Gordon R. Bernard, M.D.


Faculty Appointments
Associate Vice Chancellor for Clinical and Translational Research Professor of Medicine Melinda Owen Bass Chair in Medicine
M.D., Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LouisianaB.S., Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Office Address
T-1208 MCN
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Nashville, TN 37232-2650
Research Keywords
Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Girard TD, Ware LB, Bernard GR, Pandharipande PP, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Associations of markers of inflammation and coagulation with delirium during critical illness. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec; 38(12): 1965-73. PMID: 22903241, PMCID: PMC3606929, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-012-2678-x, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Byrne DW, Biaggioni I, Bernard GR, Helmer TT, Boone LR, Pulley JM, Edwards T, Dittus RS. Clinical and translational research studios: a multidisciplinary internal support program. Acad Med. 2012 Aug; 87(8): 1052-9. PMID: 22722360, PMCID: PMC3406254, DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31825d29d4, ISSN: 1938-808X.

Pulley JM, Denny JC, Peterson JF, Bernard GR, Vnencak-Jones CL, Ramirez AH, Delaney JT, Bowton E, Brothers K, Johnson K, Crawford DC, Schildcrout J, Masys DR, Dilks HH, Wilke RA, Clayton EW, Shultz E, Laposata M, McPherson J, Jirjis JN, Roden DM. Operational implementation of prospective genotyping for personalized medicine: the design of the Vanderbilt PREDICT project. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 92(1): 87-95. PMID: 22588608, PMCID: PMC3581305, PII: clpt2011371, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.371, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Rice TW, Rubinson L, Uyeki TM, Vaughn FL, John BB, Miller RR, Higgs E, Randolph AG, Smoot BE, Thompson BT, . Critical illness from 2009 pandemic influenza A virus and bacterial coinfection in the United States. Crit. Care Med. 2012 May; 40(5): 1487-98. PMID: 22511131, PMCID: PMC3653183, PII: 00003246-201205000-00013, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182416f23, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, deBoisblanc BP, Steingrub J, Rock P, . Enteral omega-3 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidant supplementation in acute lung injury. JAMA [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct 10/12/2011; 306(14): 1574-81. PMID: 21976613, PMCID: PMC3770348, PII: jama.2011.1435, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.1435, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Harris PA, Swafford JA, Edwards TL, Zhang M, Nigavekar SS, Yarbrough TR, Lane LD, Helmer T, Lebo LA, Mayo G, Masys DR, Bernard GR, Pulley JM. StarBRITE: the Vanderbilt University Biomedical Research Integration, Translation and Education portal. J Biomed Inform [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 44(4): 655-62. PMID: 21310264, PMCID: PMC3118397, PII: S1532-0464(11)00016-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2011.01.014, ISSN: 1532-0480.

Rice TW, Mogan S, Hays MA, Bernard GR, Jensen GL, Wheeler AP. Randomized trial of initial trophic versus full-energy enteral nutrition in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Crit. Care Med. 2011 May; 39(5): 967-74. PMID: 21242788, PMCID: PMC3102124, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31820a905a, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Ware LB, Koyama T, Billheimer D, Landeck M, Johnson E, Brady S, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, . Advancing donor management research: design and implementation of a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intensive Care. 2011; 1(1): 20. PMID: 21906362, PMCID: PMC3224478, PII: 2110-5820-1-20, DOI: 10.1186/2110-5820-1-20, ISSN: 2110-5820.

Rice TW, Ware LB, Haponik EF, Chiles C, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Steingrub JS, Hite RD, Matthay MA, Wright P, Ely EW, . Vascular pedicle width in acute lung injury: correlation with intravascular pressures and ability to discriminate fluid status. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2011; 15(2): R86. PMID: 21385351, PMCID: PMC3219344, PII: cc10084, DOI: 10.1186/cc10084, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Angus DC, Aikawa N, Demeyer I, Sainati S, Amlot N, Cao C, Ii M, Matsuda H, Mouri K, Cohen J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of TAK-242 for the treatment of severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Aug; 38(8): 1685-94. PMID: 20562702, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e7c5c9, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Jackson JC, Girard TD, Gordon SM, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Thomason JW, Pun BT, Canonico AE, Dunn JG, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Long-term cognitive and psychological outcomes in the awakening and breathing controlled trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul 7/15/2010; 182(2): 183-91. PMID: 20299535, PMCID: PMC2913233, PII: 200903-0442OC, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200903-0442OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Girard TD, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Gordon SM, Canonico AE, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Jul; 38(7): 1513-20. PMID: 20473145, PMCID: PMC3638813, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e47be1, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Pulley J, Hassan NN, Bernard GR, Jirjis JN, Schildcrout J, Robertson D, Masys DR, Harris P. Identifying unpredicted drug benefit through query of patient experiential knowledge: a proof of concept web-based system. Clin Transl Sci. 2010 Jun; 3(3): 98-103. PMID: 20590678, PMCID: PMC2910903, PII: CTS200, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2010.00200.x, ISSN: 1752-8062.

Fremont RD, Koyama T, Calfee CS, Wu W, Dossett LA, Bossert FR, Mitchell D, Wickersham N, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, May AK, Ware LB. Acute lung injury in patients with traumatic injuries: utility of a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis and pathogenesis. J Trauma. 2010 May; 68(5): 1121-7. PMID: 20038857, PMCID: PMC3347639, DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181c40728, ISSN: 1529-8809.

Pulley J, Clayton E, Bernard GR, Roden DM, Masys DR. Principles of human subjects protections applied in an opt-out, de-identified biobank. Clin Transl Sci. 2010 Feb; 3(1): 42-8. PMID: 20443953, PMCID: PMC3075971, PII: CTS175, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2010.00175.x, ISSN: 1752-8062.

Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Carson SS, Schmidt GA, Wright PE, Canonico AE, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Meltzer HY, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, . Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of antipsychotics for intensive care unit delirium: the MIND randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Feb; 38(2): 428-37. PMID: 20095068, PMCID: PMC3645269, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Ware LB, Koyama T, Billheimer DD, Wu W, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Brower RG, Standiford TJ, Martin TR, Matthay MA, . Prognostic and pathogenetic value of combining clinical and biochemical indices in patients with acute lung injury. Chest [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb; 137(2): 288-96. PMID: 19858233, PMCID: PMC2816641, PII: chest.09-1484, DOI: 10.1378/chest.09-1484, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Bernard GR. Statins for acutely hospitalized patients: randomized controlled trials are long overdue. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2010; 14(2): 141. PMID: 20416118, PMCID: PMC2887175, PII: cc8950, DOI: 10.1186/cc8950, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Pulley JM, Harris PA, Yarbrough T, Swafford J, Edwards T, Bernard GR. An informatics-based tool to assist researchers in initiating research at an academic medical center: Vanderbilt Customized Action Plan. Acad Med. 2010 Jan; 85(1): 164-8. PMID: 20042844, PMCID: PMC3767144, PII: 00001888-201001000-00041, DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181c481bf, ISSN: 1938-808X.

Pulley JM, Bernard GR. Proven processes: The Vanderbilt Institute for clinical and translational research. Clin Transl Sci. 2009 Jun; 2(3): 180-2. PMID: 20443890, PII: CTS113, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2008.00113.x, ISSN: 1752-8062.

Ely EW, Stephens RK, Jackson JC, Thomason JW, Truman B, Gordon S, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Current opinions regarding the importance, diagnosis, and management of delirium in the intensive care unit: a survey of 912 healthcare professionals. Crit. Care Med. 2004 Jan; 32(1): 106-12. PMID: 14707567, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000098033.94737.84, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Jiang K, Higgins SB, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. CommLog: a communication log system for clinical trials. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2003 Dec; 7(4): 378-83. PMID: 15000363, ISSN: 1089-7771.

Ely EW, Angus DC, Williams MD, Bates B, Qualy R, Bernard GR. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) treatment of older patients with severe sepsis. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2003 Jul 7/15/2003; 37(2): 187-95. PMID: 12856210, PII: CID30712, DOI: 10.1086/375775, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Ely EW, Truman B, Shintani A, Thomason JW, Wheeler AP, Gordon S, Francis J, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Sessler CN, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Monitoring sedation status over time in ICU patients: reliability and validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). JAMA. 2003 Jun 6/11/2003; 289(22): 2983-91. PMID: 12799407, PII: 289/22/2983, DOI: 10.1001/jama.289.22.2983, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Bernard GR, Macias WL, Joyce DE, Williams MD, Bailey J, Vincent JL. Safety assessment of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in the treatment of adult patients with severe sepsis. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2003 Apr; 7(2): 155-63. PMID: 12720562, PMCID: PMC270661, ISSN: 1364-8535.

Ely EW, Laterre PF, Angus DC, Helterbrand JD, Levy H, Dhainaut JF, Vincent JL, Macias WL, Bernard GR, . Drotrecogin alfa (activated) administration across clinically important subgroups of patients with severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2003 Jan; 31(1): 12-9. PMID: 12544987, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000046070.25223.79, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) (recombinant human activated protein C) for the treatment of severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2003 Jan; 31(1 Suppl): S85-93. PMID: 12544981, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000042474.08838.A5, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, Ancukiewicz M, Steinberg KP, Bernard GR. Recovery rate and prognosis in older persons who develop acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 2002 Jan 1/1/2002; 136(1): 25-36. PMID: 11777361, PII: 200201010-00008, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Ely EW, Inouye SK, Bernard GR, Gordon S, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Hart RP, Dittus R. Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). JAMA. 2001 Dec 12/5/2001; 286(21): 2703-10. PMID: 11730446, PII: jce10051, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Bernard GR, Ely EW, Wright TJ, Fraiz J, Stasek JE, Russell JA, Mayers I, Rosenfeld BA, Morris PE, Yan SB, Helterbrand JD. Safety and dose relationship of recombinant human activated protein C for coagulopathy in severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2001 Nov; 29(11): 2051-9. PMID: 11700394, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Margolin R, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Dittus R, Speroff T, Gautam S, Bernard GR, Inouye SK. Evaluation of delirium in critically ill patients: validation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Crit. Care Med. 2001 Jul; 29(7): 1370-9. PMID: 11445689, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher CJ, . Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001 Mar 3/8/2001; 344(10): 699-709. PMID: 11236773, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200103083441001, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Martin GS, Bernard GR, . Airway and lung in sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2001; 27 Suppl 1: S63-79. PMID: 11307371.

Conner BD, Bernard GR. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Potential pharmacologic interventions. Clin. Chest Med. 2000 Sep; 21(3): 563-87. PMID: 11019728, ISSN: 0272-5231.

Mangialardi RJ, Martin GS, Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Christman BW, Dupont WD, Higgins SB, Swindell BB. Hypoproteinemia predicts acute respiratory distress syndrome development, weight gain, and death in patients with sepsis. Ibuprofen in Sepsis Study Group. Crit. Care Med. 2000 Sep; 28(9): 3137-45. PMID: 11008971, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR, Sopko G, Cerra F, Demling R, Edmunds H, Kaplan S, Kessler L, Masur H, Parsons P, Shure D, Webb C, Weidemann H, Weinmann G, Williams D. Pulmonary artery catheterization and clinical outcomes: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Food and Drug Administration Workshop Report. Consensus Statement. JAMA. 2000 May 5/17/2000; 283(19): 2568-72. PMID: 10815121, PII: jst90017, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Arons MM, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Christman BW, Russell JA, Schein R, Summer WR, Steinberg KP, Fulkerson W, Wright P, Dupont WD, Swindell BB. Effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of hypothermic sepsis. Ibuprofen in Sepsis Study Group. Crit. Care Med. 1999 Apr; 27(4): 699-707. PMID: 10321658, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR. Research in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome: are we changing course?. Crit. Care Med. 1999 Feb; 27(2): 434-6. PMID: 10075074, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Treating patients with severe sepsis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999 Jan 1/21/1999; 340(3): 207-14. PMID: 9895401, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199901213400307, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Price BJ, Bernard GR, Drew K, Foss J, Wheeler AP. Impact of a critical care pathway for unstable mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1998 Mar; 10(1): 75-85. PMID: 9644350, ISSN: 0899-5885.

Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Arons MM, Morris PE, Paz HL, Russell JA, Wright PE. A trial of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and procysteine in ARDS. The Antioxidant in ARDS Study Group. Chest. 1997 Jul; 112(1): 164-72. PMID: 9228372, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Russell JA, Schein R, Summer WR, Steinberg KP, Fulkerson WJ, Wright PE, Christman BW, Dupont WD, Higgins SB, Swindell BB. The effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of patients with sepsis. The Ibuprofen in Sepsis Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997 Mar 3/27/1997; 336(13): 912-8. PMID: 9070471, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199703273361303, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Weikert LF, Bernard GR. Pharmacotherapy of sepsis. Clin. Chest Med. 1996 Jun; 17(2): 289-305. PMID: 8792067, ISSN: 0272-5231.

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Applications of molecular biology and biotechnology: antibody therapy of sepsis. J Crit Care. 1996 Jun; 11(2): 77-94. PMID: 8727029, PII: S0883-9441(96)90023-4, ISSN: 0883-9441.

Carmichael LC, Dorinsky PM, Higgins SB, Bernard GR, Dupont WD, Swindell B, Wheeler AP. Diagnosis and therapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults: an international survey. J Crit Care. 1996 Mar; 11(1): 9-18. PMID: 8904279, ISSN: 0883-9441.

Bernard GR, Pou NA, Coggeshall JW, Carroll FE, Snapper JR. Comparison of the pulmonary dysfunction caused by cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Chest. 1995 Sep; 108(3): 798-803. PMID: 7656636, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Bernard GR. Sepsis trials. Intersection of investigation, regulation, funding, and practice. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1995 Jul; 152(1): 4-10. PMID: 7599855, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.152.1.7599855, ISSN: 1073-449X.

Higgins SB, Jiang K, Plummer WD, Edens TR, Stroud MJ, Swindell BB, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Pivot/Remote: a distributed database for remote data entry in multi-center clinical trials. Medinfo. 1995; 8 Pt 2: 1097. PMID: 8591379, ISSN: 1569-6332.

Wright PE, Carmichael LC, Bernard GR. Effect of bronchodilators on lung mechanics in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Chest. 1994 Nov; 106(5): 1517-23. PMID: 7956413, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, Lamy M, Legall JR, Morris A, Spragg R. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1994 Mar; 149(3 Pt 1): 818-24. PMID: 7509706, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.149.3.7509706, ISSN: 1073-449X.

Morris PE, Bernard GR. Significance of glutathione in lung disease and implications for therapy. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1994 Feb; 307(2): 119-27. PMID: 8141138, ISSN: 0002-9629.

Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, Lamy M, LeGall JR, Morris A, Spragg R. Report of the American-European consensus conference on ARDS: definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes and clinical trial coordination. The Consensus Committee. Intensive Care Med. 1994; 20(3): 225-32. PMID: 8014293, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Christman BW, Bernard GR. Antilipid mediator and antioxidant therapy in adult respiratory distress syndrome. New Horiz. 1993 Nov; 1(4): 623-30. PMID: 8087582, ISSN: 1063-7389.

Wheeler AP, Carroll FE, Bernard GR. Radiographic issues in adult respiratory distress syndrome. New Horiz. 1993 Nov; 1(4): 471-7. PMID: 8087568, ISSN: 1063-7389.

Christman BW, McPherson CD, Newman JH, King GA, Bernard GR, Groves BM, Loyd JE. An imbalance between the excretion of thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites in pulmonary hypertension. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992 Jul 7/9/1992; 327(2): 70-5. PMID: 1603138, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199207093270202, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Hardie WD, Wheeler AP, Wright PW, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. Effect of cyclooxygenase inhibition on amphotericin B-induced lung injury in awake sheep. J. Infect. Dis. 1992 Jul; 166(1): 134-8. PMID: 1607684, ISSN: 0022-1899.

Schriver EE, Davidson JM, Sutcliffe MC, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. Comparison of elastin peptide concentrations in body fluids from healthy volunteers, smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992 Apr; 145(4 Pt 1): 762-6. PMID: 1554198, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/145.4_Pt_1.762, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wheeler AP, Hardie WD, Bernard GR. The role of cyclooxygenase products in lung injury induced by tumor necrosis factor in sheep. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992 Mar; 145(3): 632-9. PMID: 1546845, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/145.3.632, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Morris P, Bernard GR. Adult respiratory distress syndrome. Strategies to provide support and enhance oxygen delivery. Postgrad Med. 1991 Dec; 90(8): 163-6, 169. PMID: 1749731, ISSN: 0032-5481.

Bernard GR, Reines HD, Halushka PV, Higgins SB, Metz CA, Swindell BB, Wright PE, Watts FL, Vrbanac JJ. Prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 formation is increased in human sepsis syndrome. Effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1991 Nov; 144(5): 1095-101. PMID: 1952438, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/144.5.1095, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Bernard GR. N-acetylcysteine in experimental and clinical acute lung injury. Am. J. Med. 1991 Sep 9/30/1991; 91(3C): 54S-59S. PMID: 1928212, ISSN: 0002-9343.

Bernard GR, Korley V, Chee P, Swindell B, Ford-Hutchinson AW, Tagari P. Persistent generation of peptido leukotrienes in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1991 Aug; 144(2): 263-7. PMID: 1650152, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/144.2.263, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Onrot J, Bernard GR, Biaggioni I, Hollister AS, Robertson D. Direct vasodilator effect of hyperventilation-induced hypocarbia in autonomic failure patients. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1991 May; 301(5): 305-9. PMID: 1902350, ISSN: 0002-9629.

Hardie WD, Wright PE, Bernard GR. Effects of intravenous amphotericin B infusion on hemodynamics and airway mechanics in awake sheep. Chest. 1991 Feb; 99(2): 457-62. PMID: 1989809, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Higgins SB, Jiang K, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. A graphical ICU workstation. Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care. 1991; 783-7. PMID: 1807712, PMCID: PMC2247637, ISSN: 0195-4210.

Watts FL, Bernard GR. Effects of ritodrine infusion on hemodynamics and lung lymph in awake sheep. Pulm Pharmacol. 1991; 4(1): 32-6. PMID: 1804492, PII: 0952-0600(91)90036-3, ISSN: 0952-0600.

Bernard GR. Potential of N-acetylcysteine as treatment for the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Eur Respir J Suppl. 1990 Oct; 11: 496s-498s. PMID: 2278610, ISSN: 0904-1850.

Cowan HB, Bernard GR. The adult respiratory distress syndrome. Compr Ther. 1990 Oct; 16(10): 66-71. PMID: 2249403, ISSN: 0098-8243.

Harris TR, Bernard GR, Brigham KL, Higgins SB, Rinaldo JE, Borovetz HS, Sibbald WJ, Kariman K, Sprung CL. Lung microvascular transport properties measured by multiple indicator dilution methods in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. A comparison between patients reversing respiratory failure and those failing to reverse. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1990 Feb; 141(2): 272-80. PMID: 2405756, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/141.2.272, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Minimal positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP): a safe, effective, defensible practice. Clin Intensive Care. 1990; 1(4): 175-9. PMID: 10149076, ISSN: 0956-3075.

Wright PE, Bernard GR. Mechanisms of late hemodynamic and airway dynamic responses to endotoxin in awake sheep. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989 Sep; 140(3): 672-8. PMID: 2782739, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/140.3.672, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wright PE, Marini JJ, Bernard GR. In vitro versus in vivo comparison of endotracheal tube airflow resistance. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989 Jul; 140(1): 10-6. PMID: 2751156, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/140.1.10, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wright PE, Bernard GR. The role of airflow resistance in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989 May; 139(5): 1169-74. PMID: 2653150, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/139.5.1169, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Taylor RF, Bernard GR. Airway complications from free-basing cocaine. Chest. 1989 Feb; 95(2): 476-7. PMID: 2914507, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Lucht WD, Bernard GR, Butka B, Brigham KL. Corticosteroids inhibit endotoxin-induced lung lymph neutrophil stimulating activity in sheep. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1988 Aug; 296(2): 98-102. PMID: 2840827, ISSN: 0002-9629.

Wright P, Ishihara Y, Bernard GR. Effects of nitroprusside on lung mechanics and hemodynamics after endotoxemia in awake sheep. J. Appl. Physiol. 1988 May; 64(5): 2026-32. PMID: 3292506, ISSN: 8750-7587.

Bernard GR, Luce JM, Sprung CL, Rinaldo JE, Tate RM, Sibbald WJ, Kariman K, Higgins S, Bradley R, Metz CA. High-dose corticosteroids in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 1987 Dec 12/17/1987; 317(25): 1565-70. PMID: 3317054, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198712173172504, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Coggeshall JW, Lefferts PL, Butterfield MJ, Bernard GR, Carroll FE, Pou NA, Snapper JR. Perilla ketone: a model of increased pulmonary microvascular permeability pulmonary edema in sheep. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1987 Dec; 136(6): 1453-8. PMID: 3688648, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/136.6.1453, ISSN: 0003-0805.

May DG, Stratton CW, Denney WD, Watts FL, Bernard GR, Branch RA. Vancomycin entry into lung lymph in sheep. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1987 Nov; 31(11): 1689-91. PMID: 3435116, PMCID: PMC175021, ISSN: 0066-4804.

Lucht WD, English DK, Bernard GR, Serafin WE, Brigham KL. Prevention of release of granulocyte aggregants into sheep lung lymph following endotoxemia by N-acetylcysteine. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1987 Sep; 294(3): 161-7. PMID: 2821809, ISSN: 0002-9629.