Laurence J. Zwiebel, Ph.D.

Professor

l.zwiebel@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Biological Sciences Cornelius Vanderbilt Chair in Biological SciencesProfessor of Pharmacology
Education
Ph.D., Cell Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MassachusettsM.S., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MichiganB.S., Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York
Office Address
6260 Medical Research Building III
465 21st Ave. South
Nashville, KY 37235
Research Description
The major focus of the laboratory is the characterization of specific genes and their products that control important behavioral processes in the life cycle of eusocial insects and mosquitoes that act as vectors for human disease.

One focus is on host (i.e. blood-meal source) seeking/selection in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae which is the principal vector for malaria in Africa. Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium that is transmitted to humans through blood feeding by female Anopheline mosquitoes. In this context, we are examining the molecular events of olfaction as this sense predominates the overall host preference behaviors in mosquitoes and other insects. This aspect of the mosquito's behavior is especially important as it makes a significant contribution to the vectorial capacity of this arthropod vector, as well as playing a similar role in the overall impact of many other insects of economic importance.

The proteins that carry out olfactory signal transduction are present on the inside surface of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) dendritic membranes that in insects are located in hair like structures called sensilla. Signal transduction is initiated when odorants (either alone or in complexes with Odorant Binding Proteins) bind to members of seven transmembrane containing odorant receptors (ORs). Originally thought to be G-protein coupled, insect ORs are now almost universally recognized to be novel signaling complexes that combine ligand specificity subunit (conventional ORs) with a widely- expressed, non-conventional OR subunit that most probably acts as a direct ionotropic channel on ORN dendrites- in fruitflies this OR is known as 83b (in light of its position on polytene chromosomes) while in mosquitoes this common component is called OR7. Recent studies in Drosophila (Benton et. al. 2009) have also pointed to the existence of a novel class of chemosensory receptors known as ionotropic receptors (IRs) that have homology to insect glutamate receptors. Current efforts are focused on understanding how ORs, IRs, OBPs and other components of this pathway mediate olfactory signal transduction in anopheline mosquitoes.


We use molecular and informatics based approaches to identify genes that are active in olfactory signal transduction in An. gambiae and other disease vector mosquitoes. The molecular characterization of genes which mediate olfaction in this Anopheline mosquito has started with the generation of cDNA libraries specifically derived from olfactory (i.e. the antennal and maxillary palps) and neural (heads that have been stripped of antennal and maxillary palps) structures of female adult mosquitoes. These hand-dissected structures have been used as substrate for the synthesis of subtracted cDNA libraries using novel PCR based methods that are specifically designed to facilitate the use of picogram amounts of mRNA starting material. More recently we have focused on genomics based approaches that include genome mining and deep sequencing of olfactory transcriptomes that has thus resulted in the isolation of several olfactory genes from An. gambiae that are currently being characterized at the molecular and cellular levels.

Much of the lab's focus is on the molecular, biochemical and functional characterization of ORs An. gambiae (AgORs). Over the years "Team AgOR" has gone from the original characterization of AgORs insofar as their DNA sequence and organization to detailed in vivo expression studies. We have extended this study to include the use of ex vivo expression systems, electrophysiology, cell culture and transgenic insect systems (e.g.Drosophila) in order to study the functional characteristics of AgORs from specific senory appendages to whole genome wide approaches (see publication list).

A long-term objective of our work is the molecular characterization of the olfactory genes in general as well as the mechanisms that which are central in the marked
Research Keywords
The comprehensive study of olfaction and olfactory-based behaviors in malaria and other disease vector mosquitoes
Publications
Turner RM, Derryberry SL, Kumar BN, Brittain T, Zwiebel LJ, Newcomb RD, Christie DL. Mutational analysis of cysteine residues of the insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) from Drosophila melanogaster reveals differential effects on agonist- and odorant-tuning receptor-dependent activation. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov 11/14/2014; 289(46): 31837-45. PMID: 25271160, PMCID: PMC4231661, PII: M114.603993, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603993, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Hughes DT, Wang G, Zwiebel LJ, Luetje CW. A determinant of odorant specificity is located at the extracellular loop 2-transmembrane domain 4 interface of an Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor subunit. Chem. Senses [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 39(9): 761-9. PMID: 25270378, PMCID: PMC4201304, PII: bju048, DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bju048, ISSN: 1464-3553.

Romaine IM, Taylor RW, Saidu SP, Kim K, Sulikowski GA, Zwiebel LJ, Waterson AG. Narrow SAR in odorant sensing Orco receptor agonists. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun 6/15/2014; 24(12): 2613-6. PMID: 24813736, PMCID: PMC4111141, PII: S0960-894X(14)00438-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.04.081, ISSN: 1464-3405.

Pitts RJ, Liu C, Zhou X, Malpartida JC, Zwiebel LJ. Odorant receptor-mediated sperm activation in disease vector mosquitoes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb 2/18/2014; 111(7): 2566-71. PMID: 24550284, PMCID: PMC3932880, PII: 1322923111, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1322923111, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Rinker DC, Pitts RJ, Zhou X, Suh E, Rokas A, Zwiebel LJ. Blood meal-induced changes to antennal transcriptome profiles reveal shifts in odor sensitivities in Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2013 May 5/14/2013; 110(20): 8260-5. PMID: 23630291, PMCID: PMC3657813, PII: 1302562110, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1302562110, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Pask GM, Bobkov YV, Corey EA, Ache BW, Zwiebel LJ. Blockade of insect odorant receptor currents by amiloride derivatives. Chem. Senses [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar; 38(3): 221-9. PMID: 23292750, PMCID: PMC3569625, PII: bjs100, DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjs100, ISSN: 1464-3553.

Pask GM, Romaine IM, Zwiebel LJ. The molecular receptive range of a lactone receptor in Anopheles gambiae. Chem. Senses [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 38(1): 19-25. PMID: 22944613, PMCID: PMC3522515, PII: bjs074, DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjs074, ISSN: 1464-3553.

Rinker DC, Zhou X, Pitts RJ, , Rokas A, Zwiebel LJ. Antennal transcriptome profiles of anopheline mosquitoes reveal human host olfactory specialization in Anopheles gambiae. BMC Genomics. 2013; 14: 749. PMID: 24182346, PMCID: PMC3833343, PII: 1471-2164-14-749, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-749, ISSN: 1471-2164.

Liu C, Zwiebel LJ. Molecular characterization of larval peripheral thermosensory responses of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. PLoS ONE [electronic-print]. 2013; 8(8): e72595. PMID: 23940815, PMCID: PMC3737131, PII: PONE-D-13-23760, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072595, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Taylor RW, Romaine IM, Liu C, Murthi P, Jones PL, Waterson AG, Sulikowski GA, Zwiebel LJ. Structure-activity relationship of a broad-spectrum insect odorant receptor agonist. ACS Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2012 Oct 10/19/2012; 7(10): 1647-52. PMID: 22924767, DOI: 10.1021/cb300331z, ISSN: 1554-8937.

Jones PL, Pask GM, Romaine IM, Taylor RW, Reid PR, Waterson AG, Sulikowski GA, Zwiebel LJ. Allosteric antagonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(1): e30304. PMID: 22272331, PMCID: PMC3260273, PII: PONE-D-11-19400, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030304, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Zhou X, Slone JD, Rokas A, Berger SL, Liebig J, Ray A, Reinberg D, Zwiebel LJ. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analysis of chemosensory receptors in a pair of divergent ant species reveals sex-specific signatures of odor coding. PLoS Genet [print-electronic]. 2012; 8(8): e1002930. PMID: 22952454, PMCID: PMC3431598, PII: PGENETICS-D-12-00741, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002930, ISSN: 1553-7404.

Jones PL, Pask GM, Rinker DC, Zwiebel LJ. Functional agonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2011 May 5/24/2011; 108(21): 8821-5. PMID: 21555561, PMCID: PMC3102409, PII: 1102425108, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1102425108, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Pitts RJ, Rinker DC, Jones PL, Rokas A, Zwiebel LJ. Transcriptome profiling of chemosensory appendages in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae reveals tissue- and sex-specific signatures of odor coding. BMC Genomics. 2011; 12: 271. PMID: 21619637, PMCID: PMC3126782, PII: 1471-2164-12-271, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-271, ISSN: 1471-2164.

Bohbot JD, Jones PL, Wang G, Pitts RJ, Pask GM, Zwiebel LJ. Conservation of indole responsive odorant receptors in mosquitoes reveals an ancient olfactory trait. Chem. Senses [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 36(2): 149-60. PMID: 20956733, PMCID: PMC3020388, PII: bjq105, DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjq105, ISSN: 1464-3553.

Pask GM, Jones PL, Rützler M, Rinker DC, Zwiebel LJ. Heteromeric Anopheline odorant receptors exhibit distinct channel properties. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2011; 6(12): e28774. PMID: 22174894, PMCID: PMC3235152, PII: PONE-D-11-18890, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028774, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Carey AF, Wang G, Su CY, Zwiebel LJ, Carlson JR. Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Nature [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar 3/4/2010; 464(7285): 66-71. PMID: 20130575, PMCID: PMC2833235, PII: nature08834, DOI: 10.1038/nature08834, ISSN: 1476-4687.

Wang G, Carey AF, Carlson JR, Zwiebel LJ. Molecular basis of odor coding in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar 3/2/2010; 107(9): 4418-23. PMID: 20160092, PMCID: PMC2840125, PII: 0913392107, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0913392107, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Liu C, Pitts RJ, Bohbot JD, Jones PL, Wang G, Zwiebel LJ. Distinct olfactory signaling mechanisms in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. PLoS Biol. 2010; 8(8): PMID: 20824161, PMCID: PMC2930861, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000467, ISSN: 1545-7885.

Wang G, Qiu YT, Lu T, Kwon HW, Pitts RJ, Van Loon JJ, Takken W, Zwiebel LJ. Anopheles gambiae TRPA1 is a heat-activated channel expressed in thermosensitive sensilla of female antennae. Eur. J. Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 30(6): 967-74. PMID: 19735290, PMCID: PMC3106298, PII: EJN6901, DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06901.x, ISSN: 1460-9568.

Xia Y, Wang G, Buscariollo D, Pitts RJ, Wenger H, Zwiebel LJ. The molecular and cellular basis of olfactory-driven behavior in Anopheles gambiae larvae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2008 Apr 4/29/2008; 105(17): 6433-8. PMID: 18427108, PMCID: PMC2359781, PII: 0801007105, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0801007105, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Walker WB, Smith EM, Jan T, Zwiebel LJ. A functional role for Anopheles gambiae Arrestin1 in olfactory signal transduction. J. Insect Physiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Apr; 54(4): 680-90. PMID: 18328499, PMCID: PMC2408752, PII: S0022-1910(08)00022-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2008.01.007, ISSN: 0022-1910.

Bohbot J, Pitts RJ, Kwon HW, Rützler M, Robertson HM, Zwiebel LJ. Molecular characterization of the Aedes aegypti odorant receptor gene family. Insect Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 Oct; 16(5): 525-37. PMID: 17635615, PMCID: PMC3100214, PII: IMB748, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2007.00748.x, ISSN: 0962-1075.

Lu T, Qiu YT, Wang G, Kwon JY, Rutzler M, Kwon HW, Pitts RJ, van Loon JJ, Takken W, Carlson JR, Zwiebel LJ. Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Curr. Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep 9/18/2007; 17(18): 1533-44. PMID: 17764944, PMCID: PMC3113458, PII: S0960-9822(07)01780-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.07.062, ISSN: 0960-9822.

Rützler M, Lu T, Zwiebel LJ. Galpha encoding gene family of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae: expression analysis and immunolocalization of AGalphaq and AGalphao in female antennae. J. Comp. Neurol. 2006 Dec 12/1/2006; 499(4): 533-45. PMID: 17029251, PMCID: PMC3113460, DOI: 10.1002/cne.21083, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Kwon HW, Lu T, Rützler M, Zwiebel LJ. Olfactory responses in a gustatory organ of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2006 Sep 9/5/2006; 103(36): 13526-31. PMID: 16938890, PMCID: PMC1569196, PII: 0601107103, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0601107103, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Xia Y, Zwiebel LJ. Identification and characterization of an odorant receptor from the West Nile virus mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar; 36(3): 169-76. PMID: 16503478, PMCID: PMC3100213, PII: S0965-1748(05)00225-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2005.12.003, ISSN: 0965-1748.

Pitts RJ, Zwiebel LJ. Antennal sensilla of two female anopheline sibling species with differing host ranges. Malar. J. 2006; 5: 26. PMID: 16573828, PMCID: PMC1532926, PII: 1475-2875-5-26, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-26, ISSN: 1475-2875.

Rützler M, Zwiebel LJ. Molecular biology of insect olfaction: recent progress and conceptual models. J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural. Behav. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2005 Sep; 191(9): 777-90. PMID: 16094545, DOI: 10.1007/s00359-005-0044-y, ISSN: 0340-7594.

Merrill CE, Sherertz TM, Walker WB, Zwiebel LJ. Odorant-specific requirements for arrestin function in Drosophila olfaction. J. Neurobiol. 2005 Apr; 63(1): 15-28. PMID: 15627264, DOI: 10.1002/neu.20113, ISSN: 0022-3034.

Zwiebel LJ, Takken W. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2004 Jul; 34(7): 645-52. PMID: 15242705, PMCID: PMC3100215, PII: S0965174804000682, DOI: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2004.03.017, ISSN: 0965-1748.

Melo AC, Rützler M, Pitts RJ, Zwiebel LJ. Identification of a chemosensory receptor from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, that is highly conserved and expressed in olfactory and gustatory organs. Chem. Senses. 2004 Jun; 29(5): 403-10. PMID: 15201207, PII: 29/5/403, DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjh041, ISSN: 0379-864X.

Pitts RJ, Fox AN, Zwiebel LJ. A highly conserved candidate chemoreceptor expressed in both olfactory and gustatory tissues in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2004 Apr 4/6/2004; 101(14): 5058-63. PMID: 15037749, PMCID: PMC387373, PII: 0308146101, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0308146101, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Hallem EA, Nicole Fox A, Zwiebel LJ, Carlson JR. Olfaction: mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant. Nature. 2004 Jan 1/15/2004; 427(6971): 212-3. PMID: 14724626, PII: 427212a, DOI: 10.1038/427212a, ISSN: 1476-4687.

Merrill CE, Pitts RJ, Zwiebel LJ. Molecular characterization of arrestin family members in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 2003 Dec; 12(6): 641-50. PMID: 14986925, ISSN: 0962-1075.

Xu PX, Zwiebel LJ, Smith DP. Identification of a distinct family of genes encoding atypical odorant-binding proteins in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 2003 Dec; 12(6): 549-60. PMID: 14986916, ISSN: 0962-1075.

Hill CA, Fox AN, Pitts RJ, Kent LB, Tan PL, Chrystal MA, Cravchik A, Collins FH, Robertson HM, Zwiebel LJ. G protein-coupled receptors in Anopheles gambiae. Science. 2002 Oct 10/4/2002; 298(5591): 176-8. PMID: 12364795, PII: 298/5591/176, DOI: 10.1126/science.1076196, ISSN: 1095-9203.

Fox AN, Pitts RJ, Zwiebel LJ. A cluster of candidate odorant receptors from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Chem. Senses. 2002 Jun; 27(5): 453-9. PMID: 12052782, ISSN: 0379-864X.

Merrill CE, Riesgo-Escovar J, Pitts RJ, Kafatos FC, Carlson JR, Zwiebel LJ. Visual arrestins in olfactory pathways of Drosophila and the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2002 Feb 2/5/2002; 99(3): 1633-8. PMID: 11792843, PMCID: PMC122242, PII: 022505499, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.022505499, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Fox AN, Pitts RJ, Robertson HM, Carlson JR, Zwiebel LJ. Candidate odorant receptors from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae and evidence of down-regulation in response to blood feeding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2001 Dec 12/4/2001; 98(25): 14693-7. PMID: 11724964, PMCID: PMC64743, PII: 261432998, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.261432998, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Pitts RJ, Zwiebel LJ. Isolation and characterization of the Xanthine dehydrogenase gene of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Genetics. 2001 Aug; 158(4): 1645-55. PMID: 11514452, PMCID: PMC1461762, ISSN: 0016-6731.

Gomulski LM, Pitts RJ, Costa S, Saccone G, Torti C, Polito LC, Gasperi G, Malacrida AR, Kafatos FC, Zwiebel LJ. Genomic organization and characterization of the white locus of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata. Genetics. 2001 Mar; 157(3): 1245-55. PMID: 11238408, PMCID: PMC1461546, ISSN: 0016-6731.

Zwiebel LJ, Saccone G, Zacharopoulou A, Besansky NJ, Favia G, Collins FH, Louis C, Kafatos FC. The white gene of Ceratitis capitata: a phenotypic marker for germline transformation. Science. 1995 Dec 12/22/1995; 270(5244): 2005-8. PMID: 8533095, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Edery I, Zwiebel LJ, Dembinska ME, Rosbash M. Temporal phosphorylation of the Drosophila period protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994 Mar 3/15/1994; 91(6): 2260-4. PMID: 8134384, PMCID: PMC43350, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Liu X, Zwiebel LJ, Hinton D, Benzer S, Hall JC, Rosbash M. The period gene encodes a predominantly nuclear protein in adult Drosophila. J. Neurosci. 1992 Jul; 12(7): 2735-44. PMID: 1613555, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Liu X, Yu QA, Huang ZS, Zwiebel LJ, Hall JC, Rosbash M. The strength and periodicity of D. melanogaster circadian rhythms are differentially affected by alterations in period gene expression. Neuron. 1991 May; 6(5): 753-66. PMID: 1902699, PII: 0896-6273(91)90172-V, ISSN: 0896-6273.

Zwiebel LJ, Hardin PE, Liu X, Hall JC, Rosbash M. A post-transcriptional mechanism contributes to circadian cycling of a per-beta-galactosidase fusion protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991 May 5/1/1991; 88(9): 3882-6. PMID: 1902573, PMCID: PMC51557, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Zwiebel LJ, Hardin PE, Hall JC, Rosbash M. Circadian oscillations in protein and mRNA levels of the period gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1991 Apr; 19(2): 533-7. PMID: 1909668, ISSN: 0300-5127.

Hamblen-Coyle M, Konopka RJ, Zwiebel LJ, Colot HV, Dowse HB, Rosbash M, Hall JC. A new mutation at the period locus of Drosophila melanogaster with some novel effects on circadian rhythms. J. Neurogenet. 1989 Aug; 5(4): 229-56. PMID: 2509652, ISSN: 0167-7063.

Hamblen M, Zehring WA, Kyriacou CP, Reddy P, Yu Q, Wheeler DA, Zwiebel LJ, Konopka RJ, Rosbash M, Hall JC. Germ-line transformation involving DNA from the period locus in Drosophila melanogaster: overlapping genomic fragments that restore circadian and ultradian rhythmicity to per0 and per- mutants. J. Neurogenet. 1986 Sep; 3(5): 249-91. PMID: 3097289, ISSN: 0167-7063.

Zwiebel LJ, Cohn VH, Wright DR, Moore GP. Evolution of single-copy DNA and the ADH gene in seven drosophilids. J. Mol. Evol. 1982; 19(1): 62-71. PMID: 6761443, ISSN: 0022-2844.

Zwiebel LJ, Inukai M, Nakamura K, Inouye M. Preferential selection of deletion mutations of the outer membrane lipoprotein gene of Escherichia coli by globomycin. J. Bacteriol. 1981 Jan; 145(1): 654-6. PMID: 7007330, PMCID: PMC217321, ISSN: 0021-9193.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Vector Chemosensory Neurobiology & Behavior Post-Doctoral Position Available at Vanderbilt University. An NIH-funded post-doctoral position is available in the Departments of Biological Sciences and Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University. We study mosquito olfaction and its role in modulating and mosquito-host interactions from an molecular neuroscience perspective using diverse approaches and methodologies. We are focused on the role of odorant receptors and other molecular elements of the peripheral sensory apparatus in driving host and oviposition preferences in both Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti. We are looking for a highly motivated, independently-thinking individual, who wants to design and conduct laboratory studies on the peripheral sensory system of disease vectors. A Ph.D. in molecular neuroscience, entomology, behavior, molecular genetics, or related field and at least one first-author publication are required. Experience in chemosensory biology, molecular biology, behavior, and statistical analysis is desirable. No more than 5 years since completion of Ph.D. degree. To apply, please send CV, statement of research interests, reprints of recent papers, and names of three references to LJ Zwiebel (E-mail: l.zwiebel@vanderbilt.edu ) by August 15, 2010. Additional information can be found in: http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/zwiebel/