M, Fogo AB, Linton MF, Fazio S, Ichikawa I, Kon V. Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates extent and instability of atherosclerosis accelerated by kidney disease in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 26(8): 2491-7. PMID: 21245127, PMCID: PMC3203394, PII: gfq759, DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfq759, ISSN: 1460-2385.

Yancey PG, Ding Y, Fan D, Blakemore JL, Zhang Y, Ding L, Zhang J, Linton MF, Fazio S. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 prevents early atherosclerosis by limiting lesional apoptosis and inflammatory Ly-6Chigh monocytosis: evidence that the effects are not apolipoprotein E dependent. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul 7/26/2011; 124(4): 454-64. PMID: 21730304, PMCID: PMC3144781, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.111.032268, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.032268, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Sampson UK, Linton MF, Fazio S. Are statins diabetogenic?. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 2011 Jul; 26(4): 342-7. PMID: 21499090, PMCID: PMC3341610, DOI: 10.1097/HCO.0b013e3283470359, ISSN: 1531-7080.

Sampson UK, Perati PR, Prins PA, Pham W, Liu Z, Harrell FE, Linton MF, Gore JC, Kon V, Fazio S. Quantitative estimates of the variability of in vivo sonographic measurements of the mouse aorta for studies of abdominal aortic aneurysms and related arterial diseases. J Ultrasound Med. 2011 Jun; 30(6): 773-84. PMID: 21632991, PMCID: PMC3810347, PII: 30/6/773, ISSN: 1550-9613.

Babaev VR, Runner RP, Fan D, Ding L, Zhang Y, Tao H, Erbay E, Görgün CZ, Fazio S, Hotamisligil GS, Linton MF. Macrophage Mal1 deficiency suppresses atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-¿-regulated genes. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun; 31(6): 1283-90. PMID: 21474828, PMCID: PMC3135083, PII: ATVBAHA.111.225839, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.225839, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Ma LJ, Corsa BA, Zhou J, Yang H, Li H, Tang YW, Babaev VR, Major AS, Linton MF, Fazio S, Hunley TE, Kon V, Fogo AB. Angiotensin type 1 receptor modulates macrophage polarization and renal injury in obesity. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol [print-electronic]. 2011 May; 300(5): F1203-13. PMID: 21367915, PMCID: PMC3094053, PII: ajprenal.00468.2010, DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00468.2010, ISSN: 1522-1466.

Woo KV, Qu X, Babaev VR, Linton MF, Guzman RJ, Fazio S, Baldwin HS. Tie1 attenuation reduces murine atherosclerosis in a dose-dependent and shear stress-specific manner. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 121(4): 1624-35. PMID: 21383501, PMCID: PMC3069759, PII: 42040, DOI: 10.1172/JCI42040, ISSN: 1558-8238.

Kon V, Linton MF, Fazio S. Atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease: the role of macrophages. Nat Rev Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 7(1): 45-54. PMID: 21102540, PMCID: PMC3810304, PII: nrneph.2010.157, DOI: 10.1038/nrneph.2010.157, ISSN: 1759-507X.

Babaev VR, Whitesell RR, Li L, Linton MF, Fazio S, May JM. Selective macrophage ascorbate deficiency suppresses early atherosclerosis. Free Radic. Biol. Med [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan 1/1/2011; 50(1): 27-36. PMID: 20974251, PMCID: PMC3014415, PII: S0891-5849(10)01325-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.10.702, ISSN: 1873-4596.

Fazio S, Linton MF. High-density lipoprotein therapeutics and cardiovascular prevention. J Clin Lipidol [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 4(5): 411-9. PMID: 21122685, PII: S1933-2874(10)00290-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacl.2010.08.004, ISSN: 1933-2874.

Babaev VR, Li L, Shah S, Fazio S, Linton MF, May JM. Combined vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency worsens early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 30(9): 1751-7. PMID: 20558818, PMCID: PMC2924448, PII: ATVBAHA.110.209502, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.209502, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Raggi P, Sokka T, Pincus T, Solus JF, Linton MF, Fazio S, Stein CM. Lipoprotein subclasses determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2010 Aug 8/1/2010; 37(8): 1633-8. PMID: 20516025, PMCID: PMC2914215, PII: jrheum.090639, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.090639, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Jayagopal A, Linton MF, Fazio S, Haselton FR. Insights into atherosclerosis using nanotechnology. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010 May; 12(3): 209-15. PMID: 20425261, PMCID: PMC2863145, DOI: 10.1007/s11883-010-0106-7, ISSN: 1534-6242.

Yancey PG, Blakemore J, Ding L, Fan D, Overton CD, Zhang Y, Linton MF, Fazio S. Macrophage LRP-1 controls plaque cellularity by regulating efferocytosis and Akt activation. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 30(4): 787-95. PMID: 20150557, PMCID: PMC2845445, PII: ATVBAHA.109.202051, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.202051, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Zuo Y, Yancey P, Castro I, Khan WN, Motojima M, Ichikawa I, Fogo AB, Linton MF, Fazio S, Kon V. Renal dysfunction potentiates foam cell formation by repressing ABCA1. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 29(9): 1277-82. PMID: 19667109, PMCID: PMC2748735, PII: ATVBAHA.109.188995, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.188995, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Fazio S, Linton MF. Fenofibrate and risk of minor amputations in diabetes. Lancet. 2009 May 5/23/2009; 373(9677): 1740-1. PMID: 19465214, PII: S0140-6736(09)60959-4, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60959-4, ISSN: 1474-547X.

Jayagopal A, Su YR, Blakemore JL, Linton MF, Fazio S, Haselton FR. Quantum dot mediated imaging of atherosclerosis. Nanotechnology [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr 4/22/2009; 20(16): 165102. PMID: 19420562, PMCID: PMC2718756, PII: S0957-4484(09)04835-1, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/20/16/165102, ISSN: 1361-6528.

Villegas R, Xiang YB, Yang G, Cai Q, Fazio S, Linton MF, Elasy T, Xu WH, Li H, Cai H, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome according to three definitions in middle-aged Chinese men. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Feb; 7(1): 37-45. PMID: 19032041, PMCID: PMC3135894, DOI: 10.1089/met.2008.0042, ISSN: 1557-8518.

Babaev VR, Chew JD, Ding L, Davis S, Breyer MD, Breyer RM, Oates JA, Fazio S, Linton MF. Macrophage EP4 deficiency increases apoptosis and suppresses early atherosclerosis. Cell Metab. 2008 Dec; 8(6): 492-501. PMID: 19041765, PMCID: PMC2614698, PII: S1550-4131(08)00289-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.09.005, ISSN: 1932-7420.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Raggi P, Solus JF, Avalos I, Linton MF, Fazio S, Stein CM. Lipoprotein subclasses and particle size determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 27(10): 1227-33. PMID: 18421545, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-008-0890-4, ISSN: 0770-3198.

Su YR, Blakemore JL, Zhang Y, Linton MF, Fazio S. Lentiviral transduction of apoAI into hematopoietic progenitor cells and macrophages: applications to cell therapy of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 28(8): 1439-46. PMID: 18497309, PMCID: PMC2744493, PII: ATVBAHA.107.160093, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.160093, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Mathew RP, Byrne DW, Linton MF, Vaughan DE, Fazio S, Russell WE. Evidence of metabolic syndrome in lean children with premature pubarche at diagnosis. Metab. Clin. Exp. 2008 Jun; 57(6): 733-40. PMID: 18502254, PII: S0026-0495(08)00043-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.01.010, ISSN: 0026-0495.

Ali YS, Linton MF, Fazio S. Targeting cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: management of dyslipidemia. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Apr; 15(2): 142-6. PMID: 18316949, PII: 01266029-200804000-00007, DOI: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3282f5ff98, ISSN: 1752-2978.

Babaev VR, Porro F, Linton MF, Fazio S, Baralle FE, Muro AF. Absence of regulated splicing of fibronectin EDA exon reduces atherosclerosis in mice. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2008 Apr; 197(2): 534-40. PMID: 17897651, PMCID: PMC2358924, PII: S0021-9150(07)00498-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.08.015, ISSN: 1879-1484.

Fan D, Yancey PG, Qiu S, Ding L, Weeber EJ, Linton MF, Fazio S. Self-association of human PCSK9 correlates with its LDLR-degrading activity. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb 2/12/2008; 47(6): 1631-9. PMID: 18197702, PMCID: PMC2732112, DOI: 10.1021/bi7016359, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Zhang X, Shu XO, Signorello LB, Hargreaves MK, Cai Q, Linton MF, Fazio S, Zheng W, Blot WJ. Correlates of high serum C-reactive protein levels in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. Dis. Markers. 2008; 24(6): 351-9. PMID: 18688084, PMCID: PMC3850538, ISSN: 0278-0240.

Lee SA, Wen W, Xiang YB, Fazio S, Linton MF, Cai Q, Liu D, Zheng W, Shu XO. Stability and reliability of plasma level of lipid biomarkers and their correlation with dietary fat intake. Dis. Markers. 2008; 24(2): 73-9. PMID: 18219092, PMCID: PMC3850520, ISSN: 0278-0240.

Linton MF, Fazio S. Cyclooxygenase products and atherosclerosis. Drug Discov Today Ther Strateg. 2008; 5(1): 25-36. PMID: 19343100, PMCID: PMC2630286, DOI: 10.1016/j.ddstr.2008.05.006.

Roberts LJ, Oates JA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Meador BP, Gross MD, Shyr Y, Morrow JD. The relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humans. Free Radic. Biol. Med [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov 11/15/2007; 43(10): 1388-93. PMID: 17936185, PMCID: PMC2072864, PII: S0891-5849(07)00455-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.06.019, ISSN: 0891-5849.

Lee SA, Kallianpur A, Xiang YB, Wen W, Cai Q, Liu D, Fazio S, Linton MF, Zheng W, Shu XO. Intra-individual variation of plasma adipokine levels and utility of single measurement of these biomarkers in population-based studies. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Nov; 16(11): 2464-70. PMID: 18006938, PII: 16/11/2464, DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0374, ISSN: 1055-9965.

Babaev VR, Ishiguro H, Ding L, Yancey PG, Dove DE, Kovacs WJ, Semenkovich CF, Fazio S, Linton MF. Macrophage expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha reduces atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep 9/18/2007; 116(12): 1404-12. PMID: 17724261, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.106.684704, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.684704, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus J, Avalos I, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Linton MF, Fazio S, Stein CM. Inflammatory mechanisms affecting the lipid profile in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep; 34(9): 1849-54. PMID: 17659756, PII: 07/13/0719, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Suganuma E, Babaev VR, Motojima M, Zuo Y, Ayabe N, Fogo AB, Ichikawa I, Linton MF, Fazio S, Kon V. Angiotensin inhibition decreases progression of advanced atherosclerosis and stabilizes established atherosclerotic plaques. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 18(8): 2311-9. PMID: 17634441, PII: ASN.2006090967, DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2006090967, ISSN: 1046-6673.

Fan D, Qiu S, Overton CD, Yancey PG, Swift LL, Jerome WG, Linton MF, Fazio S. Impaired secretion of apolipoprotein E2 from macrophages. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2007 May 5/4/2007; 282(18): 13746-53. PMID: 17341585, PII: M611754200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M611754200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Yancey PG, Yu H, Linton MF, Fazio S. A pathway-dependent on apoE, ApoAI, and ABCA1 determines formation of buoyant high-density lipoprotein by macrophage foam cells. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 May; 27(5): 1123-31. PMID: 17303773, PII: ATVBAHA.107.139592, DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.139592, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Yancey PG, Jerome WG, Yu H, Griffin EE, Cox BE, Babaev VR, Fazio S, Linton MF. Severely altered cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages lacking apoE and SR-BI. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2007 May; 48(5): 1140-9. PMID: 17299204, PII: M600539-JLR200, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M600539-JLR200, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Overton CD, Yancey PG, Major AS, Linton MF, Fazio S. Deletion of macrophage LDL receptor-related protein increases atherogenesis in the mouse. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2007 Mar 3/16/2007; 100(5): 670-7. PMID: 17303763, PII: 01.RES.0000260204.40510.aa, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000260204.40510.aa, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Dove DE, Su YR, Swift LL, Linton MF, Fazio S. ACAT1 deficiency increases cholesterol synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2006 Jun; 186(2): 267-74. PMID: 16144700, PII: S0021-9150(05)00516-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.08.005, ISSN: 0021-9150.

Braun NA, Mohler PJ, Weisgraber KH, Hasty AH, Linton MF, Yancey PG, Su YR, Fazio S, Swift LL. Intracellular trafficking of recycling apolipoprotein E in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2006 Jun; 47(6): 1176-86. PMID: 16534141, PII: M500503-JLR200, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M500503-JLR200, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Stanic AK, Stein CM, Morgan AC, Fazio S, Linton MF, Wakeland EK, Olsen NJ, Major AS. Immune dysregulation accelerates atherosclerosis and modulates plaque composition in systemic lupus erythematosus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2006 May 5/2/2006; 103(18): 7018-23. PMID: 16636270, PMCID: PMC1459011, PII: 0602311103, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0602311103, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Suganuma E, Zuo Y, Ayabe N, Ma J, Babaev VR, Linton MF, Fazio S, Ichikawa I, Fogo AB, Kon V. Antiatherogenic effects of angiotensin receptor antagonism in mild renal dysfunction. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2006 Feb; 17(2): 433-41. PMID: 16371432, PII: ASN.2005080883, DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2005080883, ISSN: 1046-6673.

Ayabe N, Babaev VR, Tang Y, Tanizawa T, Fogo AB, Linton MF, Ichikawa I, Fazio S, Kon V. Transiently heightened angiotensin II has distinct effects on atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation in hyperlipidemic mice. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2006 Feb; 184(2): 312-21. PMID: 16023123, PII: S0021-9150(05)00312-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.05.016, ISSN: 0021-9150.

Babaev VR, Ding L, Reese J, Morrow JD, Breyer MD, Dey SK, Fazio S, Linton MF. Cyclooxygenase-1 deficiency in bone marrow cells increases early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E- and low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2006 Jan 1/3/2006; 113(1): 108-17. PMID: 16380543, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.105.591537, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.591537, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Yu H, Zhang W, Yancey PG, Koury MJ, Zhang Y, Fazio S, Linton MF. Macrophage apolipoprotein E reduces atherosclerosis and prevents premature death in apolipoprotein E and scavenger receptor-class BI double-knockout mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Jan; 26(1): 150-6. PMID: 16269665, PII: 01.ATV.0000194096.89476.73, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000194096.89476.73, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Zhu MY, Hasty AH, Harris C, Linton MF, Fazio S, Swift LL. Physiological relevance of apolipoprotein E recycling: studies in primary mouse hepatocytes. Metab. Clin. Exp. 2005 Oct; 54(10): 1309-15. PMID: 16154429, PII: S0026-0495(05)00181-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2005.04.019, ISSN: 0026-0495.

Burleigh ME, Babaev VR, Yancey PG, Major AS, McCaleb JL, Oates JA, Morrow JD, Fazio S, Linton MF. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes early atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE-deficient and C57BL/6 mice. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2005 Sep; 39(3): 443-52. PMID: 16040051, PII: S0022-2828(05)00195-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2005.06.011, ISSN: 0022-2828.

Gruen ML, Plummer MR, Zhang W, Posey KA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Hasty AH. Persistence of high density lipoprotein particles in obese mice lacking apolipoprotein A-I. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2005 Sep; 46(9): 2007-14. PMID: 15995171, PII: M500181-JLR200, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M500181-JLR200, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Burleigh ME, Babaev VR, Patel MB, Crews BC, Remmel RP, Morrow JD, Oates JA, Marnett LJ, Fazio S, Linton MF. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin phenethylamide reduces atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2005 Aug 8/1/2005; 70(3): 334-42. PMID: 15950196, PII: S0006-2952(05)00285-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2005.04.044, ISSN: 0006-2952.

Babaev VR, Yancey PG, Ryzhov SV, Kon V, Breyer MD, Magnuson MA, Fazio S, Linton MF. Conditional knockout of macrophage PPARgamma increases atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 and low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2005 Aug; 25(8): 1647-53. PMID: 15947238, PII: 01.ATV.0000173413.31789.1a, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000173413.31789.1a, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Hasty AH, Plummer MR, Weisgraber KH, Linton MF, Fazio S, Swift LL. The recycling of apolipoprotein E in macrophages: influence of HDL and apolipoprotein A-I. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2005 Jul; 46(7): 1433-9. PMID: 15805547, PII: M400418-JLR200, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M400418-JLR200, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Su YR, Dove DE, Major AS, Hasty AH, Boone B, Linton MF, Fazio S. Reduced ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and accelerated atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice lacking macrophage-derived ACAT1. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2005 May 5/10/2005; 111(18): 2373-81. PMID: 15851589, PII: 01.CIR.0000164236.19860.13, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000164236.19860.13, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Dove DE, Linton MF, Fazio S. ApoE-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages: separation of autocrine and paracrine effects. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol [print-electronic]. 2005 Mar; 288(3): C586-92. PMID: 15509658, PII: 00210.2004, DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00210.2004, ISSN: 0363-6143.

Dove DE, Su YR, Zhang W, Jerome WG, Swift LL, Linton MF, Fazio S. ACAT1 deficiency disrupts cholesterol efflux and alters cellular morphology in macrophages. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2005 Jan; 25(1): 128-34. PMID: 15499044, PII: 01.ATV.0000148323.94021.e5, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000148323.94021.e5, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Major AS, Wilson MT, McCaleb JL, Ru Su Y, Stanic AK, Joyce S, Van Kaer L, Fazio S, Linton MF. Quantitative and qualitative differences in proatherogenic NKT cells in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2004 Dec; 24(12): 2351-7. PMID: 15472130, PII: 01.ATV.0000147112.84168.87, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000147112.84168.87, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Nobuhiko A, Suganuma E, Babaev VR, Fogo A, Swift LL, Linton MF, Fazio S, Ichikawa I, Kon V. Angiotensin II amplifies macrophage-driven atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2004 Nov; 24(11): 2143-8. PMID: 15374850, PII: 01.ATV.0000145607.03879.e0, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000145607.03879.e0, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Farkas MH, Weisgraber KH, Shepherd VL, Linton MF, Fazio S, Swift LL. The recycling of apolipoprotein E and its amino-terminal 22 kDa fragment: evidence for multiple redundant pathways. J. Lipid Res [print-electronic]. 2004 Aug; 45(8): 1546-54. PMID: 15145976, PII: M400104-JLR200, DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M400104-JLR200, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Linton MF, Fazio S. Cyclooxygenase-2 and inflammation in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2004 Apr; 4(2): 116-23. PMID: 15063354, PII: S1471489204000268, DOI: 10.1016/j.coph.2003.12.003, ISSN: 1471-4892.

Fazio S, Linton MF. The role of fibrates in managing hyperlipidemia: mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Mar; 6(2): 148-57. PMID: 15023300, ISSN: 1523-3804.

Asanuma Y, Oeser A, Shintani AK, Turner E, Olsen N, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raggi P, Stein CM. Premature coronary-artery atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003 Dec 12/18/2003; 349(25): 2407-15. PMID: 14681506, PII: 349/25/2407, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa035611, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Fazio S, Linton MF. Apolipoprotein AI as therapy for atherosclerosis: does the future of preventive cardiology include weekly injections of the HDL protein?. Mol. Interv. 2003 Dec; 3(8): 436-40. PMID: 14993451, PII: 3/8/436, DOI: 10.1124/mi.3.8.436, ISSN: 1534-0384.

Linton MF, Fazio S. Macrophages, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 2003 Dec; 27 Suppl 3: S35-40. PMID: 14704742, PII: 0802498, DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802498.

Zhang W, Yancey PG, Su YR, Babaev VR, Zhang Y, Fazio S, Linton MF. Inactivation of macrophage scavenger receptor class B type I promotes atherosclerotic lesion development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2003 Nov 11/4/2003; 108(18): 2258-63. PMID: 14581413, PII: 01.CIR.0000093189.97429.9D, DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000093189.97429.9D, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Su YR, Ishiguro H, Major AS, Dove DE, Zhang W, Hasty AH, Babaev VR, Linton MF, Fazio S. Macrophage apolipoprotein A-I expression protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice and up-regulates ABC transporters. Mol. Ther. 2003 Oct; 8(4): 576-83. PMID: 14529830, PII: S1525001603002144, ISSN: 1525-0016.

Linton MF, Fazio S, . A practical approach to risk assessment to prevent coronary artery disease and its complications. Am. J. Cardiol. 2003 Jul 7/3/2003; 92(1A): 19i-26i. PMID: 12867251, PII: S0002914903005058.

Farkas MH, Swift LL, Hasty AH, Linton MF, Fazio S. The recycling of apolipoprotein E in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes. Evidence for a physiologic connection to high density lipoprotein metabolism. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2003 Mar 3/14/2003; 278(11): 9412-7. PMID: 12524433, PII: M208026200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M208026200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Nishida M, Fujinaka H, Matsusaka T, Price J, Kon V, Fogo AB, Davidson JM, Linton MF, Fazio S, Homma T, Yoshida H, Ichikawa I. Absence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor in bone marrow-derived cells is detrimental in the evolution of renal fibrosis. J. Clin. Invest. 2002 Dec; 110(12): 1859-68. PMID: 12488436, PMCID: PMC151648, DOI: 10.1172/JCI15045, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Su YR, Linton MF, Fazio S. Rapid quantification of murine ABC mRNAs by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J. Lipid Res. 2002 Dec; 43(12): 2180-7. PMID: 12454281, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Major AS, Fazio S, Linton MF. B-lymphocyte deficiency increases atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-null mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2002 Nov 11/1/2002; 22(11): 1892-8. PMID: 12426221, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Boord JB, Maeda K, Makowski L, Babaev VR, Fazio S, Linton MF, Hotamisligil GS. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, alters late atherosclerotic lesion formation in severe hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2002 Oct 10/1/2002; 22(10): 1686-91. PMID: 12377750, PMCID: PMC4027051, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Fazio S, Babaev VR, Burleigh ME, Major AS, Hasty AH, Linton MF. Physiological expression of macrophage apoE in the artery wall reduces atherosclerosis in severely hyperlipidemic mice. J. Lipid Res. 2002 Oct; 43(10): 1602-9. PMID: 12364544, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Linton MF, Fazio S. Cyclooxygenase-2 and atherosclerosis. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2002 Oct; 13(5): 497-504. PMID: 12352013, ISSN: 0957-9672.

Burleigh ME, Babaev VR, Oates JA, Harris RC, Gautam S, Riendeau D, Marnett LJ, Morrow JD, Fazio S, Linton MF. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes early atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Circulation. 2002 Apr 4/16/2002; 105(15): 1816-23. PMID: 11956125, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Boord JB, Fazio S, Linton MF. Cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins: emerging roles in metabolism and atherosclerosis. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2002 Apr; 13(2): 141-7. PMID: 11891416, ISSN: 0957-9672.

Doggett KL, Briggs JA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Head DR, Xie J, Hashimoto Y, Laborda J, Briggs RC. Retroviral mediated expression of the human myeloid nuclear antigen in a null cell line upregulates Dlk1 expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 2002; 86(1): 56-66. PMID: 12112016, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.10190, ISSN: 0730-2312.

Boord JB, Fazio S, Linton MF. Cytoplasmic Fatty Acid Binding Proteins: Emerging Rols in Metabolism and Atherosclerosis. Curr. Opin. in Lipidol. 2002; 13(2): 141-7.

Burleigh ME, Babaev VR, Oates JA, Harris RC, Gautam S, Riendeau D, Marnett LF, Morrow JD, Fazio S, Linton MF. Cyclooxygenase-2 Promotes Early Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in LDLR Deficient Mice. Circulation. 2002; 105: 1816.

Yoshida H, Hasty AH, Major AS, Ishiguro H, Su YR, Gleaves LA, Babaev VR, Linton MF, Fazio S. Isoform-specific effects of apolipoprotein E on atherogenesis: gene transduction studies in mice. Circulation. 2001 Dec 12/4/2001; 104(23): 2820-5. PMID: 11733401, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Major AS, Dove DE, Ishiguro H, Su YR, Brown AM, Liu L, Carter KJ, Linton MF, Fazio S. Increased cholesterol efflux in apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI)-producing macrophages as a mechanism for reduced atherosclerosis in ApoAI((-/-)) mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2001 Nov; 21(11): 1790-5. PMID: 11701467, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Linton MF, Fazio S. Class A scavenger receptors, macrophages, and atherosclerosis. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2001 Oct; 12(5): 489-95. PMID: 11561167, ISSN: 0957-9672.

Ishiguro H, Yoshida H, Major AS, Zhu T, Babaev VR, Linton MF, Fazio S. Retrovirus-mediated expression of apolipoprotein A-I in the macrophage protects against atherosclerosis in vivo. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Sep 9/28/2001; 276(39): 36742-8. PMID: 11477092, PII: M106027200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M106027200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Fazio S, Linton MF. The inflamed plaque: cytokine production and cellular cholesterol balance in the vessel wall. Am. J. Cardiol. 2001 Jul 7/19/2001; 88(2A): 12E-15E. PMID: 11473738, PII: S0002914901017179, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Swift LL, Farkas MH, Major AS, Valyi-Nagy K, Linton MF, Fazio S. A recycling pathway for resecretion of internalized apolipoprotein E in liver cells. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Jun 6/22/2001; 276(25): 22965-70. PMID: 11304532, PII: M100172200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M100172200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Ma LJ, Marcantoni C, Linton MF, Fazio S, Fogo AB. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist troglitazone protects against nondiabetic glomerulosclerosis in rats. Kidney Int. 2001 May; 59(5): 1899-910. PMID: 11318962, PII: kid695, DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.0590051899.x, ISSN: 0085-2538.

Fazio S, Linton MF. Mouse models of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Front. Biosci. 2001 Mar 3/1/2001; 6: D515-25. PMID: 11229870, ISSN: 1093-9946.

Fazio S, Linton MF. Debate: "How low should LDL cholesterol be lowered?" Viewpoint: "It doesn't need to be very low". Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med. 2001; 2(1): 8-11. PMID: 11806766, PMCID: PMC59646, ISSN: 1468-6708.

Fazio S, Major AS, Swift LL, Gleaves LA, Accad M, Linton MF, Farese RV. Increased atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-null mice lacking ACAT1 in macrophages. J. Clin. Invest. 2001 Jan; 107(2): 163-71. PMID: 11160132, PMCID: PMC198874, DOI: 10.1172/JCI10310, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Fazio S, Major AS, Swift LL, Gleaves LA, Accad M, Linton MF, Farese RV, Jr. Increased Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Null Mice Reconstituted with ACAT Negative Macrophages. 107. 2001; 613-171: J. Clin. Invest.

Fazio S & Linton MF. Mouse Models of Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2001; 6.

Ma L, Marcantoni C, Linton MF, Fazio S, Fogo AB. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) Agonist Troglitazone Protects Against Non-Diabetic Glomerulsclerosis in Rats. Kidney International. 2001; 59: 1899-910.

Makowski L, Boord JB, Maeda K, Babaev VR, Usyal KT, Morgan MA, Parker RA, Fazio S, Hotomisligil GS, Linton MF. Lack of Macrophage Fatty Acid Binding Protein aP2 Protects apoE Deficient Mice Against Atherosclerosis. Nature Medicine. 2001; 7: 699-705.

Fazio S, Linton MF. "How Low Should Chilesterol be Lowered?". Curr. Control. Trials Cardiovasc. Med. 2001; 2: 8-11.

Fazio S, Linton MF. The Inflammed Plaque: Cytokine Production and Cellular Cholesterol Balance in the Vessel Wall. Am J Cardiol. 2001; 88 (suppl): 12E-15E.

Linton MF, Burleigh ME, Fazio S. Class A Scavenger Receptors, Macrophages and Atherosclerosis. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2001; 12: 489-95.

Ishiguro H, Yoshida H, Major AS, Zhu T, Babaev V, Linton MF, Fazio S. Retrovirus-mediated expression of apolipoprotein A-1 in the macrophage protects against atherosclerosis in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 36742-8.

Beed G, Migliori RJ, Goff CV, Mullins CD, Linton MF, Wright AT. Addressing the challenges of treating and managing the hyperlipidemic patient. Managed Care. 2001; 10(11Suppl): 19-24.

Babaev VR, Gleaves LA, Carter KJ, Suzuki H, Kodama T, Fazio S, Linton MF. Reduced atherosclerotic lesions in mice deficient for total or macrophage-specific expression of scavenger receptor-A. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2000 Dec; 20(12): 2593-9. PMID: 11116058, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Babaev VR, Patel MB, Semenkovich CF, Fazio S, Linton MF. Macrophage lipoprotein lipase promotes foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. J. Biol. Chem. 2000 Aug 8/25/2000; 275(34): 26293-9. PMID: 10858435, PII: M002423200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M002423200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Maron DJ, Fazio S, Linton MF. Current perspectives on statins. Circulation. 2000 Jan 1/18/2000; 101(2): 207-13. PMID: 10637210, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Fazio S, Linton MF, Swift LL. The cell biology and physiologic relevance of ApoE recycling. Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 2000 Jan; 10(1): 23-30. PMID: 11150725, PII: S1050-1738(00)00033-5, ISSN: 1050-1738.

Linton MF, Fazio S. Re-emergence of fibrates in the management of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2000 Jan; 2(1): 29-35. PMID: 11122722, ISSN: 1523-3804.

Accad MS, Smith DL, Newland DA, Sanan JL, King LE, Jr., Linton MF, Fazio S, Farese RV, Jr. Massive Xanthomatosis and Altered Composition of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Hyperlipidemic Mice Lacking ACAT1. J. Clin. Invest. 2000; 105: 711-9.

Babaev VR, Patel MB, Semenkovich CF, Fazio S, Linton MF. Macrophage lipoprotein lipase promotes foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice. J. Biol. Chem. 2000; 275: 26293-9.

Babaev VR, Gleaves LA, Carter KJ, Kodama T, Fazio S, Linton MF. ReducedAtherosclerosis in Mice Null for Macrophage Expression of Scavenger Receptor-A. Arterioscl. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2000; 20: 2593-9.

Hasty AH, Linton MF, Swift LL, Fazio S. Determination of the lower threshold of apolipoprotein E resulting in remnant lipoprotein clearance. J. Lipid Res. 1999 Aug; 40(8): 1529-38. PMID: 10428991, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Linton MF, Babaev VR, Gleaves LA, Fazio S. A direct role for the macrophage low density lipoprotein receptor in atherosclerotic lesion formation. J. Biol. Chem. 1999 Jul 7/2/1999; 274(27): 19204-10. PMID: 10383427, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Montine TJ, Montine KS, Olson SJ, Graham DG, Roberts LJ, Morrow JD, Linton MF, Fazio S, Swift LL. Increased cerebral cortical lipid peroxidation and abnormal phospholipids in aged homozygous apoE-deficient C57BL/6J mice. Exp. Neurol. 1999 Jul; 158(1): 234-41. PMID: 10448437, PII: S0014-4886(99)97067-X, DOI: 10.1006/exnr.1999.7067, ISSN: 0014-4886.

Babaev VR, Fazio S, Gleaves LA, Carter KJ, Semenkovich CF, Linton MF. Macrophage lipoprotein lipase promotes foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 1999 Jun; 103(12): 1697-705. PMID: 10377176, PMCID: PMC408384, DOI: 10.1172/JCI6117, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Hasty AH, Linton MF, Brandt SJ, Babaev VR, Gleaves LA, Fazio S. Retroviral gene therapy in ApoE-deficient mice: ApoE expression in the artery wall reduces early foam cell lesion formation. Circulation. 1999 May 5/18/1999; 99(19): 2571-6. PMID: 10330390, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Linton MF, Fazio S. Macrophages, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis: insights from murine bone marrow transplantation studies. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 1999 Apr; 10(2): 97-105. PMID: 10327277, ISSN: 0957-9672.

Fazio S, Linton MF, Hasty AH, Swift LL. Recycling of apolipoprotein E in mouse liver. J. Biol. Chem. 1999 Mar 3/19/1999; 274(12): 8247-53. PMID: 10075730, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Hasty AH, Linton MF, Brandt SJ, Babaev VR, Gleaves LA, Fazio S. Retroviral Gene Therapy in ApoE Deficient Mice, ApoE Expression in the Artery Wall Reduces Early Foam Cell Lesion Formation. Circulation. 1999; 99: 2571-6.

Linton, MF, Fazio S. Macrophages, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis: Insights from murine bone marrow transplantation studies. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 1999; 10: 97-105.

Cyrus T, Witztum JL, Rader DJ, Tangirala R, Fazio S, Linton MF, Funk CD. Disruption of the 12/15-lipoxygenase gene diminishes atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J. Clin. Invest. 1999; 103: 1597-604.

Fazio S, Hasty AH, Linton MF, Swift L. Recycling of apolipoprotein E in mouse liver. J. Biol. Chem. 1999; 274: 8247-53.

Linton MF, Babaev VR, Gleaves LA, Fazio S. A direct role for the macrophage LDL receptor in atherosclerotic lesion formation. J. Biol. Chem. 1999; 274: 19204-10.

Hasty AH, Linton MF, Swift L, Fazio S. Determination of the lower threshold of apoE resulting in remnant lipoprotein clearance. J. Lipid Res. 1999; 409: 1529-38.

Babaev VR, Fazio S, Gleaves LA, Carter KJ, Semenkovich CF, Linton MF. Macrophage lipoprotein lipase promotes foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 1999; 103: 1697-705.

Maron DJ, Fazio S, Linton MF. Current perspectives on HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Circulation. 1999; 101: 207-13.

Linton MF, Hasty AH, Babaev VR, Fazio S. Hepatic apo E expression is required for remnant lipoprotein clearance in the absence of the low density lipoprotein receptor. J. Clin. Invest. 1998 Apr 4/15/1998; 101(8): 1726-36. PMID: 9541504, PMCID: PMC508755, DOI: 10.1172/JCI2181, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Linton, M. F., Hasty, A. H., Babaev, V. R., Fazio, S. Hepatic apoE expression is required for remnant lipoprotein clearance. 1998.

Linton MF, Raabe M, Pierotti V, Young SG. Reading-frame restoration by transcriptional slippage at long stretches of adenine residues in mammalian cells. J. Biol. Chem. 1997 May 5/30/1997; 272(22): 14127-32. PMID: 9162040, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Fazio S, Babaev VR, Murray AB, Hasty AH, Carter KJ, Gleaves LA, Atkinson JB, Linton MF. Increased atherosclerosis in mice reconstituted with apolipoprotein E null macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997 Apr 4/29/1997; 94(9): 4647-52. PMID: 9114045, PMCID: PMC20778, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Fazio S, Hasty AH, Carter KJ, Murray AB, Price JO, Linton MF. Leukocyte low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) does not contribute to LDL clearance in vivo: bone marrow transplantation studies in the mouse. J. Lipid Res. 1997 Feb; 38(2): 391-400. PMID: 9162757, ISSN: 0022-2275.

Fazio, S., Babaev, V.R., Murray, A.B., Hasty, A.H., Carter, K.J., Gleaves, L.A., Atkinson, J.B., Linton, M.F. Increased atherosclerosis in mice reconstituted with apolipoprotein E null Macrophages. 1997.

Linton, M.F., Raabe, M., Pierotti, V., Young, S.G. Reading Frame Restoration in Mammalian Cells Caused by Transcriptional Slippage at Long Stretches of Adenine Residues. 1997.

Fazio S, Hasty AH, Carter KJ, Murray AB, Price JO, Linton MF. Reconstitution of leukocyte low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in mice lacking the LDL-R does not affect plasma cholesterol levels or LDL turnover. J. Lipid Res. 1997; 38: 391-400.

Young SG, Krul ES, McCormick S, Farese RV, Jr., Linton MF. Identification and characterization of truncated forms of apolipoprotein B in hypobetalipoproteinemia. Methods in Enz. 1996; 263: 120-45.

Linton MF, Atkinson JB, Fazio S. Prevention of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by bone marrow transplantation. Science. 1995 Feb 2/17/1995; 267(5200): 1034-7. PMID: 7863332, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Linton, M.F., Atkinson. J. B., Fazio, S. Prevention of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice by bone marrow transplantation. 1995.

Purcell-Huynh DA, Farese RV, Jr., Flynn LM, Pierotti V, Newland DL, Fein H, Linton MF, Sanan DA, Young SG. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma levels of human apolipoprotein B develop severe atherosclerotic lesions in response to a high-fat diet. J. of Clin. Invest. 1995; 95: 2246-57.

McCormick SA, Linton MF, Taylor S, Curtiss LK, Young SG. Expression of human apolipoprotein B90 in transgenic mice: Demonstration that apolipoprotein B90 lacks the structured requirements to form lipoprotein (a). J. Biol. Chem. 1994; 269: 24284-9.

Linton, M.F., Farese, R.V. Jr., Chiesa. G., Grass, D.S., Chin, P., Hammer, R.E., Hobbs, H.H., and Young, S.G. Transgenic Mice Expressing High Plasma Concentrations of Human Apolipoprotein B100 and Lipoprotein(a). 1993.

Linton MF, Pierotti V, Young SC. Reading-frame restoration with an apolipoprotein B gene frameshift mutation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1992; 89: 11431-5.

Yao Z, Blackhart BD, Linton MF, Taylor SM, Young SG, McCarthy BJ. Expression of truncated forms of human apolipoprotein B in rat hepatoma cells: Evidence that the length of apolipoprotein B has a major effect on the buoyant density of the secreted lipoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 1991; 266: 3300-8.

Linton MF, Gish R, Hubl S, Butler E, Esquivel C, Bry WI, Boyles JK, Wardell MR, Young SG. Phenotypes of apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E after liver transplantation. J. Clin. Invest. 1991; 88: 270-81.