Robert L. Macdonald, Ph.D., M.D.

Professor

robert.macdonald@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Chair of the Department of Neurology Professor of Neurology Professor of PharmacologyMargaret and John Warner Chair for Neurological EducationProfessor of Molecular Physiology and BiophysicsProfessor of Molecular Physiology and BiophysicsProfessor of Pharmacology
Education
M.D., Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VirginiaPh.D., Neurophysiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VirginiaS.B., Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Office Address
A 1123A Medical Center North
1161 21st Ave. South.
Nashville, TN 37232-3375
Research Description
Transcription, translation, folding, assembly, trafficking and pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of recombinant/native GABAA receptor channels and of mutant GABAA receptor channels associated with genetic epilepsy syndromes in transfected HEK293T cells and in transgenic mice.
Research Keywords
Transcription, translation, folding, assembly, trafficking and pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of recombinant/native GABAA receptor channels and of mutant GABAA receptor channels associated with genetic epilepsy syndromes in transfected HEK293T cells and in transgenic mice.
Publications
Botzolakis EJ, Zhao J, Gurba KN, Macdonald RL, Hedera P. The effect of HSP-causing mutations in SPG3A and NIPA1 on the assembly, trafficking, and interaction between atlastin-1 and NIPA1. Mol. Cell. Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 46(1): 122-35. PMID: 20816793, PMCID: PMC3010260, PII: S1044-7431(10)00203-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2010.08.012, ISSN: 1095-9327.

Delahanty RJ, Kang JQ, Brune CW, Kistner EO, Courchesne E, Cox NJ, Cook EH, Macdonald RL, Sutcliffe JS. Maternal transmission of a rare GABRB3 signal peptide variant is associated with autism. Mol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 16(1): 86-96. PMID: 19935738, PMCID: PMC3428055, PII: mp2009118, DOI: 10.1038/mp.2009.118, ISSN: 1476-5578.

Kang JQ, Shen W, Lee M, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Slow degradation and aggregation in vitro of mutant GABAA receptor gamma2(Q351X) subunits associated with epilepsy. J. Neurosci. 2010 Oct 10/13/2010; 30(41): 13895-905. PMID: 20943930, PMCID: PMC2976503, PII: 30/41/13895, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2320-10.2010, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Lo WY, Lagrange AH, Hernandez CC, Harrison R, Dell A, Haslam SM, Sheehan JH, Macdonald RL. Glycosylation of {beta}2 subunits regulates GABAA receptor biogenesis and channel gating. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Oct 10/8/2010; 285(41): 31348-61. PMID: 20639197, PMCID: PMC2951209, PII: M110.151449, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.151449, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Feng HJ, Kao C, Gallagher MJ, Jansen ED, Mahadevan-Jansen A, Konrad PE, Macdonald RL. Alteration of GABAergic neurotransmission by pulsed infrared laser stimulation. J. Neurosci. Methods [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep 9/30/2010; 192(1): 110-4. PMID: 20654645, PMCID: PMC3096872, PII: S0165-0270(10)00388-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.07.014, ISSN: 1872-678X.

Ding L, Feng HJ, Macdonald RL, Botzolakis EJ, Hu N, Gallagher MJ. GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit mutation A322D associated with autosomal dominant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy reduces the expression and alters the composition of wild type GABA(A) receptors. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Aug 8/20/2010; 285(34): 26390-405. PMID: 20551311, PMCID: PMC2924069, PII: M110.142299, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.142299, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Feng HJ, Macdonald RL. Barbiturates require the N terminus and first transmembrane domain of the delta subunit for enhancement of alpha1beta3delta GABAA receptor currents. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul 7/30/2010; 285(31): 23614-21. PMID: 20525684, PMCID: PMC2911329, PII: M110.122564, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.122564, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Macdonald RL, Kang JQ, Gallagher MJ. Mutations in GABAA receptor subunits associated with genetic epilepsies. J. Physiol. (Lond.) [print-electronic]. 2010 Jun 6/1/2010; 588(Pt 11): 1861-9. PMID: 20308251, PMCID: PMC2901974, PII: jphysiol.2010.186999, DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.186999, ISSN: 1469-7793.

Tang X, Hernandez CC, Macdonald RL. Modulation of spontaneous and GABA-evoked tonic alpha4beta3delta and alpha4beta3gamma2L GABAA receptor currents by protein kinase A. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb; 103(2): 1007-19. PMID: 19939957, PMCID: PMC2822691, PII: 00801.2009, DOI: 10.1152/jn.00801.2009, ISSN: 1522-1598.

Kang JQ, Macdonald RL. Making sense of nonsense GABA(A) receptor mutations associated with genetic epilepsies. Trends Mol Med [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 15(9): 430-8. PMID: 19717338, PMCID: PMC3076198, PII: S1471-4914(09)00122-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2009.07.003, ISSN: 1471-499X.

Botzolakis EJ, Maheshwari A, Feng HJ, Lagrange AH, Shaver JH, Kassebaum NJ, Venkataraman R, Baudenbacher F, Macdonald RL. Achieving synaptically relevant pulses of neurotransmitter using PDMS microfluidics. J. Neurosci. Methods [print-electronic]. 2009 Mar 3/15/2009; 177(2): 294-302. PMID: 19013195, PMCID: PMC3786708, PII: S0165-0270(08)00632-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2008.10.014, ISSN: 0165-0270.

Kang JQ, Shen W, Macdonald RL. The GABRG2 mutation, Q351X, associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, has both loss of function and dominant-negative suppression. J. Neurosci. 2009 Mar 3/4/2009; 29(9): 2845-56. PMID: 19261880, PMCID: PMC2754234, PII: 29/9/2845, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4772-08.2009, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Kang JQ, Shen W, Macdonald RL. Two molecular pathways (NMD and ERAD) contribute to a genetic epilepsy associated with the GABA(A) receptor GABRA1 PTC mutation, 975delC, S326fs328X. J. Neurosci. 2009 Mar 3/4/2009; 29(9): 2833-44. PMID: 19261879, PMCID: PMC2687144, PII: 29/9/2833, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4512-08.2009, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Macdonald RL, Kang JQ. Molecular pathology of genetic epilepsies associated with GABAA receptor subunit mutations. Epilepsy Curr. 2009 Jan; 9(1): 18-23. PMID: 19396344, PMCID: PMC2668111, DOI: 10.1111/j.1535-7511.2008.01278.x, ISSN: 1535-7597.

Feng HJ, Botzolakis EJ, Macdonald RL. Context-dependent modulation of alphabetagamma and alphabetadelta GABA A receptors by penicillin: implications for phasic and tonic inhibition. Neuropharmacology [print-electronic]. 2009 Jan; 56(1): 161-73. PMID: 18775733, PMCID: PMC2661208, PII: S0028-3908(08)00374-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.08.010, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Zhao J, Matthies DS, Botzolakis EJ, Macdonald RL, Blakely RD, Hedera P. Hereditary spastic paraplegia-associated mutations in the NIPA1 gene and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog trigger neural degeneration in vitro and in vivo through a gain-of-function mechanism. J. Neurosci. 2008 Dec 12/17/2008; 28(51): 13938-51. PMID: 19091982, PMCID: PMC2660329, PII: 28/51/13938, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4668-08.2008, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Lo WY, Botzolakis EJ, Tang X, Macdonald RL. A conserved Cys-loop receptor aspartate residue in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop is required for GABAA receptor assembly. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct 10/31/2008; 283(44): 29740-52. PMID: 18723504, PMCID: PMC2573071, PII: M802856200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M802856200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Rula EY, Lagrange AH, Jacobs MM, Hu N, Macdonald RL, Emeson RB. Developmental modulation of GABA(A) receptor function by RNA editing. J. Neurosci. 2008 Jun 6/11/2008; 28(24): 6196-201. PMID: 18550761, PMCID: PMC2746000, PII: 28/24/6196, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0443-08.2008, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Feng HJ, Mathews GC, Kao C, Macdonald RL. Alterations of GABA A-receptor function and allosteric modulation during development of status epilepticus. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Mar; 99(3): 1285-93. PMID: 18216225, PII: 01180.2007, DOI: 10.1152/jn.01180.2007, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Gallagher MJ, Ding L, Maheshwari A, Macdonald RL. The GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit epilepsy mutation A322D inhibits transmembrane helix formation and causes proteasomal degradation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug 8/7/2007; 104(32): 12999-3004. PMID: 17670950, PMCID: PMC1941799, PII: 0700163104, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0700163104, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Lagrange AH, Botzolakis EJ, Macdonald RL. Enhanced macroscopic desensitization shapes the response of alpha4 subtype-containing GABAA receptors to synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA. J. Physiol. (Lond.) [print-electronic]. 2007 Feb 2/1/2007; 578(Pt 3): 655-76. PMID: 17124266, PMCID: PMC2151343, PII: jphysiol.2006.122135, DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.122135, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Audenaert D, Schwartz E, Claeys KG, Claes L, Deprez L, Suls A, Van Dyck T, Lagae L, Van Broeckhoven C, Macdonald RL, De Jonghe P. A novel GABRG2 mutation associated with febrile seizures. Neurology. 2006 Aug 8/22/2006; 67(4): 687-90. PMID: 16924025, PII: 67/4/687, DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000230145.73496.a2, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Kang JQ, Shen W, Macdonald RL. Why does fever trigger febrile seizures? GABAA receptor gamma2 subunit mutations associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies have temperature-dependent trafficking deficiencies. J. Neurosci. 2006 Mar 3/1/2006; 26(9): 2590-7. PMID: 16510738, PII: 26/9/2590, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4243-05.2006, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Feng HJ, Kang JQ, Song L, Dibbens L, Mulley J, Macdonald RL. Delta subunit susceptibility variants E177A and R220H associated with complex epilepsy alter channel gating and surface expression of alpha4beta2delta GABAA receptors. J. Neurosci. 2006 Feb 2/1/2006; 26(5): 1499-506. PMID: 16452673, PII: 26/5/1499, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2913-05.2006, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Macdonald RL, Kang JQ, Gallagher MJ, Feng HJ. GABA(A) receptor mutations associated with generalized epilepsies. Adv. Pharmacol. 2006; 54: 147-69. PMID: 17175814, ISSN: 1054-3589.

Gallagher MJ, Shen W, Song L, Macdonald RL. Endoplasmic reticulum retention and associated degradation of a GABAA receptor epilepsy mutation that inserts an aspartate in the M3 transmembrane segment of the alpha1 subunit. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2005 Nov 11/11/2005; 280(45): 37995-8004. PMID: 16123039, PII: M508305200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M508305200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Jones-Davis DM, Song L, Macdonald RL:. Structural determinants of benzodiazepine allosteric regulation of GABAA receptor currents. J Neurosci. 2005; 25: 8056-65.

Feng HJ, Macdonald RL. Multiple actions of propofol on alphabetagamma and alphabetadelta GABAA receptors. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2004 Dec; 66(6): 1517-24. PMID: 15331770, PII: mol.104.003426, DOI: 10.1124/mol.104.003426, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Macdonald RL, Gallagher MJ, Feng HJ, Kang J. GABA(A) receptor epilepsy mutations. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 10/15/2004; 68(8): 1497-506. PMID: 15451392, PII: S0006-2952(04)00543-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2004.07.029, ISSN: 0006-2952.

Kang JQ, Macdonald RL. The GABAA receptor gamma2 subunit R43Q mutation linked to childhood absence epilepsy and febrile seizures causes retention of alpha1beta2gamma2S receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum. J. Neurosci. 2004 Oct 10/6/2004; 24(40): 8672-7. PMID: 15470132, PII: 24/40/8672, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2717-04.2004, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Feng HJ, Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Pentobarbital differentially modulates alpha1beta3delta and alpha1beta3gamma2L GABAA receptor currents. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2004 Oct; 66(4): 988-1003. PMID: 15247320, PII: mol.104.002543, DOI: 10.1124/mol.104.002543, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Feng HJ, Macdonald RL. Proton modulation of alpha 1 beta 3 delta GABAA receptor channel gating and desensitization. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2004 Sep; 92(3): 1577-85. PMID: 15152020, PII: 00285.2004, DOI: 10.1152/jn.00285.2004, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Gallagher MJ, Song L, Arain F, Macdonald RL. The juvenile myoclonic epilepsy GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit mutation A322D produces asymmetrical, subunit position-dependent reduction of heterozygous receptor currents and alpha1 subunit protein expression. J. Neurosci. 2004 Jun 6/16/2004; 24(24): 5570-8. PMID: 15201329, PII: 24/24/5570, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1301-04.2004, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Najm I, Ying Z, Babb T, Crino PB, 4 Macdonald R, Mathern GW, Spreafico R.. Mechanisms of epileptogenicity in cortical dysplasias. Neurology. 2004; 62(6 Suppl 3)((23)).

Dibbens LM, Hua-Jun Feng H-J, Richards MC, Harkin LA, Hodgson BL, Scott D, Jenkins M, Petrou S, Sutherland GR, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF, Macdonald RL, Mulley JC.. GABRD encoding a protein for extra- or peri-synaptic GABAA receptors is a susceptibility locus for generalized epilepsies. Hum Mol Genet. 2004; 13((13)): 1315-9.

Gallagher MJ, Song L, Macdonald RL. An autosomal dominant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy GABAA receptor 1 subunit mutation produces asymmetrical, subunit position-dependent reduction of heterozygous receptor currents. J Neurosci. 2004; 24: 5570-8.

Feng H-J, Macdonald RL:. Proton modulation of 13 GABAA receptor channel gating and desensitization. Neurophysiol. 2004; 92: 1577-85.

Feng H-J, Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Pentobarbital differentially modulates 13 and 132L GABAA receptor currents. Mol Pharm. 2004; 66: 988-1003.

Hinkle DJ, Macdonald RL. Beta subunit phosphorylation selectively increases fast desensitization and prolongs deactivation of alpha1beta1gamma2L and alpha1beta3gamma2L GABA(A) receptor currents. J. Neurosci. 2003 Dec 12/17/2003; 23(37): 11698-710. PMID: 14684872, PII: 23/37/11698, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Neurosteroids shift partial agonist activation of GABA(A) receptor channels from low- to high-efficacy gating patterns. J. Neurosci. 2003 Nov 11/26/2003; 23(34): 10934-43. PMID: 14645489, PII: 23/34/10934, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Macdonald RL, Bianchi MT, Feng H. Mutations linked to generalized epilepsy in humans reduce GABA(A) receptor current. Exp. Neurol. 2003 Nov; 184 Suppl 1: S58-67. PMID: 14597328, PII: S0014488603004059, ISSN: 0014-4886.

Kim H, Macdonald RL. An N-terminal histidine is the primary determinant of alpha subunit-dependent Cu2+ sensitivity of alphabeta3gamma2L GABA(A) receptors. Mol. Pharmacol. 2003 Nov; 64(5): 1145-52. PMID: 14573764, PII: 64/5/1145, DOI: 10.1124/mol.64.5.1145, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Hinkle DJ, Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Modifications of a commercial perfusion system for use in ultrafast solution exchange during patch clamp recording. BioTechniques. 2003 Sep; 35(3): 472-4, 476. PMID: 14513550, ISSN: 0736-6205.

Kim, H, Flanagin, BA, Qin, C, Macdonald, RL, Stitzel, JA. The mouse Chrna4 A529T polymorphism alters the ratio of high to low affinity alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Neuropharmacology. 2003; ((45)): 345-54.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Neurosteroids increase the efficacy of GABAA receptor partial agonists. J Neurosci. 2003; 23: 10934-43.

Chen C, Bharucha V, Chen Y, Westenbroek RE, Brown A, Malhotra JD, Jones D, Avery C, Gillespie PJ, Kazen-Gillespie KA, Kazarinova-Noyes K, Shrager P, Saunders TL, Macdonald RL, Ransom BR, Scheuer T, Catterall WA, Isom LL. Reduced sodium channel density, altered voltage dependence of inactivation, and increased susceptibility to seizures in mice lacking sodium channel beta 2-subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2002 Dec 12/24/2002; 99(26): 17072-7. PMID: 12481039, PMCID: PMC139271, PII: 212638099, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.212638099, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Slow phases of GABA(A) receptor desensitization: structural determinants and possible relevance for synaptic function. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 2002 Oct 10/1/2002; 544(Pt 1): 3-18. PMID: 12356876, PMCID: PMC2290568, PII: PHY_020255, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Bianchi MT, Haas KF, Macdonald RL. Alpha1 and alpha6 subunits specify distinct desensitization, deactivation and neurosteroid modulation of GABA(A) receptors containing the delta subunit. Neuropharmacology. 2002 Sep; 43(4): 492-502. PMID: 12367596, PII: S0028390802001636, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Jones DM, Esmaeil N, Maren S, Macdonald RL. Characterization of pharmacoresistance to benzodiazepines in the rat Li-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res. 2002 Aug; 50(3): 301-12. PMID: 12200221, PII: S0920121102000852, ISSN: 0920-1211.

Buhr A, Bianchi MT, Baur R, Courtet P, Pignay V, Boulenger JP, Gallati S, Hinkle DJ, Macdonald RL, Sigel E. Functional characterization of the new human GABA(A) receptor mutation beta3(R192H). Hum. Genet [print-electronic]. 2002 Aug; 111(2): 154-60. PMID: 12189488, DOI: 10.1007/s00439-002-0766-7, ISSN: 0340-6717.

Bianchi MT, Song L, Zhang H, Macdonald RL. Two different mechanisms of disinhibition produced by GABAA receptor mutations linked to epilepsy in humans. J. Neurosci. 2002 Jul 7/1/2002; 22(13): 5321-7. PMID: 12097483, PII: 22/13/5321, DOI: 20026554, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Greenfield LJ, Zaman SH, Sutherland ML, Lummis SC, Niemeyer MI, Barnard EA, Macdonald RL. Mutation of the GABAA receptor M1 transmembrane proline increases GABA affinity and reduces barbiturate enhancement. Neuropharmacology. 2002 Mar; 42(4): 502-21. PMID: 11955521, PII: S0028390801001964, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Wohlfarth KM, Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Enhanced neurosteroid potentiation of ternary GABA(A) receptors containing the delta subunit. J. Neurosci. 2002 Mar 3/1/2002; 22(5): 1541-9. PMID: 11880484, PII: 22/5/1541, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. 1 and 6 subunits specify distinct desensitization, deactivation and neurosteroid modulation of GABAA receptors containing the  subunit. Neuropharmacology. 2002; 43: 492-502.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Agonist Trapping by GABAA Receptor Channels. J. Neurosci. 2001 Dec 12/1/2001; 21(23): 9083-91. PMID: 11717341, PII: 21/23/9083, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Mutation of the 9' leucine in the GABA(A) receptor gamma2L subunit produces an apparent decrease in desensitization by stabilizing open states without altering desensitized states. Neuropharmacology. 2001 Nov; 41(6): 737-44. PMID: 11640928, PII: S0028390801001320, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Nagaya N, Macdonald RL. Two gamma2L subunit domains confer low Zn2+ sensitivity to ternary GABA(A) receptors. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 2001 Apr 4/1/2001; 532(Pt 1): 17-30. PMID: 11283222, PMCID: PMC2278531, PII: PHY_11621, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Bianchi MT, Haas KF, Macdonald RL. Structural determinants of fast desensitization and desensitization-deactivation coupling in GABAa receptors. J. Neurosci. 2001 Feb 2/15/2001; 21(4): 1127-36. PMID: 11160383, PII: 21/4/1127, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Kelly KM, Kume A, Albin RL, Macdonald RL. Autoradiography of L-type and N-type calcium channels in aged rat hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and neocortex. Neurobiol. Aging. 2001 Jan; 22(1): 17-23. PMID: 11164272, PII: S0197-4580(00)00178-0, ISSN: 0197-4580.

Bianchi MT, Haas K, Macdonald RL. Structural determinants of fast desensitization and desensitization-deactivation coupling in GABAA receptors. J Neurosci. 2001; 21: 1127-36.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL: Agonist trapping by GABAA receptor channels. J Neurosci. 2001; 21: 9083-91.

Bianchi MT, Macdonald RL. Mutation of the 9’Leucine in the GABAA receptor 2L subunit produces an apparent decrease in desensitization by stabilizing open states without altering desensitized states. Neuropharmacology. 2001; 41: 737-734.

Neelands TR, King AP, Macdonald RL. Functional expression of L-, N-, P/Q-, and R-type calcium channels in the human NT2-N cell line. J. Neurophysiol. 2000 Dec; 84(6): 2933-44. PMID: 11110822, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Fisher JL, Hinkle DJ, Macdonald RL. Loreclezole inhibition of recombinant alpha1beta1gamma2L GABA(A) receptor single channel currents. Neuropharmacology. 2000 Jan 1/4/2000; 39(2): 235-45. PMID: 10670419, PII: S0028390899001082, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Burgard EC, Haas KF, Macdonald RL. Channel properties determine the transient activation kinetics of recombinant GABA(A) receptors. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1999 Nov 11/10/1999; 73(1-2): 28-36. PMID: 10581395, PII: S0169328X99002302, ISSN: 0169-328X.

Kapur J, Haas KF, Macdonald RL. Physiological properties of GABAA receptors from acutely dissociated rat dentate granule cells. J. Neurophysiol. 1999 May; 81(5): 2464-71. PMID: 10322081, ISSN: 0022-3077.

King AP, Hall KE, Macdonald RL. Kappa- and mu-Opioid inhibition of N-type calcium currents is attenuated by 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and protein kinase C in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1999 Apr; 289(1): 312-20. PMID: 10087019, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Kapur J, Macdonald RL. Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor pharmacological properties. Mol. Pharmacol. 1999 Mar; 55(3): 444-52. PMID: 10051527, ISSN: 0026-895X.

MacDonald RL, Kapur J. Pharmacological properties of recombinant and hippocampal dentate granule cell GABAA receptors. Adv Neurol. 1999; 79: 979-90. PMID: 10514880, ISSN: 0091-3952.

Macdonald RL, Kapur J. Acute cellular alterations in the hippocampus after status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 1999; 40 Suppl 1: S9-20; discussion S21. PMID: 10421557, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Lowenstein DH, Bleck T, Macdonald RL. It's time to revise the definition of status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 1999 Jan; 40(1): 120-2. PMID: 9924914, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Neelands TR, Fisher JL, Bianchi M, Macdonald RL. Spontaneous and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated GABA(A) receptor channels formed by epsilon subunit-containing isoforms. Mol. Pharmacol. 1999 Jan; 55(1): 168-78. PMID: 9882711, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Haas KF, Macdonald RL. GABAA receptor subunit gamma2 and delta subtypes confer unique kinetic properties on recombinant GABAA receptor currents in mouse fibroblasts. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1999 Jan 1/1/1999; 514 ( Pt 1): 27-45. PMID: 9831714, PMCID: PMC2269054, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Neelands TR, Zhang J, Macdonald RL. GABAA receptors expressed in undifferentiated human teratocarcinoma NT2 stem cells differ from those expressed by differentiated NT2- N cells. J Neurosci. 1999; 19: 7057-65.

Neelands TR, Macdonald R. Incorporation of the pi subunit into functional GABAA receptor channels. Mol Pharmacol. 1999; 56: 598-610.

Tietz EI, Kapur J, Macdonald RL. Functional GABAA receptor heterogeneity of acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell. J Neurophysiol. 1999; 81: 1575-86.

Neelands TR, Greenfield LJ, Zhang J, Turner RS, Macdonald RL. GABAA receptor pharmacology and subtype mRNA expression in human neuronal NT2-N cells. J. Neurosci. 1998 Jul 7/1/1998; 18(13): 4993-5007. PMID: 9634565, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Fisher JL, Macdonald RL. The role of an alpha subtype M2-M3 His in regulating inhibition of GABAA receptor current by zinc and other divalent cations. J Neurosci. 1998; 18: 2944-53.

Macdonald RL, Greenfield LJ. Mechanisms of action of new antiepileptic drugs. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 1997 Apr; 10(2): 121-8. PMID: 9147003, ISSN: 1350-7540.

Wiley JW, Moises HC, Gross RA, MacDonald RL. Dynorphin A-mediated reduction in multiple calcium currents involves a G(o) alpha-subtype G protein in rat primary afferent neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 1997 Mar; 77(3): 1338-48. PMID: 9084601, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Greenfield LJ, Sun F, Neelands TR, Burgard EC, Donnelly JL, MacDonald RL. Expression of functional GABAA receptors in transfected L929 cells isolated by immunomagnetic bead separation. Neuropharmacology. 1997 Jan; 36(1): 63-73. PMID: 9144642, PII: S0028390896001505, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Kapur J, Macdonald RL. Rapid seizure-induced reduction of benzodiazepine and Zn2+ sensitivity of hippocampal dentate granule cell GABAA receptors. J Neurosci. 1997; 17: 7532-40.

Saxena NC, Neelands TR, Macdonald RL. Contrasting actions of lanthanum on different recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor isoforms expressed in L929 fibroblasts. Mol Pharmacol. 1997; 51: 328-35.

Fisher JL, Zhang J, Macdonald RL. The role of alpha1 and alpha6 subtype amino-terminal domains in allosteric regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1997; 52: 714-24.

Fisher JL, Macdonald Rl. Functional properties of recombinant GABAA receptors composed of single or multiple beta subunit subtypes. Neuropharmacology. 1997; 36: 1601-10.

Fisher JL, Macdonald RL. Single channel properties of recombinant GABAA receptors containing gamma2 or delta subtypes expressed with alpha1 and beta3 subtypes in L929 cells. J Physiol (Lond). 1997; 505: 283-97.

Kapur J, Macdonald RL. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase enhances hippocampal dentate granule cell GABAA receptor currents. J. Neurophysiol. 1996 Oct; 76(4): 2626-34. PMID: 8899633, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Kapur J, Macdonald RL. Pharmacological properties of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors from acutely dissociated rat dentate granule cells. Mol. Pharmacol. 1996 Sep; 50(3): 458-66. PMID: 8794882, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Lin YF, Angelotti TP, Dudek EM, Browning MD, Macdonald RL. Enhancement of recombinant alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2L gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor whole-cell currents by protein kinase C is mediated through phosphorylation of both beta 1 and gamma 2L subunits. Mol. Pharmacol. 1996 Jul; 50(1): 185-95. PMID: 8700112, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Burgard EC, Tietz EI, Neelands TR, Macdonald RL. Properties of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor isoforms containing the alpha 5 subunit subtype. Mol. Pharmacol. 1996 Jul; 50(1): 119-27. PMID: 8700104, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Kume A, Greenfield LJ, Macdonald RL, Albin RL. Felbamate inhibits [3H]t-butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB) binding and enhances Cl- current at the gamma-aminobutyric AcidA (GABAA) receptor. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1996 Jun; 277(3): 1784-92. PMID: 8667250, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Saxena NC, Macdonald RL. Properties of putative cerebellar gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor isoforms. Mol. Pharmacol. 1996 Mar; 49(3): 567-79. PMID: 8643098, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Macdonald RL, Saxena NC, Angelotti TP. Functional expression of recombinant GABAA receptor channels in L929 fibroblasts. Epilepsy Res. Suppl. 1996; 12: 177-85. PMID: 9302516, ISSN: 0922-9833.

Macdonald RL. Is there a mechanistic basis for rational polypharmacy?. Epilepsy Res. Suppl. 1996; 11: 79-93. PMID: 9294730, ISSN: 0922-9833.

Donnelly JL, MacDonald RL. Loreclezole enhances apparent desensitization of recombinant GABAA receptor currents. Neuropharmacology. 1996; 35(9-10): 1233-41. PMID: 9014138, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Hall KE, Browning MD, Dudek EM, Macdonald RL. Enhancement of high threshold calcium currents in rat primary afferent neurons by constitutively active protein kinase C. J. Neurosci. 1995 Sep; 15(9): 6069-76. PMID: 7666190, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Macdonald RL. Ethanol, gamma-aminobutyrate type A receptors, and protein kinase C phosphorylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995 Apr 4/25/1995; 92(9): 3633-5. PMID: 7731956, PMCID: PMC42016, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Massa E, Kelly KM, Yule DI, MacDonald RL, Uhler MD. Comparison of fura-2 imaging and electrophysiological analysis of murine calcium channel alpha 1 subunits coexpressed with novel beta 2 subunit isoforms. Mol. Pharmacol. 1995 Apr; 47(4): 707-16. PMID: 7723731, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Pennell PB, Ogaily MS, Macdonald RL. Aplastic anemia in a patient receiving felbamate for complex partial seizures. Neurology. 1995 Mar; 45(3 Pt 1): 456-60. PMID: 7898696, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Macdonald RL, Kelly KM. Antiepileptic drug mechanisms of action. Epilepsia. 1995; 36 Suppl 2: S2-12. PMID: 8784210, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Rock DM, Macdonald RL. Polyamine regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1995; 35: 463-82. PMID: 7598503, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.pa.35.040195.002335, ISSN: 0362-1642.

Lin YF, Browning MD, Dudek EM, Macdonald RL. Protein kinase C enhances recombinant bovine alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2L GABAA receptor whole-cell currents expressed in L929 fibroblasts. Neuron. 1994 Dec; 13(6): 1421-31. PMID: 7993633, PII: 0896-6273(94)90427-8, ISSN: 0896-6273.

Saxena NC, Macdonald RL. Assembly of GABAA receptor subunits: role of the delta subunit. J. Neurosci. 1994 Nov; 14(11 Pt 2): 7077-86. PMID: 7525894, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Moises HC, Rusin KI, Macdonald RL. Mu- and kappa-opioid receptors selectively reduce the same transient components of high-threshold calcium current in rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. J. Neurosci. 1994 Oct; 14(10): 5903-16. PMID: 7931552, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Moises HC, Rusin KI, Macdonald RL. Mu-Opioid receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal calcium current occurs via a G(o)-type GTP-binding protein. J. Neurosci. 1994 Jun; 14(6): 3842-51. PMID: 8207492, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Rogers CJ, Twyman RE, Macdonald RL. Benzodiazepine and beta-carboline regulation of single GABAA receptor channels of mouse spinal neurones in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1994 Feb 2/15/1994; 475(1): 69-82. PMID: 7514665, PMCID: PMC1160356, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Macdonald RL, Olsen RW. GABAA receptor channels. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 1994; 17: 569-602. PMID: 7516126, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ne.17.030194.003033, ISSN: 0147-006X.

Macdonald RL, Kelly KM. Mechanisms of action of currently prescribed and newly developed antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia. 1994; 35 Suppl 4: S41-50. PMID: 7513639, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Angelotti TP, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. Enhancement of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor currents by chronic activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol. Pharmacol. 1993 Dec; 44(6): 1202-10. PMID: 8264557, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Rock DM, Kelly KM, Macdonald RL. Gabapentin actions on ligand- and voltage-gated responses in cultured rodent neurons. Epilepsy Res. 1993 Oct; 16(2): 89-98. PMID: 7505742, PII: 0920-1211(93)90023-Z, ISSN: 0920-1211.

Wiley JW, Gross RA, MacDonald RL. Agonists for neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes NPY-1 and NPY-2 have opposite actions on rat nodose neuron calcium currents. J. Neurophysiol. 1993 Jul; 70(1): 324-30. PMID: 8395583, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Angelotti TP, Macdonald RL. Assembly of GABAA receptor subunits: alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2S subunits produce unique ion channels with dissimilar single-channel properties. J. Neurosci. 1993 Apr; 13(4): 1429-40. PMID: 7681870, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Angelotti TP, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. Assembly of GABAA receptor subunits: analysis of transient single-cell expression utilizing a fluorescent substrate/marker gene technique. J. Neurosci. 1993 Apr; 13(4): 1418-28. PMID: 7681869, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Macdonald RL, Kelly KM. Antiepileptic drug mechanisms of action. Epilepsia. 1993; 34 Suppl 5: S1-8. PMID: 7687957, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Porter NM, Angelotti TP, Twyman RE, MacDonald RL. Kinetic properties of alpha 1 beta 1 gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells: regulation by pentobarbital and picrotoxin. Mol. Pharmacol. 1992 Nov; 42(5): 872-81. PMID: 1331767, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Angelotti TP, Tan F, Chahine KG, Macdonald RL. Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of a allelic variant of the rat alpha 6 GABAA receptor subunit. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1992 Nov; 16(1-2): 173-8. PMID: 1281255, ISSN: 0169-328X.

Twyman RE, Macdonald RL. Neurosteroid regulation of GABAA receptor single-channel kinetic properties of mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1992 Oct; 456: 215-45. PMID: 1338096, PMCID: PMC1175679, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Rock DM, Macdonald RL. The polyamine diaminodecane (DA-10) produces a voltage-dependent flickery block of single NMDA receptor channels. Neurosci. Lett. 1992 Sep 9/14/1992; 144(1-2): 111-5. PMID: 1279482, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Wiley JW, Gross RA, MacDonald RL. The peptide CGRP increases a high-threshold Ca2+ current in rat nodose neurones via a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1992 Sep; 455: 367-81. PMID: 1336552, PMCID: PMC1175649, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Rock DM, MacDonald RL. Spermine and related polyamines produce a voltage-dependent reduction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor single-channel conductance. Mol. Pharmacol. 1992 Jul; 42(1): 157-64. PMID: 1378923, ISSN: 0026-895X.

MacDonald RL, Twyman RE. Kinetic properties and regulation of GABAA receptor channels. Ion Channels. 1992; 3: 315-43. PMID: 1384760, ISSN: 1059-7514.

Rock DM, Macdonald RL. The polyamine spermine has multiple actions on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor single-channel currents in cultured cortical neurons. Mol. Pharmacol. 1992 Jan; 41(1): 83-8. PMID: 1370709, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Macdonald RL, Twyman RE, Ryan-Jastrow T, Angelotti TP. Regulation of GABAA receptor channels by anticonvulsant and convulsant drugs and by phosphorylation. Epilepsy Res. Suppl. 1992; 9: 265-77. PMID: 1337441, ISSN: 0922-9833.

Twyman RE, Green RM, MacDonald RL. Kinetics of open channel block by penicillin of single GABAA receptor channels from mouse spinal cord neurones in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1992 Jan; 445: 97-127. PMID: 1323672, PMCID: PMC1179972, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Kelly KM, Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) reduces voltage-dependent calcium currents in rat sensory neurons. Neurosci. Lett. 1991 Nov 11/11/1991; 132(2): 247-50. PMID: 1784428, PII: 0304-3940(91)90312-H, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Twyman RE, Macdonald RL. Kinetic properties of the glycine receptor main- and sub-conductance states of mouse spinal cord neurones in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1991 Apr; 435: 303-31. PMID: 1722820, PMCID: PMC1181464, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Rock DM, McLean MJ, Macdonald RL, Catterall WA, Taylor CP. Ralitoline (CI-946) and CI-953 block sustained repetitive sodium action potentials in cultured mouse spinal cord neurons and displace batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate binding in vitro. Epilepsy Res. 1991 Apr; 8(3): 197-203. PMID: 1651226, ISSN: 0920-1211.

De Deyn PP, Marescau B, Macdonald RL. Guanidino compounds that are increased in hyperargininemia inhibit GABA and glycine responses on mouse neurons in cell culture. Epilepsy Res. 1991 Mar; 8(2): 134-41. PMID: 1712285, PII: 0920-1211(91)90081-P, ISSN: 0920-1211.

Gross RA, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. The reduction of neuronal calcium currents by ATP-gamma-S is mediated by a G protein and occurs independently of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Brain Res. 1990 Dec 12/10/1990; 535(2): 214-20. PMID: 1963568, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Porter NM, Twyman RE, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreases GABAA receptor current in mouse spinal neurons. Neuron. 1990 Dec; 5(6): 789-96. PMID: 2176510, PII: 0896-6273(90)90338-G, ISSN: 0896-6273.

De Deyn PP, Macdonald RL. Guanidino compounds that are increased in cerebrospinal fluid and brain of uremic patients inhibit GABA and glycine responses on mouse neurons in cell culture. Ann. Neurol. 1990 Nov; 28(5): 627-33. PMID: 2135950, DOI: 10.1002/ana.410280505, ISSN: 0364-5134.

Gross RA, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit selectively enhances calcium currents in rat nodose neurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1990 Oct; 429: 483-96. PMID: 2177506, PMCID: PMC1181711, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Gross RA, Moises HC, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. Dynorphin A and cAMP-dependent protein kinase independently regulate neuronal calcium currents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1990 Sep; 87(18): 7025-9. PMID: 1976250, PMCID: PMC54675, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Kelly KM, Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Valproic acid selectively reduces the low-threshold (T) calcium current in rat nodose neurons. Neurosci. Lett. 1990 Aug 8/14/1990; 116(1-2): 233-8. PMID: 2175404, PII: 0304-3940(90)90416-7, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Moss SJ, Smart TG, Porter NM, Nayeem N, Devine J, Stephenson FA, Macdonald RL, Barnard EA. Cloned GABA receptors are maintained in a stable cell line: allosteric and channel properties. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1990 Jul 7/31/1990; 189(1): 77-88. PMID: 2171964, ISSN: 0014-2999.

Wiley JW, Gross RA, Lu YX, Macdonald RL. Neuropeptide Y reduces calcium current and inhibits acetylcholine release in nodose neurons via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. J. Neurophysiol. 1990 Jun; 63(6): 1499-507. PMID: 2358888, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Twyman RE, Rogers CJ, Macdonald RL. Intraburst kinetic properties of the GABAA receptor main conductance state of mouse spinal cord neurones in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1990 Apr; 423: 193-220. PMID: 2167362, PMCID: PMC1189753, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Gross RA, Wiley JW, Ryan-Jastrow T, Macdonald RL. Regulation by GTP and its stable thiol derivatives of calcium current components in rat nodose ganglion neurons. Mol. Pharmacol. 1990 Apr; 37(4): 546-53. PMID: 2157961, ISSN: 0026-895X.

De Deyn PP, Marescau B, MacDonald RL. Epilepsy and the GABA-hypothesis a brief review and some examples. Acta Neurol Belg. 1990; 90(2): 65-81. PMID: 2164316, ISSN: 0300-9009.

Twyman RE, Rogers CJ, Macdonald RL. Intraburst kinetic properties of the GABAA receptor main conductance state of mouse spinal cord neurones in culture. J Physiology (Lond). 1990; 423: 193-219.

MacDonald RL, Rogers CJ, Twyman RE. Barbiturate regulation of kinetic properties of the GABAA receptor channel of mouse spinal neurones in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1989 Oct; 417: 483-500. PMID: 2482885, PMCID: PMC1189279, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Gross RA, MacDonald RL. Activators of protein kinase C selectively enhance inactivation of a calcium current component of cultured sensory neurons in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. J. Neurophysiol. 1989 Jun; 61(6): 1259-69. PMID: 2746325, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Gross RA, Macdonald RL, Ryan-Jastrow T. 2-Chloroadenosine reduces the N calcium current of cultured mouse sensory neurones in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1989 Apr; 411: 585-95. PMID: 2614735, PMCID: PMC1190543, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Rock DM, Macdonald RL, Taylor CP. Blockade of sustained repetitive action potentials in cultured spinal cord neurons by zonisamide (AD 810, CI 912), a novel anticonvulsant. Epilepsy Res. 1989 Mar; 3(2): 138-43. PMID: 2565229, PII: 0920-1211(89)90041-7, ISSN: 0920-1211.

Macdonald RL, Rogers CJ, Twyman RE. Kinetic properties of the GABAA receptor main conductance state of mouse spinal cord neurones in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1989 Mar; 410: 479-99. PMID: 2477526, PMCID: PMC1190491, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Twyman RE, Rogers CJ, Macdonald RL. Differential regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor channels by diazepam and phenobarbital. Ann. Neurol. 1989 Mar; 25(3): 213-20. PMID: 2471436, DOI: 10.1002/ana.410250302, ISSN: 0364-5134.

Twyman RE, Rogers CJ, Macdonald RL. Pentobarbital and picrotoxin have reciprocal actions on single GABAA receptor channels. Neurosci. Lett. 1989 Jan 1/2/1989; 96(1): 89-95. PMID: 2467232, PII: 0304-3940(89)90248-6, ISSN: 0304-3940.

De Deyn PP, Macdonald RL. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on GABA responses and on reduction of GABA responses by PTZ and DMCM on mouse neurons in cell culture. Epilepsia. 1989 Jan; 30(1): 17-25. PMID: 2912714, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Macdonald RL. Antiepileptic drug actions. Epilepsia. 1989; 30 Suppl 1: S19-28; discussion S64. PMID: 2550216, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Cyclic AMP selectively reduces the N-type calcium current component of mouse sensory neurons in culture by enhancing inactivation. J. Neurophysiol. 1989 Jan; 61(1): 97-105. PMID: 2537387, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Macdonald RL, Rogers CJ, Twyman RE. Kinetic properties of the GABAA receptor main conductance state of mouse spinal cord neurones in cell culture. J Physiology (Lond.). 1989; 410: 479-99.

Macdonald RL, Rogers CJ, Twyman RE. Barbiturate regulation of kinetic properties of the main conductance state of GABAA receptor channel of mouse spinal neurones in culture. J Physiology (Lond. 1989; 417: 483-500.

Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Differential actions of pentobarbitone on calcium current components of mouse sensory neurones in culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1988 Nov; 405: 187-203. PMID: 2855640, PMCID: PMC1190971, ISSN: 0022-3751.

De Deyn PP, Macdonald RL. Effects of non-sedative anxiolytic drugs on responses to GABA and on diazepam-induced enhancement of these responses on mouse neurones in cell culture. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1988 Sep; 95(1): 109-20. PMID: 2905900, PMCID: PMC1854132, ISSN: 0007-1188.

De Deyn PP, Marescau B, Macdonald RL. Effects of alpha-keto-delta-guanidinovaleric acid on inhibitory amino acid responses on mouse neurons in cell culture. Brain Res. 1988 May 5/24/1988; 449(1-2): 54-60. PMID: 3395858, PII: 0006-8993(88)91023-2, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Reduction of the same calcium current component by A and C kinases: differential pertussis toxin sensitivity. Neurosci. Lett. 1988 May 5/16/1988; 88(1): 50-6. PMID: 2456492, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Barbiturates and nifedipine have different and selective effects on calcium currents of mouse DRG neurons in culture: a possible basis for differing clinical actions. The 1987 S. Weir Mitchell award. Neurology. 1988 Mar; 38(3): 443-51. PMID: 2450304, ISSN: 0028-3878.

McLean MJ, Macdonald RL. Benzodiazepines, but not beta carbolines, limit high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials of spinal cord neurons in cell culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1988 Feb; 244(2): 789-95. PMID: 2450203, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Macdonald RL. Anticonvulsant drug actions on neurons in cell culture. J. Neural Transm. 1988; 72(3): 173-83. PMID: 3047314.

Macdonald RL, Twyman RE, Rogers CJ, Weddle MG. Pentobarbital regulation of the kinetic properties of GABA receptor chloride channels. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 1988; 45: 61-71. PMID: 2459926, ISSN: 0065-2229.

Werz MA, Grega DS, MacDonald RL. Actions of mu, delta and kappa opioid agonists and antagonists on mouse primary afferent neurons in culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987 Oct; 243(1): 258-63. PMID: 2822900, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Dynorphin A selectively reduces a large transient (N-type) calcium current of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in cell culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1987 Aug; 84(15): 5469-73. PMID: 2440050, PMCID: PMC298879, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Dual actions of phorbol esters to decrease calcium and potassium conductances of mouse neurons. Neurosci. Lett. 1987 Jul 7/9/1987; 78(1): 101-6. PMID: 2441331, ISSN: 0304-3940.

De Deyn PP, Macdonald RL. CGS 9896 and ZK 91296, but not CGS 8216 and RO 15-1788, are pure benzodiazepine receptor antagonists on mouse neurons in culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987 Jul; 242(1): 48-55. PMID: 3039114, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Phorbol esters: voltage-dependent effects on calcium-dependent action potentials of mouse central and peripheral neurons in cell culture. J. Neurosci. 1987 Jun; 7(6): 1639-47. PMID: 3598639, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Grega DS, Macdonald RL. Activators of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP prolong calcium-dependent action potentials of mouse sensory neurons in culture by reducing a voltage-dependent potassium conductance. J. Neurosci. 1987 Mar; 7(3): 700-7. PMID: 3031236, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Grega DS, Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Forskolin and phorbol esters reduce the same potassium conductance of mouse neurons in culture. Science. 1987 Jan 1/16/1987; 235(4786): 345-8. PMID: 2432663, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Macdonald RL, McLean MJ. Mechanisms of anticonvulsant drug action. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Suppl. 1987; 39: 200-8. PMID: 2888643, ISSN: 0424-8155.

McLean MJ, Macdonald RL. Carbamazepine and 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine produce use- and voltage-dependent limitation of rapidly firing action potentials of mouse central neurons in cell culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1986 Aug; 238(2): 727-38. PMID: 2874218, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Macdonald RL, Werz MA. Dynorphin A decreases voltage-dependent calcium conductance of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1986 Aug; 377: 237-49. PMID: 2432242, PMCID: PMC1182830, ISSN: 0022-3751.

McLean MJ, Macdonald RL. Sodium valproate, but not ethosuximide, produces use- and voltage-dependent limitation of high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials of mouse central neurons in cell culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1986 Jun; 237(3): 1001-11. PMID: 3086538, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Macdonald RL, Weddle MG, Gross RA. Benzodiazepine, beta-carboline, and barbiturate actions on GABA responses. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 1986; 41: 67-78. PMID: 2874695, ISSN: 0065-2229.

Macdonald RL, McLean MJ. Anticonvulsant drugs: mechanisms of action. Adv Neurol. 1986; 44: 713-36. PMID: 2871724, ISSN: 0091-3952.

MacDonald RL, Skerritt JH, Werz MA. Adenosine agonists reduce voltage-dependent calcium conductance of mouse sensory neurones in cell culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1986 Jan; 370: 75-90. PMID: 2420981, PMCID: PMC1192669, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Barbiturates decrease voltage-dependent calcium conductance of mouse neurons in dissociated cell culture. Mol. Pharmacol. 1985 Sep; 28(3): 269-77. PMID: 2412101, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Dynorphin and neoendorphin peptides decrease dorsal root ganglion neuron calcium-dependent action potential duration. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1985 Jul; 234(1): 49-56. PMID: 2409273, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Macdonald RL, McLean MJ, Skerritt JH. Anticonvulsant drug mechanisms of action. Fed. Proc. 1985 Jul; 44(10): 2634-9. PMID: 2408925, ISSN: 0014-9446.

Skerritt JH, Johnston GA, Chow SC, MacDonald RL, Prager RH, Ward AD. Differential modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors by caprolactam derivatives with central nervous system depressant or convulsant activity. Brain Res. 1985 Apr 4/8/1985; 331(2): 225-33. PMID: 2985202, ISSN: 0006-8993.

McLean MJ, MacDonald RL. Cellular mechanistic bases for classification of clinically useful anticonvulsant drugs. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. 1985 Jan; 14(1): 128-36. PMID: 4004118, ISSN: 0304-4602.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Dynorphin reduces voltage-dependent calcium conductance of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neuropeptides. 1984 Dec; 5(1-3): 253-6. PMID: 6152324, PII: 0143-4179(84)90075-1, ISSN: 0143-4179.

Skerritt JH, Werz MA, McLean MJ, Macdonald RL. Diazepam and its anomalous p-chloro-derivative Ro 5-4864: comparative effects on mouse neurons in cell culture. Brain Res. 1984 Sep 9/17/1984; 310(1): 99-105. PMID: 6478244, PII: 0006-8993(84)90013-1, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Skerritt JH, Macdonald RL. Multiple actions of convulsant barbiturates on mouse neurons in cell culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1984 Jul; 230(1): 82-8. PMID: 6747834, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Skerritt JH, Macdonald RL. Benzodiazepine receptor ligand actions on GABA responses. Beta-carbolines, purines. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1984 May 5/18/1984; 101(1-2): 135-41. PMID: 6086358, PII: 0014-2999(84)90039-6, ISSN: 0014-2999.

Skerritt JH, Macdonald RL. Benzodiazepine receptor ligand actions on GABA responses. Benzodiazepines, CL 218872, zopiclone. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1984 May 5/18/1984; 101(1-2): 127-34. PMID: 6086357, PII: 0014-2999(84)90038-4, ISSN: 0014-2999.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Dynorphin reduces calcium-dependent action potential duration by decreasing voltage-dependent calcium conductance. Neurosci. Lett. 1984 May 5/4/1984; 46(2): 185-90. PMID: 6146120, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Skerritt JH, Macdonald RL. Diazepam enhances the action but not the binding of the GABA analog, THIP. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 4/9/1984; 297(1): 181-6. PMID: 6722533, PII: 0006-8993(84)90557-2, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Skerritt JH, Macdonald RL. Benzodiazepine Ro 15-1788: electrophysiological evidence for partial agonist activity. Neurosci. Lett. 1983 Dec 12/30/1983; 43(2-3): 321-6. PMID: 6143288, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Werz MA, MacDonald RL. Opioid peptides selective for mu- and delta-opiate receptors reduce calcium-dependent action potential duration by increasing potassium conductance. Neurosci. Lett. 1983 Dec 12/2/1983; 42(2): 173-8. PMID: 6320066, PII: 0304-3940(83)90402-0, ISSN: 0304-3940.

McLean MJ, Macdonald RL. Multiple actions of phenytoin on mouse spinal cord neurons in cell culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1983 Dec; 227(3): 779-89. PMID: 6317847, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Bergey GK, MacDonald RL, Habig WH, Hardegree MC, Nelson PG. Tetanus toxin: convulsant action on mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. J. Neurosci. 1983 Nov; 3(11): 2310-23. PMID: 6631482, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Opioid peptides with differential affinity for mu and delta receptors decrease sensory neuron calcium-dependent action potentials. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1983 Nov; 227(2): 394-402. PMID: 6313900, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Nelson PG, Marshall KC, Pun RY, Christian CN, Sheriff WH, Macdonald RL, Neale EA. Synaptic interactions between mammalian central neurons in cell culture. II. Quantal Analysis of EPSPs. J. Neurophysiol. 1983 Jun; 49(6): 1442-58. PMID: 6875632, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Macdonald RL, Pun RY, Neale EA, Nelson PG. Synaptic interactions between mammalian central neurons in cell culture. I. Reversal potential for excitatory postsynaptic potentials. J. Neurophysiol. 1983 Jun; 49(6): 1428-41. PMID: 6875631, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Neale EA, Nelson PG, Macdonald RL, Christian CN, Bowers LM. Synaptic interactions between mammalian central neurons in cell culture. III. Morphophysiological correlates of quantal synaptic transmission. J. Neurophysiol. 1983 Jun; 49(6): 1459-68. PMID: 6308178, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Nowak LM, Macdonald RL. Ionic mechanism of muscarinic cholinergic depolarization of mouse spinal cord neurons in cell culture. J. Neurophysiol. 1983 Mar; 49(3): 792-803. PMID: 6834099, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Nowak LM, Macdonald RL. Muscarine-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium current in cultured murine spinal cord neurons. Neurosci. Lett. 1983 Jan 1/31/1983; 35(1): 85-91. PMID: 6843894, PII: 0304-3940(83)90531-1, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Heterogeneous sensitivity of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones to opioid peptides selective for mu- and delta-opiate receptors. Nature. 1982 Oct 10/21/1982; 299(5885): 730-3. PMID: 6289131, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Moonen G, Neale EA, Macdonald RL, Gibbs W, Nelson PG. Cerebellar macroneurons in microexplant cell culture. Methodology, basic electrophysiology, and morphology after horseradish peroxidase injection. Brain Res. 1982 Sep; 281(1): 59-73. PMID: 6291726, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Macdonald RL, Moonen G, Neale EA, Nelson PG. Cerebellar macroneurons in microexplant cell culture. Postsynaptic amino acid pharmacology. Brain Res. 1982 Sep; 281(1): 75-88. PMID: 6128065, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Nowak LM, Macdonald RL. Substance P: ionic basis for depolarizing responses of mouse spinal cord neurons in cell culture. J. Neurosci. 1982 Aug; 2(8): 1119-28. PMID: 6180151, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Nowak LM, Young AB, Macdonald RL. GABA and bicuculline actions on mouse spinal cord and cortical neurons in cell culture. Brain Res. 1982 Jul 7/22/1982; 244(1): 155-64. PMID: 6288177, PII: 0006-8993(82)90913-1, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Frere RC, Macdonald RL, Young AB. GABA binding and bicuculline in spinal cord and cortical membranes from adult rat and from mouse neurons in cell culture. Brain Res. 1982 Jul 7/22/1982; 244(1): 145-53. PMID: 6288176, PII: 0006-8993(82)90912-X, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Opioid peptides decrease calcium-dependent action potential duration of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in cell culture. Brain Res. 1982 May 5/6/1982; 239(1): 315-21. PMID: 7093688, PII: 0006-8993(82)90859-9, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Heyer EJ, Macdonald RL. Calcium- and sodium-dependent action potentials of mouse spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in cell culture. J. Neurophysiol. 1982 Apr; 47(4): 641-55. PMID: 7069458, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Werz MA, Macdonald RL. Opiate alkaloids antagonize postsynaptic glycine and GABA responses: correlation with convulsant action. Brain Res. 1982 Mar 3/18/1982; 236(1): 107-19. PMID: 7066678, PII: 0006-8993(82)90038-5, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Heyer EJ, Macdonald RL. Barbiturate reduction of calcium-dependent action potentials: correlation with anesthetic action. Brain Res. 1982 Mar 3/18/1982; 236(1): 157-71. PMID: 6279233, PII: 0006-8993(82)90042-7, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Heyer EJ, Nowak LM, Macdonald RL. Membrane depolarization and prolongation of calcium-dependent action potentials of mouse neurons in cell culture by two convulsants: bicuculline and penicillin. Brain Res. 1982 Jan 1/28/1982; 232(1): 41-56. PMID: 7055710, PII: 0006-8993(82)90609-6, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Macdonald RL, McLean MJ. Cellular bases of barbiturate and phenytoin anticonvulsant drug action. Epilepsia. 1982; 23 Suppl 1: S7-18. PMID: 7140671, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Neale EA, Moonen G, Macdonald RL, Nelson PG. Cerebellar macroneurons in microexplant cell culture: ultrastructural morphology. Neuroscience. 1982; 7(8): 1879-90. PMID: 7133404, PII: 0306-4522(82)90004-5, ISSN: 0306-4522.

Heyer EJ, Nowak LM, Macdonald RL. Bicuculline: a convulsant with synaptic and nonsynaptic actions. Neurology. 1981 Nov; 31(11): 1381-90. PMID: 7198187, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Heyer EJ, MacDonald RL, Bergey GK, Nelson PG. Calcium-dependent action potentials in mouse spinal cord neurons in cell culture. Brain Res. 1981 Sep 9/14/1981; 220(2): 408-15. PMID: 7284766, PII: 0006-8993(81)91234-8, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Macdonald RL, Young AB. Pharmacology of GABA-mediated inhibition of spinal cord neurons in vivo and in primary dissociated cell culture. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1981 Aug 8/11/1981; 38 Spec No(Pt 1): 147-62. PMID: 6270545, ISSN: 0300-8177.

Nowak LM, MacDonald RL. Substance P decreases a potassium conductance of spinal cord neurons in cell culture. Brain Res. 1981 Jun 6/15/1981; 214(2): 416-23. PMID: 6165445, PII: 0006-8993(81)91205-1, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Schulz DW, Macdonald RL. Barbiturate enhancement of GABA-mediated inhibition and activation of chloride ion conductance: correlation with anticonvulsant and anesthetic actions. Brain Res. 1981 Mar 3/23/1981; 209(1): 177-88. PMID: 6260300, PII: 0006-8993(81)91179-3, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Macdonald RL, Nowak LM. Substance P and somatostatin actions on spinal cord neurons in primary dissociated cell culture. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 1981; 28: 159-73. PMID: 6163331, ISSN: 0065-2229.

Neale EA, MacDonald RL, Nelson PG. An inhibitory spinal cord neuron. JAMA. 1980 Dec 12/5/1980; 244(22): 2555. PMID: 7431596, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Zimmerman EA, MacDonald RL, Vale W, Faden AI. Symposium on neuropeptides. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1980; 105: 504-27. PMID: 6758286, ISSN: 0065-9479.

Macdonald RL, Nowak LM. Somatostatin actions in primary dissociated cell cultures of mammalian spinal cord neurons. Int. J. Neurol. 1980; 14(2-4): 221-32. PMID: 6152909, ISSN: 0020-7446.

Macdonald RL, Bergey GK. Valproic acid augments GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibition in cultured mammalian neurons. Brain Res. 1979 Jul 7/20/1979; 170(3): 558-62. PMID: 380778, PII: 0006-8993(79)90975-2, ISSN: 0006-8993.

MacDonald RL, Barker JL. Enhancement of GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibition in cultured mammalian spinal cord neurons: a common mode of anticonvulsant action. Brain Res. 1979 May 5/11/1979; 167(2): 323-36. PMID: 445132, PII: 0006-8993(79)90826-6, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Macdonald RL, Barker JL. Anticonvulsant and anesthetic barbiturates: different postsynaptic actions in cultured mammalian neurons. Neurology. 1979 Apr; 29(4): 432-47. PMID: 220560, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Neale EA, Macdonald RL, Nelson PG. Intracellular horseradish peroxidase injection for correlation of light and electron microscopic anatomy with synaptic physiology of cultured mouse spinal cord neurons. Brain Res. 1978 Aug 8/25/1978; 152(2): 265-82. PMID: 209872, PII: 0006-8993(78)90255-X, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Macdonald RL, Barker JL. Different actions of anticonvulsant and anesthetic barbiturates revealed by use of cultured mammalian neurons. Science. 1978 May 5/19/1978; 200(4343): 775-7. PMID: 205953, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Nelson PG, Neale EA, Macdonald RL. Formation and modification of synapses in central nervous system cell cultures. Fed. Proc. 1978 May 5/15/1978; 37(7): 2010-5. PMID: 565301, ISSN: 0014-9446.

Macdonald RL, Barker JL. Specific antagonism of GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibition in cultured mammalian spinal cord neurons: a common mode of convulsant action. Neurology. 1978 Apr; 28(4): 325-30. PMID: 565020, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Barker JL, Neale JH, Smith TG, Macdonald RL. Opiate peptide modulation of amino acid responses suggests novel form of neuronal communication. Science. 1978 Mar 3/31/1978; 199(4336): 1451-3. PMID: 204016, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Macdonald RL, Nelson PG. Specific-opiate-induced depression of transmitter release from dorsal root ganglion cells in culture. Science. 1978 Mar 3/31/1978; 199(4336): 1449-51. PMID: 204015, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Bergey GK, Macdonald RL. The porphyrin precursor delta aminolevulinic acid diminishes amino acid responses in cultured murine spinal cord neurons. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1978; 103: 87-91. PMID: 574676, ISSN: 0065-9479.

Macdonald RL, Bergey GK. Valproic acid: effect on GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibition in cultured mammalian spinal cord neurons. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1978; 103: 254-6. PMID: 390834, ISSN: 0065-9479.

Macdonald RL, Barker JL. Pentylenetetrazol and penicillin are selective antagonists of GABA-mediated post-synaptic inhibition in cultured mammalian neurones. Nature. 1977 Jun 6/23/1977; 267(5613): 720-1. PMID: 195224, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Macdonald RL, Barker JL. Phenobarbital enhances GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibition in cultured mammalian neurons. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1977; 102: 139-40. PMID: 616093, ISSN: 0065-9479.

Cohen DH, MacDonald RL. Involvement of the avian hypothalamus in defensively conditioned heart rate change. J. Comp. Neurol. 1976 Jun 6/15/1976; 167(4): 465-80. PMID: 1270630, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901670405, ISSN: 0021-9967.

MacDonald RL, Hsu D, Mann JE, Sperelakis N. An analysis of the problem of K-+ accumulation in the intercalated disk clefts of cardiac muscle. J. Theor. Biol. 1975 Jun; 51(2): 455-73. PMID: 1142797, PII: 0022-5193(75)90074-0, ISSN: 0022-5193.

Sperelakis N, Macdonald RL. Ratio of transverse to longitudinal resistivities of isolated cardiac muscle fiber bundles. J Electrocardiol. 1974 Oct; 7(4): 301-14. PMID: 4462694, ISSN: 0022-0736.

Macdonald RL, Mann JE, Sperelakis N. Derivation of general equations describing tracer diffusion in any two-compartment tissue with application to ionic diffusion in cylindrical muscle bundles. J. Theor. Biol. 1974 May; 45(1): 107-30. PMID: 4836883, PII: 0022-5193(74)90046-0, ISSN: 0022-5193.

Macdonald RL, Cohen DH. Heart rate and blood pressure responses to electrical stimulation of the central nervous system in the pigeon (Columba livia). J. Comp. Neurol. 1973 Jul 7/15/1973; 150(2): 109-36. PMID: 4579121, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901500202, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Cohen DH, Macdonald RL. Some variables affecting orienting and conditioned heart-rate responses in the pigeon. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1971 Jan; 74(1): 123-33. PMID: 5163697, ISSN: 0021-9940.

Macdonald RL, Cohen DH. Cells of origin of sympathetic pre- and postganglionic cardioacceleratory fibers in the pigeon. J. Comp. Neurol. 1970 Nov; 140(3): 343-58. PMID: 5476888, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901400307, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Cohen DH, Schnall AM, Macdonald RL, Pitts LH. Medullary cells of origin of vagal cardioinhibitory fibers in the pigeon. I. Anatomical studies of peripheral vagus nerve and the dorsal motor nucleus. J. Comp. Neurol. 1970 Nov; 140(3): 299-320. PMID: 5476886, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901400305, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 12/6/2011
Postdoctoral positions are available to participate in NIH-funded studies of inhibitory  aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptors. GABAA receptor channels are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Reduction of GABAA receptor function produces seizures and generalized epilepsy in animals and man and enhancement of GABAA receptor function has been used to treat seizures. At least five forms of human idiopathic generalized epilepsy have been linked to mutations in the 1, 3,  and 2 GABAA receptor subunits. Alterations in receptor subunit translation, stability and assembly and receptor surface membrane trafficking, neurotransmitter activation, regulation of channel opening and closing of the channels (gating) and desensitization of these mutant channels is under active investigation. GABAA receptor channels are studied using acute transfection of mammalian cells with expression vectors containing receptor subunit cDNAs and subsequent biochemistry or whole cell or single channel recording or from transgenic or knock in mice expressing the mutant subunit. Human mutations are made in relevant receptor channel subunits to determine the basic mechanism of these genetic human epilepsies. We study mutant subunit translation, mRNA stability, degradation and assembly and trafficking of the mutant receptors using protein chemistry (biotinylation and Western blotting), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy (imaging of subcellular and surface expression of fluorescent tagged receptor subunits). The candidate is expected to have first-hand experience with some of these methods, and to be prepared to learn new methods. The successful candidate will join a productive multi-disciplinary laboratory using multiple tools experimental approaches from single channel recording to investigation of transgenic animals to understand the structure, function and biology of GABAA receptors and the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy associated with GABAA receptor subunit mutations. Competitive salary will be offered based on experience and publication record. To apply for the position, send a description of your research interests, CV, and the names of 3 references to: Robert.macdonald@vanderbilt.edu, or mail to: Dr. Robert L. Macdonald, Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 6140 Medical Research Building III, 465 21st Ave, Nashville, TN 37232-8552