Vivien A. Casagrande, Ph.D.

Professor

vivien.casagrande@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology Professor of PsychologyProfessor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
Education
Ph.D., PSYCHOLOGY, Duke University, Durham, North CarolinaB.A., University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado
Office Address
PMB 407935
465 21st Ave S
Nashville, TN 37240-7935
Research Description
The overall goal of this research is to understand how the visual thalamus and cortex interact to construct our perceptual world.

The first project explores the unconventional proposal that the primary sensory information received by the visual cortex from the visual thalamus [e.g., the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)] is not purely visual but rather visual information, primed by inputs from other sensory modalities. In this project, we hypothesize that the primate brain achieves fast and accurate decision-making in part due to its ability to focus, right from the beginning, on relevant aspects of inputs from all sense organs without appreciating all the details presented by each sense organ. Our specific hypothesis is that auditory and visual information are combined in a task dependent manner in the visual thalamus before this message is processed in cortex.

In a second project, we test the hypothesis that all thalamic nuclei contain some cell groups that act as drivers (send the main message) and some that act as modulators for multiple cortical areas, thus mediating the generation of an array of diverse cortical functions. The thalamus is not simply a passive relay to cortex. Instead, just as primary visual cortex (V1) depends on LGN, the secondary visual area (V2) and the middle temporal visual area (MT) depend on a combination of dedicated pathways through the thalamus (e.g., pulvinar) and direct feedforward connections from V1.This arrangement allows new properties to emerge at both the thalamic and cortical levels through dynamic loops.

A third project focuses on communication between cells in different areas of visual cortex and examines how visual messages are coded and transmitted from lower to higher visual areas and what the role of feedback is in this process.

We use a variety of electrophysiological, anatomical, and imaging approaches to address these questions including single unit and multielectrode recording in both anesthetized and awake behaving primates, light, electron microscopic and confocal examination of cells and circuits, optical imaging of intrinsic signals and pharmacological manipulation. Our laboratory also has had a long standing interest in the evolution of the visual system. Therefore, we continue to use a comparative approach to examine for similarities and differences in the organization of the visual system in a variety of primate species.
Research Keywords
visual system, brain development, morphology, electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, neuroscience, behavior, vision
Publications
Jiang Y, Purushothaman G, Casagrande VA. The functional asymmetry of ON and OFF channels in the perception of contrast. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov 11/15/2015; 114(5): 2816-29. PMID: 26334011, PII: jn.00560.2015, DOI: 10.1152/jn.00560.2015, ISSN: 1522-1598.

Jiang Y, Yampolsky D, Purushothaman G, Casagrande VA. Perceptual decision related activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul; 114(1): 717-35. PMID: 26019309, PMCID: PMC4516136, PII: jn.00068.2015, DOI: 10.1152/jn.00068.2015, ISSN: 1522-1598.

Jiang Y, Purushothaman G, Casagrande VA. A computational relationship between thalamic sensory neural responses and contrast perception. Front Neural Circuits. 2015; 9: 54. PMID: 26500504, PMCID: PMC4597482, DOI: 10.3389/fncir.2015.00054, ISSN: 1662-5110.

Purushothaman G, Chen X, Yampolsky D, Casagrande VA. Neural mechanisms of coarse-to-fine discrimination in the visual cortex. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec 12/1/2014; 112(11): 2822-33. PMID: 25210162, PMCID: PMC4254879, PII: jn.00612.2013, DOI: 10.1152/jn.00612.2013, ISSN: 1522-1598.

Shostak Y, Wenger A, Mavity-Hudson J, Casagrande VA. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 shows different patterns of localization within the parallel visual pathways in macaque and squirrel monkeys. Eye Brain. 2014 Sep 9/24/2014; 6: 29-43. PMID: 25774086, PMCID: PMC4356996, ISSN: 1179-2744.

Ichida JM, Mavity-Hudson JA, Casagrande VA. Distinct patterns of corticogeniculate feedback to different layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. Eye Brain. 2014 Sep; 2014(6 Suppl 1): 57-73. PMID: 25892906, PMCID: PMC4399558, DOI: 10.2147/EB.S64281, ISSN: 1179-2744.

Li K, Patel J, Purushothaman G, Marion RT, Casagrande VA. Retinotopic maps in the pulvinar of bush baby (Otolemur garnettii). J. Comp. Neurol. 2013 Oct 10/15/2013; 521(15): 3432-50. PMID: 23640865, PMCID: PMC3775912, DOI: 10.1002/cne.23358, ISSN: 1096-9861.

Marion R, Li K, Purushothaman G, Jiang Y, Casagrande VA. Morphological and neurochemical comparisons between pulvinar and V1 projections to V2. J. Comp. Neurol. 2013 Mar 3/1/2013; 521(4): 813-32. PMID: 22826174, PMCID: PMC3513524, DOI: 10.1002/cne.23203, ISSN: 1096-9861.

Purushothaman G, Casagrande VA. A Generalized ideal observer model for decoding sensory neural responses. Front Psychol. 2013; 4: 617. PMID: 24137135, PMCID: PMC3786228, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00617, ISSN: 1664-1078.

Fan RH, Baldwin MK, Jermakowicz WJ, Casagrande VA, Kaas JH, Roe AW. Intrinsic signal optical imaging evidence for dorsal V3 in the prosimian galago (Otolemur garnettii). J. Comp. Neurol. 2012 Dec 12/15/2012; 520(18): 4254-74. PMID: 22628051, PMCID: PMC3593310, DOI: 10.1002/cne.23154, ISSN: 1096-9861.

Purushothaman G, Marion R, Li K, Casagrande VA. Gating and control of primary visual cortex by pulvinar. Nat. Neurosci. 2012 Jun; 15(6): 905-12. PMID: 22561455, PMCID: PMC3430824, PII: nn.3106, DOI: 10.1038/nn.3106, ISSN: 1546-1726.

Casagrande, VA and Marion, RT. Processing in the Primary Visual Cortex. Adlera??s Physiology of the Eye, 11th edition (A. Alm, P.L. Kaufman, (lead) L.A. Levin, S.F.E. Nilsson, J. Ver Hoeve and S.M. Wu, eds) Mosby, Elsevier. 2011; 586-98.

Casagrande, VA and Ichida, JM. Processing in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Adlera??s Physiology of the Eye, 11th edition (A. Alm, P.L. Kaufman, (lead) L.A. Levin, S.F.E. Nilsson, J. Ver Hoeve and S.M. Wu, eds) Mosby, Elsevier. 2011; 574-85.

Purushothaman G, Khaytin I, Casagrande VA. Quantification of optical images of cortical responses for inferring functional maps. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2009 May; 101(5): 2708-24. PMID: 19225176, PMCID: PMC2681427, PII: 90696.2008, DOI: 10.1152/jn.90696.2008, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Jermakowicz WJ, Chen X, Khaytin I, Bonds AB, Casagrande VA. Relationship between spontaneous and evoked spike-time correlations in primate visual cortex. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2009 May; 101(5): 2279-89. PMID: 19211656, PMCID: PMC2681437, PII: 91207.2008, DOI: 10.1152/jn.91207.2008, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Casagrande, VA and Purushothaman, G. , Modularity. Encyclopedia of Perception, Sage Publications. 2009; E.B. Goldstein, Ed.: 561-6.

Khaytin I, Chen X, Royal DW, Ruiz O, Jermakowicz WJ, Siegel RM, Casagrande VA. Functional organization of temporal frequency selectivity in primate visual cortex. Cereb. Cortex [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 18(8): 1828-42. PMID: 18056699, PMCID: PMC2790394, PII: bhm210, DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhm210, ISSN: 1460-2199.

Boyd, J.D., I. Khaytin, and V. A. Casagrande. Comparative Evolutionary Aspects across Orders. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (A. Butler, ed.), Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2008; 1448-55.

Casagrande, V.A., I. Khaytin, and Boyd, J.. Evolution of the Visual System: Mammals-Color Vision and the Function of Parallel Visual Pathways in Primates. In Primates. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (A. Butler, ed), Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2008; 1472-5.

Jermakowicz WJ, Casagrande VA. Neural networks a century after Cajal. Brain Res Rev [print-electronic]. 2007 Oct; 55(2): 264-84. PMID: 17692925, PMCID: PMC2101763, PII: S0165-0173(07)00124-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.06.003, ISSN: 0165-0173.

Casagrande VA, Yazar F, Jones KD, Ding Y. The morphology of the koniocellular axon pathway in the macaque monkey. Cereb. Cortex [print-electronic]. 2007 Oct; 17(10): 2334-45. PMID: 17215477, PII: bhl142, DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhl142, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Xu X, Anderson TJ, Casagrande VA. How do functional maps in primary visual cortex vary with eccentricity?. J. Comp. Neurol. 2007 Apr 4/10/2007; 501(5): 741-55. PMID: 17299757, DOI: 10.1002/cne.21277, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Casagrande, V.A., Khaytin, I., and Boyd, J.. The evolution of parallel visual pathways in the brains of primates. Evolution of the Nervous System (T.M. Preuss and J. Kaas, eds.). 2007; 4: 87-108.

Xu X, Collins CE, Khaytin I, Kaas JH, Casagrande VA. Unequal representation of cardinal vs. oblique orientations in the middle temporal visual area. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2006 Nov 11/14/2006; 103(46): 17490-5. PMID: 17088527, PMCID: PMC1859956, PII: 0608502103, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0608502103, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Ruiz O, Royal D, Sáry G, Chen X, Schall JD, Casagrande VA. Low-threshold Ca2+-associated bursts are rare events in the LGN of the awake behaving monkey. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2006 Jun; 95(6): 3401-13. PMID: 16510773, PII: 00008.2006, DOI: 10.1152/jn.00008.2006, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Royal DW, Sáry G, Schall JD, Casagrande VA. Correlates of motor planning and postsaccadic fixation in the macaque monkey lateral geniculate nucleus. Exp Brain Res [print-electronic]. 2006 Jan; 168(1-2): 62-75. PMID: 16151777, DOI: 10.1007/s00221-005-0093-z, ISSN: 0014-4819.

Elston, G.N., R. Benavides-Piccione, A. Elston, B. Zietsch, J. DeFelipe, P. Manger, V. Casagrande and J. Kaas. Specializations of the granular prefrontal cortex of primates: implications for cognitive processing. Anatomical Record Part A. 2006; 288A((1)): 26-35.

Xu X, Bosking WH, White LE, Fitzpatrick D, Casagrande VA. Functional organization of visual cortex in the prosimian bush baby revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2005 Oct; 94(4): 2748-62. PMID: 16000523, PII: 00354.2005, DOI: 10.1152/jn.00354.2005, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Elston GN, Elston A, Casagrande V, Kaas JH. Pyramidal neurons of granular prefrontal cortex of the galago: complexity in evolution of the psychic cell in primates. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Jul; 285(1): 610-8. PMID: 15912521, DOI: 10.1002/ar.a.20198, ISSN: 1552-4884.

Collins CE, Xu X, Khaytin I, Kaskan PM, Casagrande VA, Kaas JH. Optical imaging of visually evoked responses in the middle temporal area after deactivation of primary visual cortex in adult primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2005 Apr 4/12/2005; 102(15): 5594-9. PMID: 15809438, PMCID: PMC556248, PII: 0501762102, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0501762102, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Elston GN, Elston A, Kaas JH, Casagrande V. Regional specialization in pyramidal cell structure in the visual cortex of the galago: an intracellular injection study of striate and extrastriate areas with comparative notes on new world and old world monkeys. Brain Behav. Evol [print-electronic]. 2005; 66(1): 10-21. PMID: 15821345, PII: 85044, DOI: 10.1159/000085044, ISSN: 0006-8977.

Casagrande VA, Sáry G, Royal D, Ruiz O. On the impact of attention and motor planning on the lateral geniculate nucleus. Prog. Brain Res. 2005; 149: 11-29. PMID: 16226573, PII: S0079-6123(05)49002-0, DOI: 10.1016/S0079-6123(05)49002-0, ISSN: 1875-7855.

Collins CE, Xu X, Khaytin I, Kaskan PM, Casagrande VA, Kaas JH. Optical imaging of visually evoked responses in the middle temporal area after deactivation of primary visual cortex in adult primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 2005; 102((15)): 5594-9.

Elston GN, Elston E, Casagrande V, Kaas JH. Areal specialization of pyramidal cell structure in the visual cortex of the tree shrew: a new twist revealed in the evolution of cortical circuitry. Experimental Brain Research. 2005; 163: 13-20.

Casagrande, V. A., Gy. Sary, D. Royal, and O. Rui. On the impact of attention and motor planning on the lateral geniculate nucleus. In Progress in Brain Research, vol. 149: Cortical Function: A View from the Thalamus (V. A. Casagrande, S. M. Sherman and R. W. Guillery, eds). 2005; Amsterdam: Elsevier: 11-29.

Xu X, Collins CE, Kaskan PM, Khaytin I, Kaas JH, Casagrande VA. Optical imaging of visually evoked responses in prosimian primates reveals conserved features of the middle temporal visual area. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004 Feb 2/24/2004; 101(8): 2566-71. PMID: 14983049, PMCID: PMC356990, PII: 101/8/2566, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Wiencken-Barger AE, Mavity-Hudson J, Bartsch U, Schachner M, Casagrande VA. The role of L1 in axon pathfinding and fasciculation. Cereb. Cortex. 2004 Feb; 14(2): 121-31. PMID: 14704209, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Xu X, Bosking W, Sáry Gy, Stefansic J, Shima D, and Casagrande V. Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey. 2004.

Shostak Y, Ding Y, Casagrande VA. Neurochemical comparison of synaptic arrangements of parvocellular, magnocellular, and koniocellular geniculate pathways in owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) visual cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 2003 Jan 1/27/2003; 456(1): 12-28. PMID: 12508310, DOI: 10.1002/cne.10436, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Joos KM, Mawn LA, Shen JH, Casagrande VA. Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys. Lasers Surg Med. 2003; 32(1): 32-41. PMID: 12516068, DOI: 10.1002/lsm.10146, ISSN: 0196-8092.

Joos, K., Mawn, L., Shen, J. & Casagrande, V. A.. Chronic and acute analysis of optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free electron laser in monkeys. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2003; 32: 32-41.

Emeric, E., Xu, X., Mavity-Hudson, J., Gallucci, M., Thomas, A., Barahimi, B., Shima, D., Stefansic, J., Bonds, A. B. & Casagrande, V. A.. Visuotopic organization of bush baby primary visual cortex (V1) revealed by optical imaging. Vision Sciences Society. Journal of Vision. 2003; 3((9)): 376a.

Xu, X., Boyd, J., Gallucci, M., Emeric, E., Barahimi, B., Stefansic, J., Shima, D., Melzer, P., Allison, J., Bonds, A. B. & Casagrande, V. A.. Spatial frequency preference maps of primatevisual cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Vision Sciences Society, Journal of Vision. 2003; 3((9)): 107a.

Thomas, A., Gallucci, M., Xu, X., Allison, J., Stefansic, J., Shima, D., Casagrande, V. & Bonds, A. B. (2003).. Compound stimuli promote architectural reorganization in cat striate cortex. Vision Sciences Society, Journal of Vision. 2003; 3((9)): 379a.

Royal, D., Sary, G., Schall, J. & Casagrande, V. A.. Is there a relationship between spike bursts in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and behavioral events?. Vision Sciences Society,Journal of Vision. 2003; 3((9)): 366a.

Royal, D. W.,Sary, G., Schall, J., & Casagrande, V. A.. Are spike bursts and pseudo- bursts in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) related to behavioral events?. Washington, DC: Society for Neuroscience, 2003. Online. 2003.

Ichida, J. M.,Royal, D., Sary G., Schall, J., & Casagrande, V. A.. Are there significant onset latency differences between LGN cells that carry S cone signals compared to those that carry M or L cone signals?. Washington, DC: Society for Neuroscience, 2003. Online. 2003.

Casagrande, V. A. & Royal, D.. Parallel visual pathways in a dynamic system. Primate Vision (J. H. Kaas and C. E. Collins, eds.) Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 2003; 1-28.

Casagrande, V. A. & Xu, X.. Parallel visual pathways: a comparative perspective. The Visual Neurosciences (L. Chalupa and John S. Werner, eds.). 2003; 494-506.

Ichida JM, Casagrande VA. Organization of the feedback pathway from striate cortex (V1) to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). J. Comp. Neurol. 2002 Dec 12/16/2002; 454(3): 272-83. PMID: 12442318, DOI: 10.1002/cne.10441, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Lyon DC, Xu X, Casagrande VA, Stefansic JD, Shima D, Kaas JH. Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2002 Nov 11/26/2002; 99(24): 15735-42. PMID: 12441399, PMCID: PMC137785, PII: 242600699, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.242600699, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Xu X, Bonds AB, Casagrande VA. Modeling receptive-field structure of koniocellular, magnocellular, and parvocellular LGN cells in the owl monkey (Aotus trivigatus). Vis. Neurosci. 2002 Nov; 19(6): 703-11. PMID: 12688666, PII: S0952523802196027, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Shostak Y, Ding Y, Mavity-Hudson J, Casagrande VA. Cortical synaptic arrangements of the third visual pathway in three primate species: Macaca mulatta, Saimiri sciureus, and Aotus trivirgatus. J. Neurosci. 2002 Apr 4/1/2002; 22(7): 2885-93. PMID: 11923453, PII: 22/7/2885, DOI: 20026210, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Xu X, Ichida J, Shostak Y, Bonds AB, Casagrande VA. Are primate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells really sensitive to orientation or direction?. Vis. Neurosci. 2002 Jan; 19(1): 97-108. PMID: 12180863, PII: S0952523802191097, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Casagrande VA, Xu X, Sáry G. Static and dynamic views of visual cortical organization. Prog. Brain Res. 2002; 136: 389-408. PMID: 12143396, ISSN: 0079-6123.

Casagrande, V. A., & Ichida, J. M.. The lateral geniculate nucleus. F. H. Adler (Ed.), Physiology of the eye. 2002; 655-68.

Casagrande, V. A., & Ichida, J. M.. The visual cortex. F. H. Adler (Ed.), Physiology of the eye. 2002; 669-85.

Joos, K. M., Shen, J. H., Robinson, R. D., & Casagrande, V. A.. Free electron laser-treated tisseel aids closure of trabeculectomy leaks. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2002.

Shostak, Y., Ding, Y., & Casagrande, V. A. (. Neurochemical comparison of synaptic circuitry of koniocellular (K), magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) geniculate pathways in owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) visual cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 454, 168-184. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2002; 454: 168-84.

Wiencken-Barger, A. E., & Casagrande, V. A.. Visual system development and neural activity. V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the human brain. 2002; 791-804.

Xu, X., Bosking, W., Sary, G., Jones, M., Royal, D., Stefansic, J., Shima, D., Fitzpatrick, D., & Casagrande, V. A.. The functional of organization of orientation maps in owl monkey V1 and V2 revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Visual Science Society, B1, 100. Visual Science Society. 2002; B1: 100.

Xu X, Ichida JM, Allison JD, Boyd JD, Bonds AB, Casagrande VA. A comparison of koniocellular, magnocellular and parvocellular receptive field properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). J. Physiol. (Lond.). 2001 Feb 2/15/2001; 531(Pt 1): 203-18. PMID: 11179404, PMCID: PMC2278453, PII: PHY_1098, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Boyd JD, Mavity-Hudson JA, Casagrande VA. The connections of layer 4 subdivisions in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the owl monkey. Cereb. Cortex. 2000 Jul; 10(7): 644-62. PMID: 10906312, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Wiencken AE, Casagrande VA. The distribution of NADPH diaphorase and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) in relation to the functional compartments of areas V1 and V2 of primate visual cortex. Cereb. Cortex. 2000 May; 10(5): 499-511. PMID: 10847600, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Ichida JM, Rosa MG, Casagrande VA. Does the visual system of the flying fox resemble that of primates? The distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the primary visual pathway of Pteropus poliocephalus. J. Comp. Neurol. 2000 Jan 1/31/2000; 417(1): 73-87. PMID: 10660889, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(20000131)417:1<73::AID-CNE6>3.0.CO;2-C, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Joos KM, Shen JH, Shetlar DJ, Casagrande VA. Optic nerve sheath fenestration with a novel wavelength produced by the free electron laser (FEL). Lasers Surg Med. 2000; 27(3): 191-205. PMID: 11013381, PII: 10.1002/1096-9101(2000)27:3<191::AID-LSM1>3.0.CO;2-D, ISSN: 0196-8092.

Allison JD, Melzer P, Ding Y, Bonds AB, Casagrande VA. Differential contributions of magnocellular and parvocellular pathways to the contrast response of neurons in bush baby primary visual cortex (V1). Vis. Neurosci. 2000 Jan; 17(1): 71-6. PMID: 10750828, PII: S095252380017107X, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Boyd JD, Casagrande VA. Relationships between cytochrome oxidase (CO) blobs in primate primary visual cortex (V1) and the distribution of neurons projecting to the middle temporal area (MT). J. Comp. Neurol. 1999 Jul 7/12/1999; 409(4): 573-91. PMID: 10376741, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19990712)409:4<573::AID-CNE5>3.0.CO;2-R, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Casagrande VA. The mystery of the visual system K pathway. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 1999 Jun 6/15/1999; 517 ( Pt 3): 630. PMID: 10358103, PMCID: PMC2269392, PII: PHY_9376, ISSN: 0022-3751.

Wiencken AE, Casagrande VA. Endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS) in astrocytes: another source of nitric oxide in neocortex. Glia. 1999 Jun; 26(4): 280-90. PMID: 10383047, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199906)26:4<280::AID-GLIA2>3.0.CO;2-W, ISSN: 0894-1491.

Yamada ES, Marshak DW, Silveira LC, Casagrande VA. Morphology of P and M retinal ganglion cells of the bush baby. Vision Res. 1998 Nov; 38(21): 3345-52. PMID: 9893847, PMCID: PMC3341668, PII: S0042-6989(97)00412-4, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Casagrande VA. The Cortical Discoverer Prize: Tamas F. Freund. Cereb. Cortex. 1998 Jul; 8(5): 478-9. PMID: 9722092, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Casagrande VA. The Cortical Explorer Award: Nelson Spruston. Cereb. Cortex. 1998 Jul; 8(5): 478. PMID: 9722091, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Casagrande VA. The Cortical Scholar Prize: Dun H. Ha and Frank A. Middleton. Cereb. Cortex. 1998 Jul; 8(5): 477-8. PMID: 9722090, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Ding Y, Casagrande VA. Synaptic and neurochemical characterization of parallel pathways to the cytochrome oxidase blobs of primate visual cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 1998 Feb 2/22/1998; 391(4): 429-43. PMID: 9486823, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19980222)391:4<429::AID-CNE2>3.0.CO;2-2, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Casagrande VA. Review of The First Steps in Seeing by Rodieck RW, Sinauer Associates. Trends in Neurosciences. 1998; 22: 327-8.

Yamada, E. S., Marshak. D. W., Carlos, L., Silveira, L., & Casagrande, V. A.. Morphology of P and M retinal ganglion cells of the bush baby. Vision Research, 38, 3345-3352. 1998; 38: 3345-52.

Yamada, E. S., Marshak. D. W., Carlos, L., Silveira, L., & Casagrande, V. A.. Morphology of P and M retinal ganglion cells of the bush baby. Vision Research, 38, 3345-3352. 1998; 38: 3345-52.

Ding Y, Casagrande VA. The distribution and morphology of LGN K pathway axons within the layers and CO blobs of owl monkey V1. Vis. Neurosci. 1997 Jul; 14(4): 691-704. PMID: 9278998, PII: S0952523800012657, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Rosa MG, Casagrande VA, Preuss T, Kaas JH. Visual field representation in striate and prestriate cortices of a prosimian primate (Galago garnetti). J. Neurophysiol. 1997 Jun; 77(6): 3193-217. PMID: 9212268, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Allison JD, Kabara JF, Snider RK, Casagrande VA, Bonds AB. GABAB-receptor-mediated inhibition reduces the orientation selectivity of the sustained response of striate cortical neurons in cats. Vis. Neurosci. 1996 May; 13(3): 559-66. PMID: 8782383, PII: S0952523800008233, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Casagrande VA, Wiencken AE. Prenatal development of axon outgrowth and connectivity. Prog. Brain Res. 1996; 108: 83-93. PMID: 8979795, ISSN: 0079-6123.

Singleton CD, Casagrande VA. A reliable and sensitive method for fluorescent photoconversion. J. Neurosci. Methods. 1996 Jan; 64(1): 47-54. PMID: 8869483, PII: 0165027095000976, ISSN: 0165-0270.

Casagrande VA, Boyd JD. The neural architecture of binocular vision. Eye (Lond). 1996; 10 ( Pt 2): 153-60. PMID: 8776442, DOI: 10.1038/eye.1996.40, ISSN: 0950-222X.

Johnson JK, Casagrande VA. Distribution of calcium-binding proteins within the parallel visual pathways of a primate (Galago crassicaudatus). J. Comp. Neurol. 1995 May 5/29/1995; 356(2): 238-60. PMID: 7629317, DOI: 10.1002/cne.903560208, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Allison JD, Casagrande VA, Bonds AB. The influence of input from the lower cortical layers on the orientation tuning of upper layer V1 cells in a primate. Vis. Neurosci. 1995 Mar; 12(2): 309-20. PMID: 7786852, PII: S0952523800007999, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Casagrande VA. A third parallel visual pathway to primate area V1. Trends Neurosci. 1994 Jul; 17(7): 305-10. PMID: 7524217, PII: 0166-2236(94)90065-5, ISSN: 0166-2236.

Allison JD, Casagrande VA, Debruyn EJ, Bonds AB. Contrast adaptation in striate cortical neurons of the nocturnal primate bush baby (Galago crassicaudatus). Vis. Neurosci. 1993 Nov; 10(6): 1129-39. PMID: 8257668, PII: S0952523800010233, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Lachica EA, Casagrande VA. The morphology of collicular and retinal axons ending on small relay (W-like) cells of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. Vis. Neurosci. 1993 May; 10(3): 403-18. PMID: 8494795, PII: S0952523800004648, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Lachica EA, Beck PD, Casagrande VA. Intrinsic connections of layer III of striate cortex in squirrel monkey and bush baby: correlations with patterns of cytochrome oxidase. J. Comp. Neurol. 1993 Mar 3/8/1993; 329(2): 163-87. PMID: 8384222, DOI: 10.1002/cne.903290203, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Irvin GE, Casagrande VA, Norton TT. Center/surround relationships of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular relay cells in primate lateral geniculate nucleus. Vis. Neurosci. 1993 Mar; 10(2): 363-73. PMID: 8485098, PII: S0952523800003758, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Johnson JK, Casagrande VA. Prenatal development of axon outgrowth and connectivity in the ferret visual system. Vis. Neurosci. 1993 Jan; 10(1): 117-30. PMID: 8424921, PII: S0952523800003266, ISSN: 0952-5238.

DeBruyn EJ, Casagrande VA, Beck PD, Bonds AB. Visual resolution and sensitivity of single cells in the primary visual cortex (V1) of a nocturnal primate (bush baby): correlations with cortical layers and cytochrome oxidase patterns. J. Neurophysiol. 1993 Jan; 69(1): 3-18. PMID: 8381862, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Lachica EA, Casagrande VA. Direct W-like geniculate projections to the cytochrome oxidase (CO) blobs in primate visual cortex: axon morphology. J. Comp. Neurol. 1992 May 5/1/1992; 319(1): 141-58. PMID: 1375606, DOI: 10.1002/cne.903190112, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Lachica EA, Beck PD, Casagrande VA. Parallel pathways in macaque monkey striate cortex: anatomically defined columns in layer III. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1992 Apr 4/15/1992; 89(8): 3566-70. PMID: 1314392, PMCID: PMC48909, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Lachica EA, Mavity-Hudson JA, Casagrande VA. Morphological details of primate axons and dendrites revealed by extracellular injection of biocytin: an economic and reliable alternative to PHA-L. Brain Res. 1991 Nov 11/8/1991; 564(1): 1-11. PMID: 1723335, PII: 0006-8993(91)91344-Z, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Claps A, Casagrande VA. The distribution and morphology of corticogeniculate axons in ferrets. Brain Res. 1990 Oct 10/15/1990; 530(1): 126-9. PMID: 2271942, PII: 0006-8993(90)90668-2, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Florence SL, Casagrande VA. Development of geniculocortical axon arbors in a primate. Vis. Neurosci. 1990 Sep; 5(3): 291-309. PMID: 2134852, PII: S0952523800000365, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Hutchins JB, Casagrande VA. Development of the lateral geniculate nucleus: interactions between retinal afferent, cytoarchitectonic, and glial cell process lamination in ferrets and tree shrews. J. Comp. Neurol. 1990 Aug 8/1/1990; 298(1): 113-28. PMID: 1698826, DOI: 10.1002/cne.902980109, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Lachica EA, Crooks MW, Casagrande VA. Effects of monocular deprivation on the morphology of retinogeniculate axon arbors in a primate. J. Comp. Neurol. 1990 Jun 6/8/1990; 296(2): 303-23. PMID: 2358539, DOI: 10.1002/cne.902960210, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Condo GJ, Casagrande VA. Organization of cytochrome oxidase staining in the visual cortex of nocturnal primates (Galago crassicaudatus and Galago senegalensis): I. Adult patterns. J. Comp. Neurol. 1990 Mar 3/22/1990; 293(4): 632-45. PMID: 2158503, DOI: 10.1002/cne.902930408, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Nidoli G, Macchi A, Lazzati M, Casagrande V. [Lingual appliances. 3]. Mondo Ortod. 1989 May; 14(3): 335-41. PMID: 2639234, ISSN: 0391-2000.

Nidoli G, Macchi A, Lazzati M, Casagrande V. [Lingual appliances: indirect application of lingual brackets. 2]. Mondo Ortod. 1989 Mar; 14(2): 165-71. PMID: 2700211, ISSN: 0391-2000.

Hutchins JB, Casagrande VA. Vimentin: changes in distribution during brain development. Glia. 1989; 2(1): 55-66. PMID: 2523339, DOI: 10.1002/glia.440020107, ISSN: 0894-1491.

Nidoli G, Macchi A, Lazzati M, Casagrande V. [Lingual appliances]. Mondo Ortod. 1989 Jan; 14(1): 23-30. PMID: 2637396, ISSN: 0391-2000.

Hutchins JB, Casagrande VA. Glial cells develop a laminar pattern before neuronal cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1988 Nov; 85(21): 8316-20. PMID: 3186726, PMCID: PMC282420, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Hutchins JB, Casagrande VA. Development of acetylcholinesterase activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus. J. Comp. Neurol. 1988 Sep 9/8/1988; 275(2): 241-53. PMID: 3220976, DOI: 10.1002/cne.902750206, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Norton TT, Casagrande VA, Irvin GE, Sesma MA, Petry HM. Contrast-sensitivity functions of W-, X-, and Y-like relay cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of bush baby, Galago crassicaudatus. J. Neurophysiol. 1988 Jun; 59(6): 1639-56. PMID: 3404199, ISSN: 0022-3077.

Casagrande VA, Condo GJ. The effect of altered neuronal activity on the development of layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus. J. Neurosci. 1988 Feb; 8(2): 395-416. PMID: 3339423, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Casagrande VA, Condo GJ. Is binocular competition essential for layer formation in the lateral geniculate nucleus?. Brain Behav. Evol. 1988; 31(4): 198-208. PMID: 3382921, ISSN: 0006-8977.

Lachica EA, Casagrande VA. Development of primate retinogeniculate axon arbors. Vis. Neurosci. 1988; 1(1): 103-23. PMID: 3154783, PII: S095252380000105X, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Preda GE, Castoldi A, Boggio E, Casagrande V, Conconi M, Azzi R. [Follow-up of 2 cases of untreated cherubism]. Dent Cadmos. 1987 Dec 12/31/1987; 55(20): 75-9. PMID: 3483820, ISSN: 0011-8524.

Florence SL, Casagrande VA. Organization of individual afferent axons in layer IV of striate cortex in a primate. J. Neurosci. 1987 Dec; 7(12): 3850-68. PMID: 3121801, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Condo GJ, Marvin SA, Casagrande VA. Postnatal development of geniculocortical projections in the tree shrew. Brain Res. 1987 Sep; 432(1): 148-52. PMID: 3651828, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Lachica EA, Condo GJ, Casagrande VA. Development of cytochrome oxidase staining in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus: a possible correlate of ON- and OFF-center channel maturation. Brain Res. 1987 Aug; 431(2): 298-302. PMID: 3040190, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Bonds AB, Casagrande VA, Norton TT, DeBruyn EJ. Visual resolution and sensitivity in a nocturnal primate (galago) measured with visual evoked potentials. Vision Res. 1987; 27(6): 845-57. PMID: 3660648, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Florence SL, Casagrande VA. Changes in the distribution of geniculocortical projections following monocular deprivation in tree shrews. Brain Res. 1986 May 5/21/1986; 374(1): 179-84. PMID: 3719325, PII: 0006-8993(86)90408-7, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Florence SL, Conley M, Casagrande VA. Ocular dominance columns and retinal projections in New World spider monkeys (Ateles ater). J. Comp. Neurol. 1986 Jan 1/8/1986; 243(2): 234-48. PMID: 3944278, DOI: 10.1002/cne.902430207, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Irvin GE, Norton TT, Sesma MA, Casagrande VA. W-like response properties of interlaminar zone cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of a primate (Galago crassicaudatus). Brain Res. 1986 Jan 1/8/1986; 362(2): 254-70. PMID: 3942875, PII: 0006-8993(86)90450-6, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Langston A, Casagrande VA, Fox R. Spatial resolution of the Galago. Vision Res. 1986; 26(5): 791-6. PMID: 3750860, PII: 0042-6989(86)90094-5, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Conley M, Birecree E, Casagrande VA. Neuronal classes and their relation to functional and laminar organization of the lateral geniculate nucleus: a Golgi study of the prosimian primate, Galago crassicaudatus. J. Comp. Neurol. 1985 Dec 12/22/1985; 242(4): 561-83. PMID: 2418081, DOI: 10.1002/cne.902420407, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Brunso-Bechtold JK, Casagrande VA. Ultrastructure of the developing tree shrew lateral geniculate nucleus. Brain Res. 1985 Dec; 355(2): 310-4. PMID: 4084788, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Conley M, Lachica EA, Casagrande VA. Demonstration of ipsilateral retinocollicular projections in the tree shrew (Tupaia glis). Brain Res. 1985 Oct 10/28/1985; 346(1): 181-5. PMID: 4052767, PII: 0006-8993(85)91113-8, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Brunso-Bechtold JK, Casagrande VA. Presence of retinogeniculate fibers is essential for initiating the formation of each interlaminar space in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Brain Res. 1985 May; 352(1): 123-6. PMID: 4005614, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Sesma MA, Casagrande VA, Kaas JH. Cortical connections of area 17 in tree shrews. J. Comp. Neurol. 1984 Dec 12/10/1984; 230(3): 337-51. PMID: 6520238, DOI: 10.1002/cne.902300303, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Holscher MA, Sly DL, Cousar JB, Glick AD, Casagrande VA. Monocytic leukemia in a greater bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus argentatus). Lab. Anim. Sci. 1984 Dec; 34(6): 619-20. PMID: 6596461, ISSN: 0023-6764.

Sesma MA, Irvin GE, Kuyk TK, Norton TT, Casagrande VA. Effects of monocular deprivation on the lateral geniculate nucleus in a primate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1984 Apr; 81(7): 2255-9. PMID: 6585797, PMCID: PMC345477, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Petry HM, Fox R, Casagrande VA. Spatial contrast sensitivity of the tree shrew. Vision Res. 1984; 24(9): 1037-42. PMID: 6506467, PII: 0042-6989(84)90080-4, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Brunso-Bechtold JK, Florence SL, Casagrande VA. The role of retinogeniculate afferents in the development of connections between visual cortex and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Brain Res. 1983 Oct; 312(1): 33-9. PMID: 6652507, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Florence SL, Sesma MA, Casagrande VA. Morphology of geniculo-striate afferents in a prosimian primate. Brain Res. 1983 Jun 6/27/1983; 270(1): 127-30. PMID: 6191838, PII: 0006-8993(83)90798-9, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Brunso-Bechtold JK, Casagrande VA. Early postnatal development of laminar characteristics in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the tree shrew. J. Neurosci. 1982 May; 2(5): 589-97. PMID: 7077367, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Norton TT, Casagrande VA. Laminar organization of receptive-field properties in lateral geniculate nucleus of bush baby (Galago crassicaudatus). J. Neurophysiol. 1982 Apr; 47(4): 715-41. PMID: 6279794, ISSN: 0022-3077.

DeBruyn EJ, Casagrande VA. Demonstration of ocular dominance columns in a New World primate by means of monocular deprivation. Brain Res. 1981 Mar 3/2/1981; 207(2): 453-8. PMID: 6162527, PII: 0006-8993(81)90378-4, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Brunso-Bechtold JK, Casagrande VA. Effect of bilateral enucleation on the development of layers in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Neuroscience. 1981; 6(12): 2579-86. PMID: 7322351, PII: 0306-4522(81)90103-2, ISSN: 0306-4522.

Casagrande VA, Joseph R. Morphological effects of monocular deprivation and recovery on the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in galago. J. Comp. Neurol. 1980 Nov 11/15/1980; 194(2): 413-26. PMID: 7440808, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901940208, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Graham J, Casagrande VA. A light microscopic and electron microscopic study of the superficial layers of the superior colliculus of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis). J. Comp. Neurol. 1980 May 5/1/1980; 191(1): 133-51. PMID: 7400390, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901910108, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Joseph R, Casagrande VA. Visual deficits and recovery following monocular lid closure in a prosimian primate. Behav. Brain Res. 1980 Apr; 1(2): 165-86. PMID: 7284084, PII: S0166-4328(80)80055-6, ISSN: 0166-4328.

DeBruyn EJ, Wise VL, Casagrande VA. The size and topographic arrangement of retinal ganglion cells in the galago. Vision Res. 1980; 20(4): 315-27. PMID: 7414964, PII: 0042-6989(80)90018-8, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Haseltine EC, DeBruyn EJ, Casagrande VA. Demonstration of ocular dominance columns in Nissl-stained sections of monkey visual cortex following enucleation. Brain Res. 1979 Oct 10/26/1979; 176(1): 153-8. PMID: 90545, PII: 0006-8993(79)90878-3, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Harting JK, Casagrande VA, Weber JT. The projection of the primate superior colliculus upon the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus: autoradiographic demonstration of interlaminar distribution of tectogeniculate axons. Brain Res. 1978 Jul 7/21/1978; 150(3): 593-9. PMID: 79427, PII: 0006-8993(78)90822-3, ISSN: 0006-8993.

McKanna JA, Casagrande VA. Reduced lens development in lid-suture myopia. Exp. Eye Res. 1978 Jun; 26(6): 715-23. PMID: 680028, PII: 0014-4835(78)90106-9, ISSN: 0014-4835.

Casagrande VA, Guillery RW, Harting JK. Differential effects of monocular deprivation seen in different layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. J. Comp. Neurol. 1978 Jun 6/1/1978; 179(3): 469-85. PMID: 417098, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901790302, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Norton TT, Casagrande VA, Sherman SM. Loss of Y-cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of monocularly deprived tree shrews. Science. 1977 Aug 8/19/1977; 197(4305): 784-6. PMID: 887922, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Guillery RW, Casagrande VA. Studies of the modifiability of the visual pathways in Midwestern Siamese cats. J. Comp. Neurol. 1977 Jul 7/1/1977; 174(1): 15-46. PMID: 864032, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901740103, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Weber JT, Casagrande VA, Harting JK. Transneuronal transport of [3H]proline within the visual system of the grey squirrel. Brain Res. 1977 Jul 7/1/1977; 129(2): 346-52. PMID: 69471, PII: 0006-8993(77)90014-2, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Sherman SM, Norton TT, Casagrande VA. Myopia in the lid-sutured tree shrew (Tupaia glis). Brain Res. 1977 Mar 3/18/1977; 124(1): 154-7. PMID: 843938, PII: 0006-8993(77)90872-1, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Kaas JH, Lin CS, Casagrande VA. The relay of ipsilateral and contralateral retinal input from the lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex in the owl monkey: a transneuronal transport study. Brain Res. 1976 Apr 4/23/1976; 106(2): 371-8. PMID: 819094, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Raczkowski D, Casagrande VA, Diamond IT. Visual neglect in the tree shrew after interruption of the descending projections of the deep superior colliculus. Exp. Neurol. 1976 Jan; 50(1): 14-29. PMID: 1248536, PII: 0014-4886(76)90231-4, ISSN: 0014-4886.

Guillery RW, Casagrande VA. Adaptive synaptic connections formed in the visual pathways in response to congenitally aberrant inputs. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 1976; 40: 611-7. PMID: 1065545, ISSN: 0091-7451.

Casagrande VA, Harting JK. Transneuronal transport of tritiated fucose and proline in the visual pathways of tree shrew Tupaia glis. Brain Res. 1975 Oct 10/17/1975; 96(2): 367-72. PMID: 809113, PII: 0006-8993(75)90749-0, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Sherman SM, Norton TT, Casagrande VA. X- and Y-cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis). Brain Res. 1975 Jul 7/25/1975; 93(1): 152-7. PMID: 806329, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Casagrande VA. Dual function of the tectum in the tree shrew (Tupaia glis). Neurosci Res Program Bull. 1975 May; 13(2): 251-3. PMID: 808755, ISSN: 0028-3967.

Guillery RW, Casagrande VA, Oberdorfer MD. Congenitally abnormal vision in Siamese cats. Nature. 1974 Nov 11/15/1974; 252(5480): 195-9. PMID: 4419708, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Casagrande VA, Diamond IT. Ablation study of the superior colliculus in the tree shrew (Tupaia glis). J. Comp. Neurol. 1974 Jul; 156(2): 207-37. PMID: 4424699, DOI: 10.1002/cne.901560206, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Ware CB, Diamond IT, Casagrande VA. Effects of ablating the striate cortex on a successive pattern discrimination:further study of the visual system in the tree shrew (Tupaia glis). Brain Behav. Evol. 1974; 9(4): 264-79. PMID: 4218798, ISSN: 0006-8977.

Casagrande VA, Harting JK, Hall WC, Diamond IT, Martin GF. Superior colliculus of the tree shrew: a structural and functional subdivision into superficial and deep layers. Science. 1972 Aug 8/4/1972; 177(4047): 444-7. PMID: 5043147, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Ware CB, Casagrande VA, Diamond IT. Does the acuity of the tree shrew suffer from removal of striate cortex? A commentary on the paper by ward and Masterton. Brain Behav. Evol. 1972; 5(1): 18-29. PMID: 5072746, ISSN: 0006-8977.