J. Ann Richmond, Ph.D.

Professor

ann.richmond@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Cancer Biology Professor of MedicineIngram Professor of Cancer Research
Education
Ph.D., Developmental Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GeorgiaM.N.S., Zoology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LouisianaB.S., Education, Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe, Louisiana
Office Address
2220 Pierce Avenue - 771 PRB
Nashville, TN 37232
Research Description
A major question we are trying to answer in my laboratory is "What is the role of the inflammatory response in tumor progression". We are studying the role of proteins that promote the migration of inflammatory cells into tissues. These "chemotactic" proteins can educate leukocytes to either stimulate or inhibit tumor progression. These factors can also stimulate the growth of the tumor and recruit blood vessels into the tumor to provide a continuous supply of nutrients to feed tumor growth. We have tested with a variety of pharmaceutical drugs that shut down the inflammatory process and alter the expression of genes that recruit inflammatory cells into the tumor microenvironment. We are also evaluating how to deliver therapies that teach the patient's leukocytes to fight the growth of the tumor and switch from a pro-tumorigenic to an anti-tumorigenic state.
We have also learned that this inflammatory process, combined with other genetic and environmental factors, contributes to mutations in genes that regulate the growth of cells. Some of these mutations make the cells capable of continuous growth and enable the cancer cells to spread throughout the body and grow in distant organs. By determining what genes become mutated or amplified in each patient's tumor and then providing therapies that specifically inhibit the activity of that mutated or amplified gene, we can deliver "personalized cancer treatment" that addresses the problem in that persons specific cancer. This works so much better than the "one size fits all" approach often used previously in chemotherapy. Recently we have determined that inhibition of aurora kinases induce tumor cells to undergo senescence and when we inhibit aurora kinases while at the same time activate the tumor suppressor p53 or the death receptor DR5, melanoma cells die and tumors regress. We are also interested in evaluating how therapeutic agents that target driver mutations such as PI3K, RAS or BRAF affect the tumor microenvironment and the immune response to the tumor. We postulate that in some instances drug resistance comes in part due to deleterious effects of the therapy on the tumor microenvironment. We collaborate with medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, bioengineers, cellular and molecular biologists, and scientists in pharmaceutical companies to address the scientific questions we are asking. This TEAM interaction enables us to optimize our studies to make important breakthroughs in tumor biology and tumor therapy. Our research is funded by the TVHS Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Cancer Institute, and the Department of Defense. I work with a wonderful group of postdoctoral fellows, students, and laboratory scientists who dedicate their lives to providing better treatments for cancer patients.
Research Keywords
chemokines, transcription, signal transduction, melanoma, breast cancer, vascular biology
Publications
Vilgelm AE, Johnson DB, Richmond A. Combinatorial approach to cancer immunotherapy: strength in numbers. J. Leukoc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug; 100(2): 275-90. PMID: 27256570, PII: jlb.5RI0116-013RR, DOI: 10.1189/jlb.5RI0116-013RR, ISSN: 1938-3673.

Saxon JA, Sherrill TP, Polosukhin VV, Sai J, Zaynagetdinov R, McLoed AG, Gulleman PM, Barham W, Cheng DS, Hunt RP, Gleaves LA, Richmond A, Young LR, Yull FE, Blackwell TS. Epithelial NF-¿B signaling promotes EGFR-driven lung carcinogenesis via macrophage recruitment. Oncoimmunology. 2016 Jun; 5(6): e1168549. PMID: 27471643, PMCID: PMC4938365, PII: 1168549, DOI: 10.1080/2162402X.2016.1168549, ISSN: 2162-4011.

Vilgelm AE, Johnson CA, Prasad N, Yang J, Chen SC, Ayers GD, Pawlikowski JS, Raman D, Sosman JA, Kelley M, Escedy Ja, Shyr Y, Levy SE, Richmond A, et al. Connecting the Dots: Therapy-Induced Senescence and a Tumor-Ruppressive Immune microenvironment. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; Dec 30 2015(108(6)): PMID: 26719346.

Nichols EE, Richmond A, Daniels AB. Tumor Characteristics, Genetics, Management, and the Risk of Metastasis in Uveal Melanoma. Semin Ophthalmol [print-electronic]. 2016; 31(4): 304-9. PMID: 27128983, DOI: 10.3109/08820538.2016.1154175, ISSN: 1744-5205.

Nichols EE, Richmond A, Daniels AB. Disparities in Uveal Melanoma: Patient Characteristics. Semin Ophthalmol [print-electronic]. 2016; 31(4): 296-303. PMID: 27128153, DOI: 10.3109/08820538.2016.1154176, ISSN: 1744-5205.

Richmond A, Yang J. The role of NF-kB in modulating antitumor immunity. Oncoimmunology. 2016; 5(1): e1005522. PMID: 26942050, PMCID: PMC4760307, PII: 1005522, DOI: 10.1080/2162402X.2015.1005522, ISSN: 2162-4011.

Sai J, Rogers M, Hockemeyer K, Wikswo JP, Richmond A. Study of Chemotaxis and Cell-Cell Interactions in Cancer with Microfluidic Devices. Meth. Enzymol [print-electronic]. 2016; 570: 19-45. PMID: 26921940, PII: S0076-6879(15)00541-8, DOI: 10.1016/bs.mie.2015.09.023, ISSN: 1557-7988.

Johnson DB, Estrada MV, Salgado R, Sanchez V, Doxie DB, Opalenik SR, Vilgelm AE, Feld E, Johnson AS, Greenplate AR, Sanders ME, Lovly CM, Frederick DT, Kelley MC, Richmond A, Irish JM, Shyr Y, Sullivan RJ, Puzanov I, Sosman JA, Balko JM. Melanoma-specific MHC-II expression represents a tumour-autonomous phenotype and predicts response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Nat Commun. 2016; 7: 10582. PMID: 26822383, PMCID: PMC4740184, PII: ncomms10582, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10582, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Su Y, Richmond A. Chemokine Regulation of Neutrophil Infiltration of Skin Wounds. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2015 Nov 11/1/2015; 4(11): 631-40. PMID: 26543677, PMCID: PMC4620531, PII: 10.1089/wound.2014.0559, DOI: 10.1089/wound.2014.0559, ISSN: 2162-1918.

Vilgelm A, Liu Y, Hawkins OE, Davis TA, Smith J, Weller KP, Horton LW, McClain CM, Ayers GD, Turner DC, Essaka DC, Stewart C, Sosman JA, Kelley MC, Ecsedy JA, Johnston JN, Richmond A, et al. Inhibition of aurora kinase sensitizes malanoma tumors to non-genotoxic p53 activation. Cancer Res. 2015; 75: 181-93. PMID: 25398437.

Vilgelm AE, Pawlikowski J, Liu Y, Hawkins OE, Davis TA, Smith J, Weller KP, Horton LW, McClain CM, Ayers GD, Turner DC, Essaka DC, Stewart CF, Sosman JA, Kelley MC, Ecsedy JA, Johnston JN, Richmond A. Mdm2 and aurora kinases a inhibitors synergize to block melanoma growth by driving apoptosis and immune clearance of tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2015; Jan 1(75): 181-93. PMID: 25398437.

Sobolik T, Su Y, Ashby W, Schaffer DK, Wells S, Wikswo JP, Zijstra A, Richmond A, et al. Development of novel murine mammary imaging windows to examine leukocyte trafficking and metastasis of mammary tumors with intravital imaging. IntraVital. 2015; (In press).

Liu Y, Hawkins OE, Vilgelm AE, Pawlikowski JS, Ecsedy JA, Sosman JA, Kelley MC, Richmond A. Combining an Aurora Kinase Inhibitor and a Death Receptor Ligand/Agonist Antibody Triggers Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells and Prevents Tumor Growth in Preclinical Mouse Models. Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 23: 5338-48. PMID: 26152738.

Duvall N, Karwandyar A, Richmond A, Raman D. LASP-1-A nuclear hub for the AUHRF1-DNMT1-G9a- Snail1 complex. Oncogene. 2015; May 18(doi: 10): 1038. PMID: 25982273.

Richmond A, Yang J. The Role of NF-kB in modulating anti-tumjor immunity. Oncolmmunology. 2015; Oct 20: PMID: 26405565.

Vilgelm AE, Richmond A, et al. Combined therapies that induce senescence and stabilize p53 block melanoma growth and prompt anti-tumor immune responses. Onocoimmunology. 2015; 4(8).

Sai J, Novitiskiy S, Hawkins OE, Vilgelm A, Yang J, Sobolik T, Lavender N, Johnson AC, McClain C, Ayers GD, Kelley MC, Sanders M, Moses HL, Boothby M, Richmond A. PI3K activity in the tumor microenvironment modulates mammary tumor growth, metastasis and anti-tumor immunity. Cancer Discovery. 2015; Submitted.

Pawlikowski JS, Brock C, Chen SC, Al-Olabi L, Nixon C, McGregor F, Paine S, Chanudet E, Lambie W, Holmes WM, Mullin JM, Richmond A, Wu H, Blyth KI, King A, Kinsler Val, Adams PD. Acute Inhibition of MEK Suppresses Congenital Melanocytic Nevus Syndrome in a Murine Model Driven by Activated NRAS and Wnt Signaling. J Invest Dermatol ((8)). 2015; Aug(135): 2093-101. PMID: 25815427.

Johnson DB, Estrada MV, Salgado R, Sanchez V, Doxie DB, Opalenik SR, Vilgelm AE, Feld E, Johnson AS, Greenplate AR, Sanders ME, Lovly CM, Frederick DT, Kelley MC, Richmond A, Irish JM, Shyr Y, Sullivan RJ, Puzanov I, Sosman JA, Balko JM. Melanoma specifric MHC-II expression represents a tumor-autonomous phenotype and predicts response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Nature Communications. 2015; (In press).

Yang J, Hawkins OE, Barham W, Gilchuk P, Boothby M, Ayers GD, Joyce S, Karin M, Yull FE, Richmond A. Myeloid IKKß promotes antitumor immunity by modulating CCL11 and the innate immune response. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec 12/15/2014; 74(24): 7274-84. PMID: 25336190, PMCID: PMC4349570, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-14-1091, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1091, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Raman D, Sai J, Hawkins OE, Richmond A. Adaptor protein2 (AP2) orchestrates CXCR2-mediated cell migration. Traffic. 2014; 15: 451-69. PMID: 24450359.

Ciombor KK, Feng Y, Benson AB, Su Y, Horton L, Short SP, Kauh JS, Staley C, Mulcahy M, Powell M, Amiri KI, Richmond A, Berlin J, et al. A Phase II trial of Bortezoomib plus dosorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma. Invest New Drugs. 2014; 32: 1017-27. PMID: 24890858.

Yang J, Hawkins OE, Barham W, Gilchuk P, Boothby M, Ayers GD, Joyce S, Karin M, Yull FE, Richmond A. Myeloid IKKB promotes anti-tumor immunity by modulating CCL11 and the innate immune response. Cancer Res. 2014; 74: 727-84. PMID: 225336190.

Sobolik T, Wells S, Ayers GD, Richmond A. CXCR4 drives the metastatic phenotype in breast cancer through induction of CXCR2 and activiation of MEK and P13K pathways. Mol Biol Cell. 2014; 25: 566-82. PMID: 24403602.

Hockemeyer K, Janetopoulous C, Terekhor A, Vilgelm AE, Hofmeister W, Wikswo J, Richmond A. Design of a three-dimensional microfluidic device for interrogating cell-cell interactions int he tumor microenvironment. Biomicrofluidics. 2014; 8(4:044105): PMCID: PMC4189212.

Davis TA, Vilgelm AE, Richmond A, Johnston JN. Preparation of (-)-Nutlin-3 using enantioselective organocatalysis at decagram scale. J. Org. Chem [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov 11/1/2013; 78(21): 10605-16. PMID: 24127627, PMCID: PMC3880828, DOI: 10.1021/jo401321a, ISSN: 1520-6904.

Crowder SW, Horton LW, Lee SH, McClain CM, Hawkins OE, Palmer AM, Bae H, Richmond A, Sung HJ. Passage-dependent cancerous transformation of human mesenchymal stem cells under carcinogenic hypoxia. FASEB J [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul; 27(7): 2788-98. PMID: 23568779, PMCID: PMC3688746, PII: fj.13-228288, DOI: 10.1096/fj.13-228288, ISSN: 1530-6860.

Richmond AL. The hardest decision. Am J Nurs. 2013 Feb; 113(2): 72. PMID: 23358092, PII: 00000446-201302000-00033, DOI: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000426699.34449.cd, ISSN: 1538-7488.

Liu Y, Hawkins OE, Su Y, Vilgelm AE, Sobolik T, Thu YM, Kantrow S, Splittgerber RC, Short S, Amiri KI, Ecsedy JA, Sosman JA, Kelley MC, Richmond A. Targeting aurora kinases limits tumour growth through DNA damage-mediated senescence and blockade of NF-¿B impairs this drug-induced senescence. EMBO Mol Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 5(1): 149-66. PMID: 23180582, PMCID: PMC3569660, DOI: 10.1002/emmm.201201378, ISSN: 1757-4684.

Davis TA, Vilgelm A, Richmond A, Johnston JN, et al. Preparation of (-)-Nutlin_3 using enantioselective organocatalysis at decagram scale. J org Chem. 2013; 21: 10605-16.

Yang J, Kantrow S, Sai J, Hawkins OE, Boothby M, Ayers GD, Young ED, Demicco EG, Lazar AJ, Lev D, Richmond A. INK4a/ARF [corrected] inactivation with activation of the NF-¿B/IL-6 pathway is sufficient to drive the development and growth of angiosarcoma. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Sep 9/15/2012; 72(18): 4682-95. PMID: 22836752, PMCID: PMC3459578, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-12-0440, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-0440, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Raghuwanshi SK, Su Y, Singh V, Haynes K, Richmond A, Richardson RM. The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 couple to distinct G protein-coupled receptor kinases to mediate and regulate leukocyte functions. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2012 Sep 9/15/2012; 189(6): 2824-32. PMID: 22869904, PMCID: PMC3436986, PII: jimmunol.1201114, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1201114, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Thu YM, Su Y, Yang J, Splittgerber R, Na S, Boyd A, Mosse C, Simons C, Richmond A. NF-¿B inducing kinase (NIK) modulates melanoma tumorigenesis by regulating expression of pro-survival factors through the ß-catenin pathway. Oncogene [print-electronic]. 2012 May 5/17/2012; 31(20): 2580-92. PMID: 21963849, PMCID: PMC3253179, PII: onc2011427, DOI: 10.1038/onc.2011.427, ISSN: 1476-5594.

Su Y, Vilgelm AE, Kelley MC, Hawkins OE, Liu Y, Boyd KL, Kantrow S, Splittgerber RC, Short SP, Sobolik T, Zaja-Milatovic S, Dahlman KB, Amiri KI, Jiang A, Lu P, Shyr Y, Stuart DD, Levy S, Sosman JA, Richmond A. RAF265 inhibits the growth of advanced human melanoma tumors. Clin. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Apr 4/15/2012; 18(8): 2184-98. PMID: 22351689, PMCID: PMC3724517, PII: 1078-0432.CCR-11-1122, DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1122, ISSN: 1078-0432.

Lovly CM, Dahlman KB, Fohn LE, Su Z, Dias-Santagata D, Hicks DJ, Hucks D, Berry E, Terry C, Duke M, Su Y, Sobolik-Delmaire T, Richmond A, Kelley MC, Vnencak-Jones CL, Iafrate AJ, Sosman J, Pao W. Routine multiplex mutational profiling of melanomas enables enrollment in genotype-driven therapeutic trials. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(4): e35309. PMID: 22536370, PMCID: PMC3335021, PII: PONE-D-12-03589, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035309, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Hawkins OE, Richmond A. The dynamic yin-yang interaction of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in breast cancer metastasis [editorial]. Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(1): 103. PMID: 22293321, PMCID: PMC3496126, PII: bcr3092, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3092, ISSN: 1465-542X.

Raman D, Milatovic SZ, Milatovic D, Splittgerber R, Fan GH, Richmond A. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1a, suppress amyloid ß-induced neurotoxicity. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov 11/1/2011; 256(3): 300-13. PMID: 21704645, PMCID: PMC3236026, PII: S0041-008X(11)00224-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2011.06.006, ISSN: 1096-0333.

Raman D, Sobolik-Delmaire T, Richmond A. Chemokines in health and disease. Exp. Cell Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar 3/10/2011; 317(5): 575-89. PMID: 21223965, PMCID: PMC3063402, PII: S0014-4827(11)00007-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.01.005, ISSN: 1090-2422.

Richmond A. Chemokine research moves on [editorial]. Exp. Cell Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar 3/10/2011; 317(5): 553-5. PMID: 21241691, PMCID: PMC3056356, PII: S0014-4827(11)00029-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.01.016, ISSN: 1090-2422.

Neel NF, Sai J, Ham AJ, Sobolik-Delmaire T, Mernaugh RL, Richmond A. IQGAP1 is a novel CXCR2-interacting protein and essential component of the "chemosynapse". PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2011; 6(8): e23813. PMID: 21876773, PMCID: PMC3158102, PII: PONE-D-10-01928, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023813, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Thu YM, Richmond A. NF-¿B inducing kinase: a key regulator in the immune system and in cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev [print-electronic]. 2010 Aug; 21(4): 213-26. PMID: 20685151, PMCID: PMC2939163, PII: S1359-6101(10)00048-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2010.06.002, ISSN: 1879-0305.

Gruver JS, Potdar AA, Jeon J, Sai J, Anderson B, Webb D, Richmond A, Quaranta V, Cummings PT, Chung CY. Bimodal analysis reveals a general scaling law governing nondirected and chemotactic cell motility. Biophys. J. 2010 Jul 7/21/2010; 99(2): 367-76. PMID: 20643054, PMCID: PMC2905119, PII: S0006-3495(10)00710-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2010.03.073, ISSN: 1542-0086.

Yang J, Splittgerber R, Yull FE, Kantrow S, Ayers GD, Karin M, Richmond A. Conditional ablation of Ikkb inhibits melanoma tumor development in mice. J. Clin. Invest [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul; 120(7): 2563-74. PMID: 20530876, PMCID: PMC2898608, PII: 42358, DOI: 10.1172/JCI42358, ISSN: 1558-8238.

Richmond A. Chemokine modulation of the tumor microenvironment. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Jun; 23(3): 312-3. PMID: 20415714, PMCID: PMC3140344, PII: PCR714, DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2010.00714.x, ISSN: 1755-148X.

Lazennec G, Richmond A. Chemokines and chemokine receptors: new insights into cancer-related inflammation. Trends Mol Med [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar; 16(3): 133-44. PMID: 20163989, PMCID: PMC2840699, PII: S1471-4914(10)00009-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2010.01.003, ISSN: 1471-499X.

Raman D, Sai J, Neel NF, Chew CS, Richmond A. LIM and SH3 protein-1 modulates CXCR2-mediated cell migration. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(4): e10050. PMID: 20419088, PMCID: PMC2856662, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010050, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Su Y, Amiri KI, Horton LW, Yu Y, Ayers GD, Koehler E, Kelley MC, Puzanov I, Richmond A, Sosman JA. A phase I trial of bortezomib with temozolomide in patients with advanced melanoma: toxicities, antitumor effects, and modulation of therapeutic targets. Clin. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan 1/1/2010; 16(1): 348-57. PMID: 20028756, PMCID: PMC3205975, PII: 1078-0432.CCR-09-2087, DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2087, ISSN: 1078-0432.

Wang D, Dubois RN, Richmond A. The role of chemokines in intestinal inflammation and cancer. Curr Opin Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2009 Dec; 9(6): 688-96. PMID: 19734090, PMCID: PMC2787713, PII: S1471-4892(09)00127-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.coph.2009.08.003, ISSN: 1471-4973.

Neel NF, Barzik M, Raman D, Sobolik-Delmaire T, Sai J, Ham AJ, Mernaugh RL, Gertler FB, Richmond A. VASP is a CXCR2-interacting protein that regulates CXCR2-mediated polarization and chemotaxis. J. Cell. Sci [print-electronic]. 2009 Jun 6/1/2009; 122(Pt 11): 1882-94. PMID: 19435808, PMCID: PMC2684839, PII: jcs.039057, DOI: 10.1242/jcs.039057, ISSN: 0021-9533.

Richmond A, Yang J, Su Y. The good and the bad of chemokines/chemokine receptors in melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr; 22(2): 175-86. PMID: 19222802, PMCID: PMC2848967, PII: PCR554, DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2009.00554.x, ISSN: 1755-1471.

Yang J, Zaja-Milatovic S, Thu YM, Lee F, Smykla R, Richmond A. Molecular determinants of melanoma malignancy: selecting targets for improved efficacy of chemotherapy. Mol. Cancer Ther [print-electronic]. 2009 Mar; 8(3): 636-47. PMID: 19276165, PMCID: PMC3140401, PII: 1535-7163.MCT-08-0749, DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0749, ISSN: 1535-7163.

Yang J, Richmond AJ. Monitoring NF-kappaB mediated chemokine transcription in tumorigenesis. Meth. Enzymol. 2009; 460: 347-55. PMID: 19446734, PMCID: PMC3140415, PII: S0076-6879(09)05217-3, DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(09)05217-3, ISSN: 1557-7988.

Raman D, Neel NF, Sai J, Mernaugh RL, Ham AJ, Richmond AJ. Characterization of chemokine receptor CXCR2 interacting proteins using a proteomics approach to define the CXCR2 "chemosynapse". Meth. Enzymol. 2009; 460: 315-30. PMID: 19446732, PMCID: PMC3140414, PII: S0076-6879(09)05215-X, DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(09)05215-X, ISSN: 1557-7988.

Pruenster M, Mudde L, Bombosi P, Dimitrova S, Zsak M, Middleton J, Richmond A, Graham GJ, Segerer S, Nibbs RJ, Rot A. The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines transports chemokines and supports their promigratory activity. Nat. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2009 Jan; 10(1): 101-8. PMID: 19060902, PMCID: PMC3205989, PII: ni.1675, DOI: 10.1038/ni.1675, ISSN: 1529-2916.

Baugher PJ, Richmond A. The carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand motif of chemokine receptor CXCR2 modulates post-endocytic sorting and cellular chemotaxis. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov 11/7/2008; 283(45): 30868-78. PMID: 18755694, PMCID: PMC2576544, PII: M804054200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M804054200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Zaja-Milatovic S, Richmond A. CXC chemokines and their receptors: a case for a significant biological role in cutaneous wound healing. Histol. Histopathol. 2008 Nov; 23(11): 1399-407. PMID: 18785122, PMCID: PMC3140405, ISSN: 1699-5848.

Sai J, Raman D, Liu Y, Wikswo J, Richmond A. Parallel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent and Src-dependent pathways lead to CXCL8-mediated Rac2 activation and chemotaxis. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep 9/26/2008; 283(39): 26538-47. PMID: 18662984, PMCID: PMC2546539, PII: M805611200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M805611200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Richmond A, Su Y. Mouse xenograft models vs GEM models for human cancer therapeutics [editorial]. Dis Model Mech. 2008 Sep; 1(2-3): 78-82. PMID: 19048064, PMCID: PMC2562196, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.000976, ISSN: 1754-8411.

Liu Y, Sai J, Richmond A, Wikswo JP. Microfluidic switching system for analyzing chemotaxis responses of wortmannin-inhibited HL-60 cells. Biomed Microdevices. 2008 Aug; 10(4): 499-507. PMID: 18205049, PMCID: PMC2668251, DOI: 10.1007/s10544-007-9158-z, ISSN: 1387-2176.

Yu Y, Su Y, Opalenik SR, Sobolik-Delmaire T, Neel NF, Zaja-Milatovic S, Short ST, Sai J, Richmond A. Short tail with skin lesion phenotype occurs in transgenic mice with keratin-14 promoter-directed expression of mutant CXCR2. J. Leukoc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 84(2): 406-19. PMID: 18505935, PMCID: PMC2493076, PII: jlb.0807544, DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0807544, ISSN: 0741-5400.

Dhawan P, Su Y, Thu YM, Yu Y, Baugher P, Ellis DL, Sobolik-Delmaire T, Kelley M, Cheung TC, Ware CF, Richmond A. The lymphotoxin-beta receptor is an upstream activator of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription in melanoma cells. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 May 5/30/2008; 283(22): 15399-408. PMID: 18347013, PMCID: PMC2397477, PII: M708272200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M708272200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Richmond A. CCR9 homes metastatic melanoma cells to the small bowel. Clin. Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 2/1/2008; 14(3): 621-3. PMID: 18245518, PII: 14/3/621, DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-2235, ISSN: 1078-0432.

Yang L, Huang J, Ren X, Gorska AE, Chytil A, Aakre M, Carbone DP, Matrisian LM, Richmond A, Lin PC, Moses HL. Abrogation of TGF beta signaling in mammary carcinomas recruits Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells that promote metastasis. Cancer Cell. 2008 Jan; 13(1): 23-35. PMID: 18167337, PMCID: PMC2245859, PII: S1535-6108(07)00373-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.12.004, ISSN: 1535-6108.

Raman D, Baugher PJ, Thu YM, Richmond A. Role of chemokines in tumor growth. Cancer Lett [print-electronic]. 2007 Oct 10/28/2007; 256(2): 137-65. PMID: 17629396, PMCID: PMC2065851, PII: S0304-3835(07)00250-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2007.05.013, ISSN: 0304-3835.

Horton LW, Yu Y, Zaja-Milatovic S, Strieter RM, Richmond A. Opposing roles of murine duffy antigen receptor for chemokine and murine CXC chemokine receptor-2 receptors in murine melanoma tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 10/15/2007; 67(20): 9791-9. PMID: 17942909, PMCID: PMC2668258, PII: 67/20/9791, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-0246, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Miller-Kittrell M, Sai J, Penfold M, Richmond A, Sparer TE. Functional characterization of chimpanzee cytomegalovirus chemokine, vCXCL-1(CCMV). Virology [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug 8/1/2007; 364(2): 454-65. PMID: 17433398, PMCID: PMC2665277, PII: S0042-6822(07)00145-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2007.03.002, ISSN: 0042-6822.

Kantrow SM, Boyd AS, Ellis DL, Nanney LB, Richmond A, Shyr Y, Robbins JB. Expression of activated Akt in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and melanomas. J. Cutan. Pathol. 2007 Aug; 34(8): 593-6. PMID: 17640227, PMCID: PMC2665272, PII: CUP675, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2006.00675.x, ISSN: 0303-6987.

Schutyser E, Su Y, Yu Y, Gouwy M, Zaja-Milatovic S, Van Damme J, Richmond A. Hypoxia enhances CXCR4 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells and human melanoma cells. Eur. Cytokine Netw [print-electronic]. 2007 Jun; 18(2): 59-70. PMID: 17594938, PMCID: PMC2665278, PII: ecn.2007.0087, DOI: 10.1684/ecn.2007.0087, ISSN: 1148-5493.

Neel NF, Lapierre LA, Goldenring JR, Richmond A. RhoB plays an essential role in CXCR2 sorting decisions. J. Cell. Sci [print-electronic]. 2007 May 5/1/2007; 120(Pt 9): 1559-71. PMID: 17405813, PMCID: PMC2766565, PII: jcs.03437, DOI: 10.1242/jcs.03437, ISSN: 0021-9533.

Yang J, Su Y, Richmond A. Antioxidants tiron and N-acetyl-L-cysteine differentially mediate apoptosis in melanoma cells via a reactive oxygen species-independent NF-kappaB pathway. Free Radic. Biol. Med [print-electronic]. 2007 May 5/1/2007; 42(9): 1369-80. PMID: 17395010, PMCID: PMC1905840, PII: S0891-5849(07)00079-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.01.036, ISSN: 0891-5849.

Ueda Y, Su Y, Richmond A. CCAAT displacement protein regulates nuclear factor-kappa beta-mediated chemokine transcription in melanoma cells. Melanoma Res. 2007 Apr; 17(2): 91-103. PMID: 17496784, PMCID: PMC2665270, PII: 00008390-200704000-00004, DOI: 10.1097/CMR.0b013e3280a60888, ISSN: 0960-8931.

Yang J, Pan WH, Clawson GA, Richmond A. Systemic targeting inhibitor of kappaB kinase inhibits melanoma tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 4/1/2007; 67(7): 3127-34. PMID: 17409419, PMCID: PMC2665271, PII: 67/7/3127, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3547, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Amiri KI, Ha HC, Smulson ME, Richmond A. Differential regulation of CXC ligand 1 transcription in melanoma cell lines by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Oncogene [print-electronic]. 2006 Dec 12/14/2006; 25(59): 7714-22. PMID: 16799643, PMCID: PMC2665274, PII: 1209751, DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1209751, ISSN: 0950-9232.

Sai J, Walker G, Wikswo J, Richmond A. The IL sequence in the LLKIL motif in CXCR2 is required for full ligand-induced activation of Erk, Akt, and chemotaxis in HL60 cells. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2006 Nov 11/24/2006; 281(47): 35931-41. PMID: 16990258, PMCID: PMC2950015, PII: M605883200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M605883200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Ueda Y, Neel NF, Schutyser E, Raman D, Richmond A. Deletion of the COOH-terminal domain of CXC chemokine receptor 4 leads to the down-regulation of cell-to-cell contact, enhanced motility and proliferation in breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 6/1/2006; 66(11): 5665-75. PMID: 16740704, PMCID: PMC2664111, PII: 66/11/5665, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3579, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Wang D, Wang H, Brown J, Daikoku T, Ning W, Shi Q, Richmond A, Strieter R, Dey SK, DuBois RN. CXCL1 induced by prostaglandin E2 promotes angiogenesis in colorectal cancer. J. Exp. Med [print-electronic]. 2006 Apr 4/17/2006; 203(4): 941-51. PMID: 16567391, PMCID: PMC2118273, PII: jem.20052124, DOI: 10.1084/jem.20052124, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Ueda Y, Richmond A. NF-kappaB activation in melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 2006 Apr; 19(2): 112-24. PMID: 16524427, PMCID: PMC2668252, PII: PCR304, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2006.00304.x, ISSN: 0893-5785.

Yang J, Amiri KI, Burke JR, Schmid JA, Richmond A. BMS-345541 targets inhibitor of kappaB kinase and induces apoptosis in melanoma: involvement of nuclear factor kappaB and mitochondria pathways. Clin. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 2/1/2006; 12(3 Pt 1): 950-60. PMID: 16467110, PMCID: PMC2668250, PII: 12/3/950, DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-1220, ISSN: 1078-0432.

Lee JS, Wurfel MM, Matute-Bello G, Frevert CW, Rosengart MR, Ranganathan M, Wong VW, Holden T, Sutlief S, Richmond A, Peiper S, Martin TR.. The Duffy antigen modifies systemic and local tissue chemokine responses following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. J Immunol. 2006; (11)((177)): 8086.

Neel NF, Schutyser E, Sai J, Fan GH, Richmond A. Chemokine receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev [print-electronic]. 2005 Dec; 16(6): 637-58. PMID: 15998596, PMCID: PMC2668263, PII: S1359-6101(05)00070-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2005.05.008, ISSN: 1359-6101.

Su Y, Raghuwanshi SK, Yu Y, Nanney LB, Richardson RM, Richmond A. Altered CXCR2 signaling in beta-arrestin-2-deficient mouse models. J. Immunol. 2005 Oct 10/15/2005; 175(8): 5396-402. PMID: 16210646, PMCID: PMC2668249, PII: 175/8/5396, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Schutyser E, Richmond A, Van Damme J. Involvement of CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) in normal and pathological processes. J. Leukoc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2005 Jul; 78(1): 14-26. PMID: 15784687, PMCID: PMC2665283, PII: jlb.1204712, DOI: 10.1189/jlb.1204712, ISSN: 0741-5400.

Amiri KI, Richmond A. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in melanoma. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2005 Jun; 24(2): 301-13. PMID: 15986139, PMCID: PMC2668255, DOI: 10.1007/s10555-005-1579-7, ISSN: 0167-7659.

Walker GM, Sai J, Richmond A, Stremler M, Chung CY, Wikswo JP. Effects of flow and diffusion on chemotaxis studies in a microfabricated gradient generator. Lab Chip [print-electronic]. 2005 Jun; 5(6): 611-8. PMID: 15915253, PMCID: PMC2665276, DOI: 10.1039/b417245k, ISSN: 1473-0197.

Sai J, Fan GH, Wang D, Richmond A. The C-terminal domain LLKIL motif of CXCR2 is required for ligand-mediated polarization of early signals during chemotaxis. J. Cell. Sci [print-electronic]. 2004 Nov 11/1/2004; 117(Pt 23): 5489-96. PMID: 15479720, PMCID: PMC2668248, PII: jcs.01398, DOI: 10.1242/jcs.01398, ISSN: 0021-9533.

Amiri KI, Horton LW, LaFleur BJ, Sosman JA, Richmond A. Augmenting chemosensitivity of malignant melanoma tumors via proteasome inhibition: implication for bortezomib (VELCADE, PS-341) as a therapeutic agent for malignant melanoma. Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 7/15/2004; 64(14): 4912-8. PMID: 15256463, PII: 64/14/4912, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0673, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Yang J, Richmond A. The angiostatic activity of interferon-inducible protein-10/CXCL10 in human melanoma depends on binding to CXCR3 but not to glycosaminoglycan. Mol. Ther. 2004 Jun; 9(6): 846-55. PMID: 15194051, PMCID: PMC2668261, PII: S1525001604000437, DOI: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2004.01.010, ISSN: 1525-0016.

Fan GH, Lapierre LA, Goldenring JR, Sai J, Richmond A. Rab11-family interacting protein 2 and myosin Vb are required for CXCR2 recycling and receptor-mediated chemotaxis. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2004 May; 15(5): 2456-69. PMID: 15004234, PMCID: PMC404037, PII: E03-09-0706, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E03-09-0706, ISSN: 1059-1524.

Richmond A, Fan GH, Dhawan P, Yang J. How do chemokine/chemokine receptor activations affect tumorigenesis?. Novartis Found. Symp. 2004; 256: 74-89; discussion 89. PMID: 15027484, ISSN: 1528-2511.

Richmond A, Fan GH, Dhawan P, Yang J.. How do chemokine/chemokine receptor activations affect tumorigenesis?. Novartis Found Symp. 2004; 256(()): 74.

Milatovic S, Nanney LB, Yu Y, White JR, Richmond A. Impaired healing of nitrogen mustard wounds in CXCR2 null mice. Wound Repair Regen. 2003 May; 11(3): 213-9. PMID: 12753603, PMCID: PMC2667443, PII: 11310, ISSN: 1067-1927.

Fan GH, Lapierre LA, Goldenring JR, Richmond A. Differential regulation of CXCR2 trafficking by Rab GTPases. Blood [print-electronic]. 2003 Mar 3/15/2003; 101(6): 2115-24. PMID: 12411301, PII: 2002-07-1965, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2002-07-1965, ISSN: 0006-4971.

Wang D, Sai J, Richmond A. Cell surface heparan sulfate participates in CXCL1-induced signaling. Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 2/4/2003; 42(4): 1071-7. PMID: 12549928, PMCID: PMC2667446, DOI: 10.1021/bi026425a, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Amiri KI, Richmond A. Fine tuning the transcriptional regulation of the CXCL1 chemokine. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 2003; 74: 1-36. PMID: 14510072, PMCID: PMC3140403, ISSN: 0079-6603.

Fan,GH. and Richmond,A. Chemokine Receptors. Encyclopedia of G protein coupled receptors. 2003; (()).

Dhawan P, Singh AB, Ellis DL, Richmond A. Constitutive activation of Akt/protein kinase B in melanoma leads to up-regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB and tumor progression. Cancer Res. 2002 Dec 12/15/2002; 62(24): 7335-42. PMID: 12499277, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Richmond A. Nf-kappa B, chemokine gene transcription and tumour growth. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2002 Sep; 2(9): 664-74. PMID: 12209135, PMCID: PMC2668257, PII: nri887, DOI: 10.1038/nri887, ISSN: 1474-1733.

Dhawan P, Richmond A. Role of CXCL1 in tumorigenesis of melanoma. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2002 Jul; 72(1): 9-18. PMID: 12101257, PMCID: PMC2668262, ISSN: 0741-5400.

Wang D, Sai J, Carter G, Sachpatzidis A, Lolis E, Richmond A. PAK1 kinase is required for CXCL1-induced chemotaxis. Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 6/4/2002; 41(22): 7100-7. PMID: 12033944, PMCID: PMC2668253, PII: bi025902m, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Dhawan P, Richmond A. A novel NF-kappa B-inducing kinase-MAPK signaling pathway up-regulates NF-kappa B activity in melanoma cells. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Mar 3/8/2002; 277(10): 7920-8. PMID: 11773061, PMCID: PMC2668260, PII: M112210200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112210200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Fan GH, Yang W, Sai J, Richmond A. Hsc/Hsp70 interacting protein (hip) associates with CXCR2 and regulates the receptor signaling and trafficking. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Feb 2/22/2002; 277(8): 6590-7. PMID: 11751889, PMCID: PMC2665275, PII: M110588200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110588200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Du J, Luan J, Liu H, Daniel TO, Peiper S, Chen TS, Yu Y, Horton LW, Nanney LB, Strieter RM, Richmond A. Potential role for Duffy antigen chemokine-binding protein in angiogenesis and maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2002 Jan; 71(1): 141-53. PMID: 11781390, PMCID: PMC2665273, ISSN: 0741-5400.

Fan,GH. and Richmond,A. Molecule Page CXCR2. Alliance for Cell Signaling. 2002; On line publication.

Yang J, Fan GH, Wadzinski BE, Sakurai H, Richmond A. Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with and directly dephosphorylates RelA. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Dec 12/21/2001; 276(51): 47828-33. PMID: 11591705, PMCID: PMC2665282, PII: M106103200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M106103200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Yang J, Luan J, Yu Y, Li C, DePinho RA, Chin L, Richmond A. Induction of melanoma in murine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 transgenic mice heterozygous for inhibitor of kinase/alternate reading frame. Cancer Res. 2001 Nov 11/15/2001; 61(22): 8150-7. PMID: 11719444, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Nirodi C, Hart J, Dhawan P, Moon NS, Nepveu A, Richmond A. The role of CDP in the negative regulation of CXCL1 gene expression. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Jul 7/13/2001; 276(28): 26122-31. PMID: 11371564, PMCID: PMC2665279, PII: M102872200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M102872200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Yang J, Richmond A. Constitutive IkappaB kinase activity correlates with nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 2001 Jun 6/15/2001; 61(12): 4901-9. PMID: 11406569, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Luan J, Furuta Y, Du J, Richmond A. Developmental expression of two CXC chemokines, MIP-2 and KC, and their receptors. Cytokine. 2001 Jun 6/7/2001; 14(5): 253-63. PMID: 11444905, PII: S1043-4666(01)90882-8, DOI: 10.1006/cyto.2001.0882, ISSN: 1043-4666.

Fan GH, Yang W, Sai J, Richmond A. Phosphorylation-independent association of CXCR2 with the protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 May 5/18/2001; 276(20): 16960-8. PMID: 11278485, PMCID: PMC2666306, PII: M009292200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M009292200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Nirodi C, NagDas S, Gygi SP, Olson G, Aebersold R, Richmond A. A role for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the transcriptional regulation of the melanoma growth stimulatory activity (CXCL1) gene expression. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Mar 3/23/2001; 276(12): 9366-74. PMID: 11112786, PMCID: PMC3369623, PII: M009897200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M009897200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Richmond A, Cheng-Wu Z. Optimization of a flat plate glass reactor for mass production of Nannochloropsis sp. outdoors. J. Biotechnol. 2001 Feb 2/23/2001; 85(3): 259-69. PMID: 11173093, PII: S0168165600003539, ISSN: 0168-1656.

Wang D, Richmond A. Nuclear factor-kappa B activation by the CXC chemokine melanoma growth-stimulatory activity/growth-regulated protein involves the MEKK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Feb 2/2/2001; 276(5): 3650-9. PMID: 11062239, PMCID: PMC2676351, PII: M006115200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M006115200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Fan GH, Yang W, Wang XJ, Qian Q, Richmond A. Identification of a motif in the carboxyl terminus of CXCR2 that is involved in adaptin 2 binding and receptor internalization. Biochemistry. 2001 Jan 1/23/2001; 40(3): 791-800. PMID: 11170396, PMCID: PMC2664867, PII: bi001661b, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Addison CL, Daniel TO, Burdick MD, Liu H, Ehlert JE, Xue YY, Buechi L, Walz A, Richmond A, Strieter RM. The CXC chemokine receptor 2, CXCR2, is the putative receptor for ELR+ CXC chemokine-induced angiogenic activity. J. Immunol. 2000 Nov 11/1/2000; 165(9): 5269-77. PMID: 11046061, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Wang D, Yang W, Du J, Devalaraja MN, Liang P, Matsumoto K, Tsubakimoto K, Endo T, Richmond A. MGSA/GRO-mediated melanocyte transformation involves induction of Ras expression. Oncogene. 2000 Sep 9/21/2000; 19(40): 4647-59. PMID: 11030154, PMCID: PMC2667445, DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203820, ISSN: 0950-9232.

Nirodi CS, Devalaraja R, Nanney LB, Arrindell S, Russell S, Trupin J, Richmond A. Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in keloid and normal fibroblasts. Wound Repair Regen. 2000 Sep; 8(5): 371-82. PMID: 11115149, PMCID: PMC3140346, PII: wrr371, ISSN: 1067-1927.

Richmond A, Kaempfer R. Cytokines revisited at Hilton head. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2000 Sep; 11(3): 255-66. PMID: 10817967, PII: S1359-6101(00)00008-3, ISSN: 1359-6101.

Devalaraja RM, Nanney LB, Du J, Qian Q, Yu Y, Devalaraja MN, Richmond A. Delayed wound healing in CXCR2 knockout mice. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2000 Aug; 115(2): 234-44. PMID: 10951241, PMCID: PMC2664868, PII: jid034, DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00034.x, ISSN: 0022-202X.

Haghnegahdar H, Du J, Wang D, Strieter RM, Burdick MD, Nanney LB, Cardwell N, Luan J, Shattuck-Brandt R, Richmond A. The tumorigenic and angiogenic effects of MGSA/GRO proteins in melanoma. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2000 Jan; 67(1): 53-62. PMID: 10647998, PMCID: PMC2669312, ISSN: 0741-5400.

Yang W, Wang D, Richmond A. Role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in CXCR2 sequestration, resensitization, and signal transduction. J. Biol. Chem. 1999 Apr 4/16/1999; 274(16): 11328-33. PMID: 10196223, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Devalaraja MN, Richmond A. Multiple chemotactic factors: fine control or redundancy?. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 1999 Apr; 20(4): 151-6. PMID: 10322500, PII: S0165-6147(99)01342-5, ISSN: 0165-6147.

Devalaraja MN, Wang DZ, Ballard DW, Richmond A. Elevated constitutive IkappaB kinase activity and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in Hs294T melanoma cells lead to increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 3/15/1999; 59(6): 1372-7. PMID: 10096573, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Nanney LB, Skeel A, Luan J, Polis S, Richmond A, Wang MH, Leonard EJ. Proteolytic cleavage and activation of pro-macrophage-stimulating protein and upregulation of its receptor in tissue injury. J. Invest. Dermatol. 1998 Oct; 111(4): 573-81. PMID: 9764835, DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00332.x, ISSN: 0022-202X.

Tang T, Owen JD, Du J, Walker CL, Richmond A. Molecular cloning and characterization of a mouse gene with homology to the Duffy-antigen receptor for chemokines. DNA Seq. 1998; 9(3): 129-43. PMID: 10520743, ISSN: 1042-5179.

Yang W, Schraw WP, Mueller SG, Richmond A. Interruption of G protein-coupling in CXCR2 does not alter ligand binding, but eliminates ligand-activation of GTPgamma35S binding, calcium mobilization, and chemotaxis. Biochemistry. 1997 Dec 12/9/1997; 36(49): 15193-200. PMID: 9398246, PII: bi971594u, DOI: 10.1021/bi971594u, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Luan J, Shattuck-Brandt R, Haghnegahdar H, Owen JD, Strieter R, Burdick M, Nirodi C, Beauchamp D, Johnson KN, Richmond A. Mechanism and biological significance of constitutive expression of MGSA/GRO chemokines in malignant melanoma tumor progression. J. Leukoc. Biol. 1997 Nov; 62(5): 588-97. PMID: 9365113, ISSN: 0741-5400.

Owen JD, Strieter R, Burdick M, Haghnegahdar H, Nanney L, Shattuck-Brandt R, Richmond A. Enhanced tumor-forming capacity for immortalized melanocytes expressing melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated cytokine beta and gamma proteins. Int. J. Cancer. 1997 Sep 9/26/1997; 73(1): 94-103. PMID: 9334815, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19970926)73:1<94::AID-IJC15>3.0.CO;2-5, ISSN: 0020-7136.

Shattuck-Brandt RL, Richmond A. Enhanced degradation of I-kappaB alpha contributes to endogenous activation of NF-kappaB in Hs294T melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 1997 Jul 7/15/1997; 57(14): 3032-9. PMID: 9230219, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Mueller SG, White JR, Schraw WP, Lam V, Richmond A. Ligand-induced desensitization of the human CXC chemokine receptor-2 is modulated by multiple serine residues in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 1997 Mar 3/28/1997; 272(13): 8207-14. PMID: 9079638, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Shattuck-Brandt RL, Wood LD, Richmond A. Identification and characterization of an MGSA/GRO pseudogene. DNA Seq. 1997; 7(6): 379-86. PMID: 9524820, ISSN: 1042-5179.

Richmond A, Mueller S, White JR, Schraw W. C-X-C chemokine receptor desensitization mediated through ligand-enhanced receptor phosphorylation on serine residues. Meth. Enzymol. 1997; 288: 3-15. PMID: 9356983, ISSN: 0076-6879.

Wood LD, Richmond A. Constitutive and cytokine-induced expression of the melanoma growth stimulatory activity/GRO alpha gene requires both NF-kappa B and novel constitutive factors. J. Biol. Chem. 1995 Dec 12/22/1995; 270(51): 30619-26. PMID: 8530498, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Nanney LB, Mueller SG, Bueno R, Peiper SC, Richmond A. Distributions of melanoma growth stimulatory activity of growth-regulated gene and the interleukin-8 receptor B in human wound repair. Am. J. Pathol. 1995 Nov; 147(5): 1248-60. PMID: 7485389, PMCID: PMC1869526, ISSN: 0002-9440.

Wood LD, Farmer AA, Richmond A. HMGI(Y) and Sp1 in addition to NF-kappa B regulate transcription of the MGSA/GRO alpha gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Oct 10/25/1995; 23(20): 4210-9. PMID: 7479086, PMCID: PMC307364, PII: 5g0267, ISSN: 0305-1048.

Schraw W, Richmond A. Melanoma growth stimulatory activity signaling through the class II interleukin-8 receptor enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrate, p130, and a 70-kilodalton protein. Biochemistry. 1995 Oct 10/24/1995; 34(42): 13760-7. PMID: 7577968, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Mueller SG, Schraw WP, Richmond A. Activation of protein kinase C enhances the phosphorylation of the type B interleukin-8 receptor and stimulates its degradation in non-hematopoietic cells. J. Biol. Chem. 1995 May 5/5/1995; 270(18): 10439-48. PMID: 7737978, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Richmond AH. The environment and refugees: theoretical and policy issues. Popul Bull UN. 1995; (39): 1-17. PMID: 12347198, ISSN: 0251-7604.

Mueller SG, Schraw WP, Richmond A. Melanoma growth stimulatory activity enhances the phosphorylation of the class II interleukin-8 receptor in non-hematopoietic cells. J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Jan 1/21/1994; 269(3): 1973-80. PMID: 8294449, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Shattuck RL, Wood LD, Jaffe GJ, Richmond A. MGSA/GRO transcription is differentially regulated in normal retinal pigment epithelial and melanoma cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1994 Jan; 14(1): 791-802. PMID: 8264646, PMCID: PMC358427, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Tettelbach W, Nanney L, Ellis D, King L, Richmond A. Localization of MGSA/GRO protein in cutaneous lesions. J. Cutan. Pathol. 1993 Jun; 20(3): 259-66. PMID: 8366215, ISSN: 0303-6987.

Cheng QC, Han JH, Thomas HG, Balentien E, Richmond A. The melanoma growth stimulatory activity receptor consists of two proteins. Ligand binding results in enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation. J. Immunol. 1992 Jan 1/15/1992; 148(2): 451-6. PMID: 1729365, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Richmond A. The pathogenic role of growth factors in melanoma. Semin Dermatol. 1991 Sep; 10(3): 246-55. PMID: 1931574, ISSN: 0278-145X.

Balentien E, Mufson BE, Shattuck RL, Derynck R, Richmond A. Effects of MGSA/GRO alpha on melanocyte transformation. Oncogene. 1991 Jul; 6(7): 1115-24. PMID: 1861861, ISSN: 0950-9232.

Thomas HG, Han JH, Balentien E, Derynck R, Bordoni R, Richmond A. Purification and characterization of recombinant melanoma growth stimulating activity. Meth. Enzymol. 1991; 198: 373-83. PMID: 1857230, PII: 0076-6879(91)98038-8, ISSN: 0076-6879.

Bordoni R, Fine R, Murray D, Richmond A. Characterization of the role of melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) in the growth of normal melanocytes, nevocytes, and malignant melanocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 1990 Dec; 44(4): 207-19. PMID: 2095366, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.240440403, ISSN: 0730-2312.

Baker NE, Kucera G, Richmond A. Nucleotide sequence of the human melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Nov 11/11/1990; 18(21): 6453. PMID: 2129556, PMCID: PMC332569, ISSN: 0305-1048.

Bordoni R, Thomas G, Richmond A. Growth factor modulation of melanoma growth stimulatory activity mRNA expression in human malignant melanoma cells correlates with cell growth. J. Cell. Biochem. 1989 Apr; 39(4): 421-8. PMID: 2722970, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.240390408, ISSN: 0730-2312.

Priest JH, Phillips CN, Wang Y, Richmond A. Chromosome and growth factor abnormalities in melanoma. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 1988 Oct 10/15/1988; 35(2): 253-62. PMID: 3141038, PII: 0165-4608(88)90248-8, ISSN: 0165-4608.

Richmond A, Balentien E, Thomas HG, Flaggs G, Barton DE, Spiess J, Bordoni R, Francke U, Derynck R. Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin. EMBO J. 1988 Jul; 7(7): 2025-33. PMID: 2970963, PMCID: PMC454478, ISSN: 0261-4189.

Lawson DH, Thomas HG, Roy RG, Gordon DS, Chawla RK, Nixon DW, Richmond A. Preparation of a monoclonal antibody to a melanoma growth-stimulatory activity released into serum-free culture medium by Hs0294 malignant melanoma cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 1987 Jul; 34(3): 169-85. PMID: 3611199, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.240340304, ISSN: 0730-2312.

Richmond A, Fine R, Murray D, Lawson DH, Priest JH. Growth factor and cytogenetic abnormalities in cultured nevi and malignant melanomas. J. Invest. Dermatol. 1986 Mar; 86(3): 295-302. PMID: 3745955, ISSN: 0022-202X.

Richmond A, Lawson DH, Nixon DW, Chawla RK. Characterization of autostimulatory and transforming growth factors from human melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 1985 Dec; 45(12 Pt 1): 6390-4. PMID: 3864531, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Richmond A, Lawson DH, Nixon DW, Stevens JS, Chawla RK. Extraction of a melanoma growth-stimulatory activity from culture medium conditioned by the Hs0294 human melanoma cell line. Cancer Res. 1983 May; 43(5): 2106-12. PMID: 6600964, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Lawson DH, Nixon DW, Black ML, Tindall GT, Barnes DA, Faraj BA, Ali FM, Camp VM, Richmond A. Evaluation of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in the management of patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Cancer. 1983 Apr 4/15/1983; 51(8): 1541-5. PMID: 6186359, ISSN: 0008-543X.

Richmond A, Lawson DH, Nixon DW, Stevens JS, Chawla RK. In vitro growth promotion in human malignant melanoma cells by fibroblast growth factor. Cancer Res. 1982 Aug; 42(8): 3175-80. PMID: 6212117, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Lawson DH, Richmond A, Nixon DW, Rudman D. Metabolic approaches to cancer cachexia. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1982; 2: 277-301. PMID: 6821191, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nu.02.070182.001425, ISSN: 0199-9885.

Chawla RK, Shlaer SM, Lawson DH, Murray TG, Schmidt F, Shoji M, Nixon DW, Richmond A, Rudman D. Elevated plasma and urinary guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate and increased production rate in patients with neoplastic diseases. Cancer Res. 1980 Nov; 40(11): 3915-20. PMID: 6258769, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Chawla RK, Lawson DH, Richmond A, Rudman D. Effect of plasma inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor and cancer-related glycoprotein EDC1 on phytohemagglutinin-induced thymidine uptake in lymphocytes. Cancer Res. 1980 Nov; 40(11): 4187-91. PMID: 6162547, ISSN: 0008-5472.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 1/28/2014
We have an opening for a training grant eligible postdoctoral fellow with training in immunology to work on projects in tumor immunology. Specifically we are investigating how therapeutic treatments affect the leukocyte infiltrate into the tumor microenvironment and the pre-metastatic niche.