Aurelio Galli, Ph.D.


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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Ph.D., Biiological Science, State University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Office Address
465 21st Ave South, 7124 MRB III
(LAB) 6-3890/ (Office) 6-3891
Nashville, TN 37013
Research Description
Food intake is regulated by several neurotransmitters, including dopamine, GABA, norepinephrine, and serotonin, as well as by peptides and amino acids. Dopamine is of special interest because it seems to regulate food intake by modulating the “reward” circuitry of the brain.
The involvement of dopamine in pathological eating and obesity is not yet well understood, but it is an area of intense interest in our laboratory. Using mouse and rat models, our laboratory investigates how food intake regulates neurotransmitter transporter function. Neurotransmitter transporters are integral membrane proteins responsible for clearing neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine) from the synaptic cleft, to control the magnitude and duration of synaptic signaling. They include the dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters. Substances of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine, or drugs with clinical relevance such as Ritalin (used for treatment of ADHD), act upon these transporters to alter the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. The focus of our laboratory is to try to understand the mechanisms of action of these drugs with the intent to improve the pharmacological treatment of specific neurological disorders and substance abuse—and now perhaps also obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Research Keywords
Trafficking and Biophysics of Neurotransmitter Transporters with emphasis on metabolic regulation of dopamine signaling
Robertson SD, Matthies HJ, Owens WA, Sathananthan V, Christianson NS, Kennedy JP, Lindsley CW, Daws LC, Galli A. Insulin reveals Akt signaling as a novel regulator of norepinephrine transporter trafficking and norepinephrine homeostasis. J. Neurosci. 2010 Aug 8/25/2010; 30(34): 11305-16. PMID: 20739551, PMCID: PMC3448453, PII: 30/34/11305, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0126-10.2010, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Matthies HJ, Moore JL, Saunders C, Matthies DS, Lapierre LA, Goldenring JR, Blakely RD, Galli A. Rab11 supports amphetamine-stimulated norepinephrine transporter trafficking. J. Neurosci. 2010 Jun 6/9/2010; 30(23): 7863-77. PMID: 20534835, PMCID: PMC2935280, PII: 30/23/7863, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4574-09.2010, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Bowton E, Saunders C, Erreger K, Sakrikar D, Matthies HJ, Sen N, Jessen T, Colbran RJ, Caron MG, Javitch JA, Blakely RD, Galli A. Dysregulation of dopamine transporters via dopamine D2 autoreceptors triggers anomalous dopamine efflux associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J. Neurosci. 2010 Apr 4/28/2010; 30(17): 6048-57. PMID: 20427663, PMCID: PMC2881830, PII: 30/17/6048, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5094-09.2010, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Siuta MA, Robertson SD, Kocalis H, Saunders C, Gresch PJ, Khatri V, Shiota C, Kennedy JP, Lindsley CW, Daws LC, Polley DB, Veenstra-Vanderweele J, Stanwood GD, Magnuson MA, Niswender KD, Galli A. Dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter sustains cortical hypodopaminergia and schizophrenia-like behaviors in neuronal rictor null mice. PLoS Biol. 2010; 8(6): e1000393. PMID: 20543991, PMCID: PMC2882427, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000393, ISSN: 1545-7885.

Robertson SD, Matthies HJ, Galli A. A closer look at amphetamine-induced reverse transport and trafficking of the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. Mol. Neurobiol [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr; 39(2): 73-80. PMID: 19199083, PMCID: PMC2729543, DOI: 10.1007/s12035-009-8053-4, ISSN: 0893-7648.

Matthies HJ, Han Q, Shields A, Wright J, Moore JL, Winder DG, Galli A, Blakely RD. Subcellular localization of the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter. BMC Neurosci. 2009; 10: 65. PMID: 19545450, PMCID: PMC2716352, PII: 1471-2202-10-65, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-10-65, ISSN: 1471-2202.

Binda F, Dipace C, Bowton E, Robertson SD, Lute BJ, Fog JU, Zhang M, Sen N, Colbran RJ, Gnegy ME, Gether U, Javitch JA, Erreger K, Galli A. Syntaxin 1A interaction with the dopamine transporter promotes amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 74(4): 1101-8. PMID: 18617632, PMCID: PMC2728020, PII: mol.108.048447, DOI: 10.1124/mol.108.048447, ISSN: 1521-0111.

Lute BJ, Khoshbouei H, Saunders C, Sen N, Lin RZ, Javitch JA, Galli A. PI3K signaling supports amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug 8/8/2008; 372(4): 656-61. PMID: 18510945, PMCID: PMC2517853, PII: S0006-291X(08)01012-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.05.091, ISSN: 1090-2104.

Mazei-Robison MS, Bowton E, Holy M, Schmudermaier M, Freissmuth M, Sitte HH, Galli A, Blakely RD. Anomalous dopamine release associated with a human dopamine transporter coding variant. J. Neurosci. 2008 Jul 7/9/2008; 28(28): 7040-6. PMID: 18614672, PMCID: PMC2573963, PII: 28/28/7040, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0473-08.2008, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Erreger K, Grewer C, Javitch JA, Galli A. Currents in response to rapid concentration jumps of amphetamine uncover novel aspects of human dopamine transporter function. J. Neurosci. 2008 Jan 1/23/2008; 28(4): 976-89. PMID: 18216205, PMCID: PMC2459309, PII: 28/4/976, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2796-07.2008, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Williams JM, Owens WA, Turner GH, Saunders C, Dipace C, Blakely RD, France CP, Gore JC, Daws LC, Avison MJ, Galli A. Hypoinsulinemia regulates amphetamine-induced reverse transport of dopamine. PLoS Biol. 2007 Oct 10/16/2007; 5(10): e274. PMID: 17941718, PMCID: PMC2020502, PII: 06-PLBI-RA-2396, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050274, ISSN: 1545-7885.

Wei Y, Williams JM, Dipace C, Sung U, Javitch JA, Galli A, Saunders C. Dopamine transporter activity mediates amphetamine-induced inhibition of Akt through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-dependent mechanism. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2007 Mar; 71(3): 835-42. PMID: 17164407, PII: mol.106.026351, DOI: 10.1124/mol.106.026351, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Dipace C, Sung U, Binda F, Blakely RD, Galli A. Amphetamine induces a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent reduction in norepinephrine transporter surface expression linked to changes in syntaxin 1A/transporter complexes. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2007 Jan; 71(1): 230-9. PMID: 17032905, PII: mol.106.026690, DOI: 10.1124/mol.106.026690, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Fog JU, Khoshbouei H, Holy M, Owens WA, Vaegter CB, Sen N, Nikandrova Y, Bowton E, McMahon DG, Colbran RJ, Daws LC, Sitte HH, Javitch JA, Galli A, Gether U. Calmodulin kinase II interacts with the dopamine transporter C terminus to regulate amphetamine-induced reverse transport. Neuron. 2006 Aug 8/17/2006; 51(4): 417-29. PMID: 16908408, PII: S0896-6273(06)00508-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.06.028, ISSN: 0896-6273.

Kahlig KM, Lute BJ, Wei Y, Loland CJ, Gether U, Javitch JA, Galli A. Regulation of dopamine transporter trafficking by intracellular amphetamine. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2006 Aug; 70(2): 542-8. PMID: 16684900, PII: mol.106.023952, DOI: 10.1124/mol.106.023952, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Binda F, Lute BJ, Dipace C, Blakely RD, Galli A. The N-terminus of the norepinephrine transporter regulates the magnitude and selectivity of the transporter-associated leak current. Neuropharmacology [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar; 50(3): 354-61. PMID: 16289633, PII: S0028-3908(05)00355-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.09.012, ISSN: 0028-3908.

Williams JM, Galli A. The dopamine transporter: a vigilant border control for psychostimulant action. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2006; (175): 215-32. PMID: 16722238, ISSN: 0171-2004.

Blakely RD, DeFelice LJ, Galli A. Biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporters: just when you thought you knew them. Physiology (Bethesda). 2005 Aug; 20: 225-31. PMID: 16024510, PII: 20/4/225, DOI: 10.1152/physiol.00013.2005, ISSN: 1548-9213.

Garcia BG, Wei Y, Moron JA, Lin RZ, Javitch JA, Galli A. Akt is essential for insulin modulation of amphetamine-induced human dopamine transporter cell-surface redistribution. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2005 Jul; 68(1): 102-9. PMID: 15795321, PII: mol.104.009092, DOI: 10.1124/mol.104.009092, ISSN: 0026-895X.

Kahlig KM, Binda F, Khoshbouei H, Blakely RD, McMahon DG, Javitch JA, Galli A. Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2005 Mar 3/1/2005; 102(9): 3495-500. PMID: 15728379, PMCID: PMC549289, PII: 0407737102, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0407737102, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Kahlig KM, Javitch JA, Galli A. Amphetamine regulation of dopamine transport. Combined measurements of transporter currents and transporter imaging support the endocytosis of an active carrier. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Mar 3/5/2004; 279(10): 8966-75. PMID: 14699142, PII: M303976200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M303976200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Khoshbouei H, Sen N, Guptaroy B, Johnson L', Lund D, Gnegy ME, Galli A, Javitch JA. N-terminal phosphorylation of the dopamine transporter is required for amphetamine-induced efflux. PLoS Biol [print-electronic]. 2004 Mar; 2(3): E78. PMID: 15024426, PMCID: PMC368172, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020078, ISSN: 1545-7885.

Kahlig KM, Galli A. Regulation of dopamine transporter function and plasma membrane expression by dopamine, amphetamine, and cocaine. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2003 Oct 10/31/2003; 479(1-3): 153-8. PMID: 14612146, PII: S0014299903023185, ISSN: 0014-2999.

Khoshbouei H, Wang H, Lechleiter JD, Javitch JA, Galli A. Amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. A voltage-sensitive and intracellular Na+-dependent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2003 Apr 4/4/2003; 278(14): 12070-7. PMID: 12556446, PII: M212815200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M212815200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Sung U, Apparsundaram S, Galli A, Kahlig KM, Savchenko V, Schroeter S, Quick MW, Blakely RD. A regulated interaction of syntaxin 1A with the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter establishes catecholamine clearance capacity. J. Neurosci. 2003 Mar 3/1/2003; 23(5): 1697-709. PMID: 12629174, PII: 23/5/1697, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Carvelli, L., Kahlig, K., Moron, J., Ferrer, JV., Lechleiter, JD. Merrill, G., Lafer, E.M., Ballou, LM., Shippenberg, T., Javitch, JA., Lin, RZ and Galli, A. PI 3-Kinase regulation of dopamine transporter activity. J. Neurochem. 2002; 81((4)): 859-69.

Saunders, C., Ferrer, J.V., Shi, L., Chen, J., Merrill, G., Lamb, ME., Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F., Carvelli, L., Javith, J.A., Galli, A. Amphetamine-induced loss of human dopamine transporter activity: an internalization-dependent and cocaine-sensitive mechanism. P.N.A.S. 2000; 12((97)): 6850-5.

Apparsundaram S, Galli A, DeFelice LJ, Hartzell HC, Blakely RD. Acute regulation of norepinephrine transport: I. protein kinase C-linked muscarinic receptors influence transport capacity and transporter density in SK-N-SH cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998 Nov; 287(2): 733-43. PMID: 9808704, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Galli A, Blakely RD, DeFelice LJ. Patch-clamp and amperometric recordings from norepinephrine transporters: channel activity and voltage-dependent uptake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998 Oct 10/27/1998; 95(22): 13260-5. PMID: 9789076, PMCID: PMC23775, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Blakely RD, Ramamoorthy S, Schroeter S, Qian Y, Apparsundaram S, Galli A, DeFelice LJ. Regulated phosphorylation and trafficking of antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter proteins. Biol. Psychiatry. 1998 Aug 8/1/1998; 44(3): 169-78. PMID: 9693389, PII: S0006-3223(98)00124-3, ISSN: 0006-3223.

DeFelice LJ, Galli A. Fluctuation analysis of norepinephrine and serotonin transporter currents. Meth. Enzymol. 1998; 296: 578-93. PMID: 9779475, PII: S0076-6879(98)96041-4, ISSN: 0076-6879.

DeFelice LJ, Galli A. Electrophysiological analysis of transporter function. Adv. Pharmacol. 1998; 42: 186-90. PMID: 9327875, ISSN: 1054-3589.

Galli A, Petersen CI, deBlaquiere M, Blakely RD, DeFelice LJ. Drosophila serotonin transporters have voltage-dependent uptake coupled to a serotonin-gated ion channel. J. Neurosci. 1997 May 5/15/1997; 17(10): 3401-11. PMID: 9133366, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Qian Y, Galli A, Ramamoorthy S, Risso S, DeFelice LJ, Blakely RD. Protein kinase C activation regulates human serotonin transporters in HEK-293 cells via altered cell surface expression. J. Neurosci. 1997 Jan 1/1/1997; 17(1): 45-57. PMID: 8987735, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Galli A, Blakely RD, DeFelice LJ. Norepinephrine transporters have channel modes of conduction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996 Aug 8/6/1996; 93(16): 8671-6. PMID: 8710929, PMCID: PMC38731, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 4/22/2012