Walter J. Chazin, Ph.D.

Professor

walter.j.chazin@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Biochemistry Chancellor's Chair in MedicineChancellor's Chair in Medicine
Education
Ph.D., Physical Organic Chemistry, Concordia University, Montreal, CanadaB.S., Chemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Office Address
5140 BIOSCI/MRBIII
Vanderbilt University Center for Structural Biology
465 21st Avenue South
Nashville, TN 37232-8725
Research Description
Research in my laboratory uses a multi-disciplinary, collaborative and structurally-oriented approach to address key problems in biology and medicine. At the molecular level, we study the structure and dynamics of proteins and their complexes with other proteins, nucleic acids and small molecule ligands. My independent career began as a biomolecular NMR spectroscopist, but has evolved to a point where I could be categorized as a structural biochemist. At the technical level, we now make use of many structural and biophysical techniques, including calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, X-ray/neutron scattering, cryo electron microscopy and computation. These studies are integrated with in vitro and cell-based biochemistry, in our own lab and by numerous collaborators at our institution, around the country and across the world. The following sections outline our three research programs.

I. The Structural Basis for Function of DNA Processing Machinery
One of the great scientific challenges today is to understand how proteins act together to perform the major processes in a cell such as DNA replication, all of which involve a sequence of multiple biochemical steps. Much of our work has revolved around human Replication Protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, which is essential for most DNA transactions in all cells. RPA is structurally very complex with three subunits containing eight different domains. It functions by constantly adjusting its binding of ssDNA and other proteins through structural changes within its domains as well as by altering the organization of its domains.

Our work has helped delineate the way in which RPA helps to orchestrate the intricate dance of proteins that is required to replicate DNA, respond when DNA is damaged, and repair the damage. Important insights have been obtained by identifying, and structurally characterizing, the interactions of RPA with specific proteins required for each of these processes. Recently, we have focused on the rearrangements in the global architecture of RPA, the mechanisms of binding and unbinding DNA, and how the binding of protein partners alter the landscape. As we have progressed, there has been an increasing need to determine structures of RPA binding partners. Current efforts center on human DNA primase, XPA and XPC. Together, these studies are laying the foundation to determine how mutations in the DNA processing proteins cause defects that lead to cancer and other diseases. Moreover, we are well invested into exploring translation of this knowledge into potential therapeutics by using fragment-based inhibitor discovery targeted to suppressing RPA-mediated recruitment of proteins to sites of DNA damage.

II. Structure and Function of U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligases.
Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a target protein serves as a cellular signal. For example, poly-ubiquitination of a target typically signals for degradation in the proteasome. Defects in this process are associated with cancer, for example a target can become overabundant if it is not degraded at a sufficient rate. The process of attaching ubquitin to a substrate protein involves a dynamic multi-protein machine comprised of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes. Our laboratory was the first to experimentally determine the structure of the U-box class of E3 ligases. Our studies of U-box proteins have focused on the mechanism of activation of the E2~ubiquitin conjugates, understanding how target proteins are recognized, and what factors control the type of ubiquitin chain attached. We are also investigating how the U-box E3 CHIP differentially regulates targets in the cell stress response.

III. Ca2+ Signal Transduction by EF-hand Proteins
Change in levels of calcium inside a cell is a common means for regulating biochemical signaling cascades and stimulating biomechanical actions. EF-hand calcium binding proteins play a central role in virt
Research Keywords
Structural Cell Biology: DNA replication, damage response and repair; ubiquitination; calcium signal transduction.
Publications
Frazier MN, Davies AK, Voehler M, Kendall AK, Borner GH, Chazin WJ, Robinson MS, Jackson LP. Molecular basis for the interaction between Adaptor Protein Complex 4 (AP4) ß4 and its accessory protein, tepsin. Traffic [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/12/2016; PMID: 26756312, DOI: 10.1111/tra.12375, ISSN: 1600-0854.

Patrone JD, Pelz NF, Bates BS, Souza-Fagundes EM, Vangamudi B, Camper DV, Kuznetsov AG, Browning CF, Feldkamp MD, Frank AO, Gilston BA, Olejniczak ET, Rossanese OW, Waterson AG, Chazin WJ, Fesik SW. Identification and Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Based Inhibitors of Replication Protein A. ChemMedChem [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/8/2016; PMID: 26748787, DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201500479, ISSN: 1860-7187.

Clark HL, Jhingran A, Sun Y, Vareechon C, de Jesus Carrion S, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ, Calera JA, Hohl TM, Pearlman E. Zinc and Manganese Chelation by Neutrophil S100A8/A9 (Calprotectin) Limits Extracellular Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphal Growth and Corneal Infection. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/1/2016; 196(1): 336-44. PMID: 26582948, PMCID: PMC4684987, PII: jimmunol.1502037, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1502037, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Søndergaard MT, Tian X, Liu Y, Wang R, Chazin WJ, Chen SR, Overgaard MT. Arrhythmogenic Calmodulin Mutations Affect the Activation and Termination of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor-mediated Ca2+ Release. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/23/2015; 290(43): 26151-62. PMID: 26309258, PMCID: PMC4646266, PII: M115.676627, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.676627, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Zackular JP, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Nutritional Immunity: S100 Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/31/2015; 290(31): 18991-8. PMID: 26055713, PMCID: PMC4521021, PII: R115.645085, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.R115.645085, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Zhao W, Vaithiyalingam S, San Filippo J, Maranon DG, Jimenez-Sainz J, Fontenay GV, Kwon Y, Leung SG, Lu L, Jensen RB, Chazin WJ, Wiese C, Sung P. Promotion of BRCA2-Dependent Homologous Recombination by DSS1 via RPA Targeting and DNA Mimicry. Mol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/16/2015; 59(2): 176-87. PMID: 26145171, PMCID: PMC4506714, PII: S1097-2765(15)00399-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.05.032, ISSN: 1097-4164.

Cho H, Jeong DW, Liu Q, Yeo WS, Vogl T, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ, Bae T. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jul; 11(7): e1005026. PMID: 26147796, PMCID: PMC4492782, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-14-02960, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005026, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Brosey CA, Soss SE, Brooks S, Yan C, Ivanov I, Dorai K, Chazin WJ. Functional dynamics in replication protein A DNA binding and protein recruitment domains. Structure [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun 6/2/2015; 23(6): 1028-38. PMID: 26004442, PMCID: PMC4456234, PII: S0969-2126(15)00137-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2015.04.008, ISSN: 1878-4186.

Sugitani N, Chazin WJ. Characteristics and concepts of dynamic hub proteins in DNA processing machinery from studies of RPA. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2015 Mar; 117(2-3): 206-11. PMID: 25542993, PMCID: PMC4417437, PII: S0079-6107(14)00186-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2014.12.001, ISSN: 1873-1732.

Waterson AG, Kennedy JP, Patrone JD, Pelz NF, Feldkamp MD, Frank AO, Vangamudi B, Souza-Fagundes EM, Rossanese OW, Chazin WJ, Fesik SW. Diphenylpyrazoles as replication protein a inhibitors. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2015 Feb 2/12/2015; 6(2): 140-5. PMID: 25699140, PMCID: PMC4329576, DOI: 10.1021/ml5003629, ISSN: 1948-5875.

Chen J, Le S, Basu A, Chazin WJ, Yan J. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 9296. PMID: 25787788, PMCID: PMC4365408, PII: srep09296, DOI: 10.1038/srep09296, ISSN: 2045-2322.

Shuck SC, Wauchope OR, Rose KL, Kingsley PJ, Rouzer CA, Shell SM, Sugitani N, Chazin WJ, Zagol-Ikapitte I, Boutaud O, Oates JA, Galligan JJ, Beavers WN, Marnett LJ. Protein modification by adenine propenal. Chem. Res. Toxicol [print-electronic]. 2014 Oct 10/20/2014; 27(10): 1732-42. PMID: 25211669, PMCID: PMC4203390, DOI: 10.1021/tx500218g, ISSN: 1520-5010.

Gaddy JA, Radin JN, Loh JT, Piazuelo MB, Kehl-Fie TE, Delgado AG, Ilca FT, Peek RM, Cover TL, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Scott Algood HM. The host protein calprotectin modulates the Helicobacter pylori cag type IV secretion system via zinc sequestration. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct; 10(10): e1004450. PMID: 25330071, PMCID: PMC4199781, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-14-01130, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004450, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Sugitani N, Shell SM, Soss SE, Chazin WJ. Redefining the DNA-binding domain of human XPA. J. Am. Chem. Soc [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug 8/6/2014; 136(31): 10830-3. PMID: 25056193, PMCID: PMC4132956, DOI: 10.1021/ja503020f, ISSN: 1520-5126.

Makita N, Yagihara N, Crotti L, Johnson CN, Beckmann BM, Roh MS, Shigemizu D, Lichtner P, Ishikawa T, Aiba T, Homfray T, Behr ER, Klug D, Denjoy I, Mastantuono E, Theisen D, Tsunoda T, Satake W, Toda T, Nakagawa H, Tsuji Y, Tsuchiya T, Yamamoto H, Miyamoto Y, Endo N, Kimura A, Ozaki K, Motomura H, Suda K, Tanaka T, Schwartz PJ, Meitinger T, Kääb S, Guicheney P, Shimizu W, Bhuiyan ZA, Watanabe H, Chazin WJ, George AL. Novel calmodulin mutations associated with congenital arrhythmia susceptibility. Circ Cardiovasc Genet [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 7(4): 466-74. PMID: 24917665, PMCID: PMC4140998, PII: CIRCGENETICS.113.000459, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.113.000459, ISSN: 1942-3268.

Mortensen BL, Rathi S, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Acinetobacter baumannii response to host-mediated zinc limitation requires the transcriptional regulator Zur. J. Bacteriol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul; 196(14): 2616-26. PMID: 24816603, PMCID: PMC4097591, PII: JB.01650-14, DOI: 10.1128/JB.01650-14, ISSN: 1098-5530.

Feldkamp MD, Mason AC, Eichman BF, Chazin WJ. Structural analysis of replication protein A recruitment of the DNA damage response protein SMARCAL1. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2014 May 5/13/2014; 53(18): 3052-61. PMID: 24730652, PMCID: PMC4020579, DOI: 10.1021/bi500252w, ISSN: 1520-4995.

Hwang HS, Nitu FR, Yang Y, Walweel K, Pereira L, Johnson CN, Faggioni M, Chazin WJ, Laver D, George AL, Cornea RL, Bers DM, Knollmann BC. Divergent regulation of ryanodine receptor 2 calcium release channels by arrhythmogenic human calmodulin missense mutants. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar 3/28/2014; 114(7): 1114-24. PMID: 24563457, PMCID: PMC3990285, PII: CIRCRESAHA.114.303391, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.303391, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Frank AO, Vangamudi B, Feldkamp MD, Souza-Fagundes EM, Luzwick JW, Cortez D, Olejniczak ET, Waterson AG, Rossanese OW, Chazin WJ, Fesik SW. Discovery of a potent stapled helix peptide that binds to the 70N domain of replication protein A. J. Med. Chem [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar 3/27/2014; 57(6): 2455-61. PMID: 24491171, PMCID: PMC3969094, DOI: 10.1021/jm401730y, ISSN: 1520-4804.

Vaithiyalingam S, Arnett DR, Aggarwal A, Eichman BF, Fanning E, Chazin WJ. Insights into eukaryotic primer synthesis from structures of the p48 subunit of human DNA primase. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb 2/6/2014; 426(3): 558-69. PMID: 24239947, PMCID: PMC3946992, PII: S0022-2836(13)00718-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.11.007, ISSN: 1089-8638.

Chazin Ede L, Reis Rda R, Junior WT, Moor LF, Vasconcelos TR. An overview on the development of new potentially active camptothecin analogs against cancer. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2014; 14(12): 953-62. PMID: 25355593, PII: MRMC-EPUB-63141, ISSN: 1875-5607.

Frank AO, Feldkamp MD, Kennedy JP, Waterson AG, Pelz NF, Patrone JD, Vangamudi B, Camper DV, Rossanese OW, Chazin WJ, Fesik SW. Discovery of a potent inhibitor of replication protein a protein-protein interactions using a fragment-linking approach. J. Med. Chem [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov 11/27/2013; 56(22): 9242-50. PMID: 24147804, PMCID: PMC3932990, DOI: 10.1021/jm401333u, ISSN: 1520-4804.

Shell SM, Hawkins EK, Tsai MS, Hlaing AS, Rizzo CJ, Chazin WJ. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC) serves as a general sensor of damaged DNA. DNA Repair (Amst.) [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 12(11): 947-53. PMID: 24051049, PMCID: PMC3825762, PII: S1568-7864(13)00218-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2013.08.013, ISSN: 1568-7856.

Stork M, Grijpstra J, Bos MP, Mañas Torres C, Devos N, Poolman JT, Chazin WJ, Tommassen J. Zinc piracy as a mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for evasion of nutritional immunity. PLoS Pathog [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 9(10): e1003733. PMID: 24204275, PMCID: PMC3814407, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-13-00785, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003733, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Feldkamp MD, Frank AO, Kennedy JP, Patrone JD, Vangamudi B, Waterson AG, Fesik SW, Chazin WJ. Surface reengineering of RPA70N enables cocrystallization with an inhibitor of the replication protein A interaction motif of ATR interacting protein. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep 9/17/2013; 52(37): 6515-24. PMID: 23962067, PMCID: PMC3804075, DOI: 10.1021/bi400542z, ISSN: 1520-4995.

Kehl-Fie TE, Zhang Y, Moore JL, Farrand AJ, Hood MI, Rathi S, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. MntABC and MntH contribute to systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection by competing with calprotectin for nutrient manganese. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 81(9): 3395-405. PMID: 23817615, PMCID: PMC3754211, PII: IAI.00420-13, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00420-13, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Xu D, Young JH, Krahn JM, Song D, Corbett KD, Chazin WJ, Pedersen LC, Esko JD. Stable RAGE-heparan sulfate complexes are essential for signal transduction. ACS Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul 7/19/2013; 8(7): 1611-20. PMID: 23679870, PMCID: PMC3806902, DOI: 10.1021/cb4001553, ISSN: 1554-8937.

Patrone JD, Kennedy JP, Frank AO, Feldkamp MD, Vangamudi B, Pelz NF, Rossanese OW, Waterson AG, Chazin WJ, Fesik SW. Discovery of Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors of Replication Protein A. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jul 7/11/2013; 4(7): 601-5. PMID: 23914285, PMCID: PMC3728914, DOI: 10.1021/ml400032y, ISSN: 1948-5875.

Soss SE, Klevit RE, Chazin WJ. Activation of UbcH5c~Ub is the result of a shift in interdomain motions of the conjugate bound to U-box E3 ligase E4B. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr 4/30/2013; 52(17): 2991-9. PMID: 23550736, PMCID: PMC3666176, DOI: 10.1021/bi3015949, ISSN: 1520-4995.

Damo SM, Kehl-Fie TE, Sugitani N, Holt ME, Rathi S, Murphy WJ, Zhang Y, Betz C, Hench L, Fritz G, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ. Molecular basis for manganese sequestration by calprotectin and roles in the innate immune response to invading bacterial pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar 3/5/2013; 110(10): 3841-6. PMID: 23431180, PMCID: PMC3593839, PII: 1220341110, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1220341110, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Crotti L, Johnson CN, Graf E, De Ferrari GM, Cuneo BF, Ovadia M, Papagiannis J, Feldkamp MD, Rathi SG, Kunic JD, Pedrazzini M, Wieland T, Lichtner P, Beckmann BM, Clark T, Shaffer C, Benson DW, Kääb S, Meitinger T, Strom TM, Chazin WJ, Schwartz PJ, George AL. Calmodulin mutations associated with recurrent cardiac arrest in infants. Circulation [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar 3/5/2013; 127(9): 1009-17. PMID: 23388215, PMCID: PMC3834768, PII: CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001216, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001216, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Brosey CA, Yan C, Tsutakawa SE, Heller WT, Rambo RP, Tainer JA, Ivanov I, Chazin WJ. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery. Nucleic Acids Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Feb 2/1/2013; 41(4): 2313-27. PMID: 23303776, PMCID: PMC3575853, PII: gks1332, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gks1332, ISSN: 1362-4962.

Wells CE, Bhaskara S, Stengel KR, Zhao Y, Sirbu B, Chagot B, Cortez D, Khabele D, Chazin WJ, Cooper A, Jacques V, Rusche J, Eischen CM, McGirt LY, Hiebert SW. Inhibition of histone deacetylase 3 causes replication stress in cutaneous T cell lymphoma. PLoS ONE [electronic-print]. 2013; 8(7): e68915. PMID: 23894374, PMCID: PMC3718806, PII: PONE-D-13-03947, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068915, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Damo SM, Feldkamp MD, Chagot B, Chazin WJ. NMR studies of the interaction of calmodulin with IQ motif peptides. Methods Mol. Biol. 2013; 963: 173-86. PMID: 23296611, PMCID: PMC4011660, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-230-8_11, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Hood MI, Mortensen BL, Moore JL, Zhang Y, Kehl-Fie TE, Sugitani N, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Identification of an Acinetobacter baumannii zinc acquisition system that facilitates resistance to calprotectin-mediated zinc sequestration. PLoS Pathog [print-electronic]. 2012; 8(12): e1003068. PMID: 23236280, PMCID: PMC3516566, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-12-01629, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003068, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Brosey CA, Tsutakawa SE, Chazin WJ. Sample preparation methods to analyze DNA-induced structural changes in replication protein A. Methods Mol. Biol. 2012; 922: 101-22. PMID: 22976179, PMCID: PMC3713622, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-032-8_6, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Soss SE, Yue Y, Dhe-Paganon S, Chazin WJ. E2 conjugating enzyme selectivity and requirements for function of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun 6/17/2011; 286(24): 21277-86. PMID: 21518764, PMCID: PMC3122187, PII: M111.224006, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.224006, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Chazin WJ. Relating form and function of EF-hand calcium binding proteins. Acc. Chem. Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar 3/15/2011; 44(3): 171-9. PMID: 21314091, PMCID: PMC3059389, DOI: 10.1021/ar100110d, ISSN: 1520-4898.

Chagot B, Chazin WJ. Solution NMR structure of Apo-calmodulin in complex with the IQ motif of human cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Feb 2/11/2011; 406(1): 106-19. PMID: 21167176, PMCID: PMC3030672, PII: S0022-2836(10)01276-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.11.046, ISSN: 1089-8638.

Vaithiyalingam S, Warren EM, Eichman BF, Chazin WJ. Insights into eukaryotic DNA priming from the structure and functional interactions of the 4Fe-4S cluster domain of human DNA primase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2010 Aug 8/3/2010; 107(31): 13684-9. PMID: 20643958, PMCID: PMC2922289, PII: 1002009107, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1002009107, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Vander Kooi CW, Ren L, Xu P, Ohi MD, Gould KL, Chazin WJ. The Prp19 WD40 domain contains a conserved protein interaction region essential for its function. Structure. 2010 May 5/12/2010; 18(5): 584-93. PMID: 20462492, PMCID: PMC2871033, PII: S0969-2126(10)00109-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2010.02.015, ISSN: 1878-4186.

Dimitrova YN, Li J, Lee YT, Rios-Esteves J, Friedman DB, Choi HJ, Weis WI, Wang CY, Chazin WJ. Direct ubiquitination of beta-catenin by Siah-1 and regulation by the exchange factor TBL1. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr 4/30/2010; 285(18): 13507-16. PMID: 20181957, PMCID: PMC2859511, PII: M109.049411, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.049411, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Pretto DI, Tsutakawa S, Brosey CA, Castillo A, Chagot ME, Smith JA, Tainer JA, Chazin WJ. Structural dynamics and single-stranded DNA binding activity of the three N-terminal domains of the large subunit of replication protein A from small angle X-ray scattering. Biochemistry. 2010 Apr 4/6/2010; 49(13): 2880-9. PMID: 20184389, PMCID: PMC2847624, DOI: 10.1021/bi9019934, ISSN: 1520-4995.

Brosey CA, Chagot ME, Ehrhardt M, Pretto DI, Weiner BE, Chazin WJ. NMR analysis of the architecture and functional remodeling of a modular multidomain protein, RPA. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009 May 5/13/2009; 131(18): 6346-7. PMID: 19378948, PMCID: PMC2711642, DOI: 10.1021/ja9013634, ISSN: 1520-5126.

Warren EM, Vaithiyalingam S, Haworth J, Greer B, Bielinsky AK, Chazin WJ, Eichman BF. Structural basis for DNA binding by replication initiator Mcm10. Structure. 2008 Dec 12/10/2008; 16(12): 1892-901. PMID: 19081065, PMCID: PMC2636851, PII: S0969-2126(08)00383-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2008.10.005, ISSN: 0969-2126.

Xu X, Vaithiyalingam S, Glick GG, Mordes DA, Chazin WJ, Cortez D. The basic cleft of RPA70N binds multiple checkpoint proteins, including RAD9, to regulate ATR signaling. Mol. Cell. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 28(24): 7345-53. PMID: 18936170, PMCID: PMC2593429, PII: MCB.01079-08, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.01079-08, ISSN: 1098-5549.

Corbin BD, Seeley EH, Raab A, Feldmann J, Miller MR, Torres VJ, Anderson KL, Dattilo BM, Dunman PM, Gerads R, Caprioli RM, Nacken W, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Metal chelation and inhibition of bacterial growth in tissue abscesses. Science. 2008 Feb 2/15/2008; 319(5865): 962-5. PMID: 18276893, PII: 319/5865/962, DOI: 10.1126/science.1152449, ISSN: 1095-9203.

Chazin WJ. Evolution of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative. Structure. 2008 Jan; 16(1): 12-4. PMID: 18184576, PII: S0969-2126(07)00422-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2007.11.002, ISSN: 0969-2126.

Weiner BE, Huang H, Dattilo BM, Nilges MJ, Fanning E, Chazin WJ. An iron-sulfur cluster in the C-terminal domain of the p58 subunit of human DNA primase. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov 11/16/2007; 282(46): 33444-51. PMID: 17893144, PII: M705826200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M705826200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Chazin WJ. The impact of X-ray crystallography and NMR on intracellular calcium signal transduction by EF-hand proteins: crossing the threshold from structure to biology and medicine. Sci. STKE. 2007 Jun 6/16/2007; 2007(388): pe27. PMID: 17536097, PII: stke.3882007pe27, DOI: 10.1126/stke.3882007pe27, ISSN: 1525-8882.

Dattilo BM, Fritz G, Leclerc E, Kooi CW, Heizmann CW, Chazin WJ. The extracellular region of the receptor for advanced glycation end products is composed of two independent structural units. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2007 Jun 6/12/2007; 46(23): 6957-70. PMID: 17508727, PMCID: PMC2527459, DOI: 10.1021/bi7003735, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Ball HL, Ehrhardt MR, Mordes DA, Glick GG, Chazin WJ, Cortez D. Function of a conserved checkpoint recruitment domain in ATRIP proteins. Mol. Cell. Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 May; 27(9): 3367-77. PMID: 17339343, PMCID: PMC1899971, PII: MCB.02238-06, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.02238-06, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Koch M, Bhattacharya S, Kehl T, Gimona M, Vasák M, Chazin W, Heizmann CW, Kroneck PM, Fritz G. Implications on zinc binding to S100A2. Biochim. Biophys. Acta [print-electronic]. 2007 Mar; 1773(3): 457-70. PMID: 17239974, PII: S0167-4889(06)00455-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2006.12.006, ISSN: 0006-3002.

Bunick CG, Miller MR, Fuller BE, Fanning E, Chazin WJ. Biochemical and structural domain analysis of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein. Biochemistry. 2006 Dec 12/19/2006; 45(50): 14965-79. PMID: 17154534, PMCID: PMC2579963, DOI: 10.1021/bi061370o, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Jiang X, Klimovich V, Arunkumar AI, Hysinger EB, Wang Y, Ott RD, Guler GD, Weiner B, Chazin WJ, Fanning E. Structural mechanism of RPA loading on DNA during activation of a simple pre-replication complex. EMBO J [print-electronic]. 2006 Nov 11/29/2006; 25(23): 5516-26. PMID: 17110927, PMCID: PMC1679769, PII: 7601432, DOI: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601432, ISSN: 0261-4189.

Johnson E, Chazin WJ, Rance M. Effects of calcium binding on the side-chain methyl dynamics of calbindin D9k: a 2H NMR relaxation study. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Apr 4/7/2006; 357(4): 1237-52. PMID: 16476440, PII: S0022-2836(06)00060-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.01.031, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Meyn SM, Seda C, Campbell M, Weiss KL, Hu H, Pastrana-Rios B, Chazin WJ. The biochemical effect of Ser167 phosphorylation on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar 3/31/2006; 342(1): 342-8. PMID: 16480960, PII: S0006-291X(06)00244-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.01.155, ISSN: 0006-291X.

Chandran V, Stollar EJ, Lindorff-Larsen K, Harper JF, Chazin WJ, Dobson CM, Luisi BF, Christodoulou J. Structure of the regulatory apparatus of a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK): a novel mode of calmodulin-target recognition. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar 3/24/2006; 357(2): 400-10. PMID: 16430916, PII: S0022-2836(05)01560-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.11.093, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Shah VN, Wingo TL, Weiss KL, Williams CK, Balser JR, Chazin WJ. Calcium-dependent regulation of the voltage-gated sodium channel hH1: intrinsic and extrinsic sensors use a common molecular switch. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar 3/7/2006; 103(10): 3592-7. PMID: 16505387, PMCID: PMC1450128, PII: 0507397103, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0507397103, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Sheehan JH, Bunick CG, Hu H, Fagan PA, Meyn SM, Chazin WJ. Structure of the N-terminal calcium sensor domain of centrin reveals the biochemical basis for domain-specific function. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2006 Feb 2/3/2006; 281(5): 2876-81. PMID: 16317001, PII: M509886200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M509886200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Vander Kooi CW, Ohi MD, Rosenberg JA, Oldham ML, Newcomer ME, Gould KL, Chazin WJ. The Prp19 U-box crystal structure suggests a common dimeric architecture for a class of oligomeric E3 ubiquitin ligases. Biochemistry. 2006 Jan 1/10/2006; 45(1): 121-30. PMID: 16388587, PMCID: PMC2570371, DOI: 10.1021/bi051787e, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Sunahori K, Yamamura M, Yamana J, Takasugi K, Kawashima M, Yamamoto H, Chazin WJ, Nakatani Y, Yui S, Makino H. The S100A8/A9 heterodimer amplifies proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages via activation of nuclear factor kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res. Ther [print-electronic]. 2006; 8(3): R69. PMID: 16613612, PMCID: PMC1526633, PII: ar1939, DOI: 10.1186/ar1939, ISSN: 1478-6362.

Vander Kooi BT, Onuma H, Oeser JK, Svitek CA, Allen SR, Vander Kooi CW, Chazin WJ, O'Brien RM. The glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit gene promoter contains both positive and negative glucocorticoid response elements. Mol. Endocrinol [print-electronic]. 2005 Dec; 19(12): 3001-22. PMID: 16037130, PII: me.2004-0497, DOI: 10.1210/me.2004-0497, ISSN: 0888-8809.

Bunick CG, Chazin WJ. Two blades of the [ex]scissor. Structure (London, England : 1993). 2005 Dec; 13(12) Sect. 1740,1.

Nakatani Y, Yamazaki M, Chazin WJ, Yui S. Regulation of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) binding to tumor cells by zinc ion and its implication for apoptosis-inducing activity. Mediators Inflamm. 2005 Oct 10/24/2005; 2005(5): 280-92. PMID: 16258195, PMCID: PMC1279038, PII: S0962935105507063, DOI: 10.1155/MI.2005.280, ISSN: 0962-9351.

Bhattacharya S, Lee YT, Michowski W, Jastrzebska B, Filipek A, Kuznicki J, Chazin WJ. The modular structure of SIP facilitates its role in stabilizing multiprotein assemblies. Biochemistry. 2005 Jul 7/12/2005; 44(27): 9462-71. PMID: 15996101, DOI: 10.1021/bi0502689, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Malmendal A, Vander Kooi CW, Nielsen NC, Chazin WJ. Calcium-modulated S100 protein-phospholipid interactions. An NMR study of calbindin D9k and DPC. Biochemistry. 2005 May 5/3/2005; 44(17): 6502-12. PMID: 15850384, DOI: 10.1021/bi050088z, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Arunkumar AI, Klimovich V, Jiang X, Ott RD, Mizoue L, Fanning E, Chazin WJ. Insights into hRPA32 C-terminal domain--mediated assembly of the simian virus 40 replisome. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2005 Apr; 12(4): 332-9. PMID: 15793585, PMCID: PMC2600586, PII: nsmb916, DOI: 10.1038/nsmb916, ISSN: 1545-9993.

Ortiz M, Sanoguet Z, Hu H, Chazin WJ, McMurray CT, Salisbury JL, Pastrana-Rios B. Dynamics of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in Chlamydomonas centrin. Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 2/22/2005; 44(7): 2409-18. PMID: 15709753, DOI: 10.1021/bi0484419, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Ohi MD, Vander Kooi CW, Rosenberg JA, Ren L, Hirsch JP, Chazin WJ, Walz T, Gould KL. Structural and functional analysis of essential pre-mRNA splicing factor Prp19p. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2005 Jan; 25(1): 451-60. PMID: 15601865, PMCID: PMC538785, PII: 25/1/451, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.25.1.451-460.2005, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Bhattacharya S, Bunick CG, Chazin WJ. Target selectivity in EF-hand calcium binding proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2004 Dec 12/6/2004; 1742(1-3): 69-79. PMID: 15590057, PII: S0167-4889(04)00215-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2004.09.002, ISSN: 0006-3002.

Hu H, Sheehan JH, Chazin WJ. The mode of action of centrin. Binding of Ca2+ and a peptide fragment of Kar1p to the C-terminal domain. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Dec 12/3/2004; 279(49): 50895-903. PMID: 15452116, PII: M404233200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M404233200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Nickols HH, Shah VN, Chazin WJ, Limbird LE. Calmodulin interacts with the V2 vasopressin receptor: elimination of binding to the C terminus also eliminates arginine vasopressin-stimulated elevation of intracellular calcium. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Nov 11/5/2004; 279(45): 46969-80. PMID: 15319442, PII: M407351200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M407351200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Stauffer ME, Chazin WJ. Structural mechanisms of DNA replication, repair, and recombination. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Jul 7/23/2004; 279(30): 30915-8. PMID: 15090549, PII: R400015200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.R400015200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Christodoulou J, Malmendal A, Harper JF, Chazin WJ. Evidence for differing roles for each lobe of the calmodulin-like domain in a calcium-dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Jul 7/9/2004; 279(28): 29092-100. PMID: 15126505, PII: M401297200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M401297200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Stauffer ME, Chazin WJ. Physical interaction between replication protein A and Rad51 promotes exchange on single-stranded DNA. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Jun 6/11/2004; 279(24): 25638-45. PMID: 15056657, PII: M400029200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M400029200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Bunick CG, Nelson MR, Mangahas S, Hunter MJ, Sheehan JH, Mizoue LS, Bunick GJ, Chazin WJ. Designing sequence to control protein function in an EF-hand protein. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004 May 5/19/2004; 126(19): 5990-8. PMID: 15137763, DOI: 10.1021/ja0397456, ISSN: 0002-7863.

Lee YT, Jacob J, Michowski W, Nowotny M, Kuznicki J, Chazin WJ. Human Sgt1 binds HSP90 through the CHORD-Sgt1 domain and not the tetratricopeptide repeat domain. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Apr 4/16/2004; 279(16): 16511-7. PMID: 14761955, PII: M400215200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M400215200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Wingo TL, Shah VN, Anderson ME, Lybrand TP, Chazin WJ, Balser JR. An EF-hand in the sodium channel couples intracellular calcium to cardiac excitability. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2004 Mar; 11(3): 219-25. PMID: 14981509, PII: nsmb737, DOI: 10.1038/nsmb737, ISSN: 1545-9993.

Bhattacharya S, Arunkumar AI, Sullivan SL, Botuyan MV, Arrowsmith CH, Chazin WJ. 1H, 13C and 15N assignments of single-stranded DNA binding domains from the 70 kDa subunit of human replication protein A [letter]. J. Biomol. NMR. 2004 Feb; 28(2): 195-6. PMID: 14755166, PII: 5145836, DOI: 10.1023/B:JNMR.0000013818.02364.3a, ISSN: 0925-2738.

Bhattacharya S, Large E, Heizmann CW, Hemmings B, Chazin WJ. Structure of the Ca2+/S100B/NDR kinase peptide complex: insights into S100 target specificity and activation of the kinase. Biochemistry. 2003 Dec 12/16/2003; 42(49): 14416-26. PMID: 14661952, DOI: 10.1021/bi035089a, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Bassarello C, Cimino P, Bifulco G, Boger DL, Smith JA, Chazin WJ, Gomez-Paloma L. NMR structure of the (+)-CPI-indole/d(GACTAATTGAC)-d(GTCAATTAGTC) covalent complex. Chembiochem. 2003 Nov 11/7/2003; 4(11): 1188-93. PMID: 14613110, DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200300642, ISSN: 1439-4227.

Arunkumar AI, Stauffer ME, Bochkareva E, Bochkarev A, Chazin WJ. Independent and coordinated functions of replication protein A tandem high affinity single-stranded DNA binding domains. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2003 Oct 10/17/2003; 278(42): 41077-82. PMID: 12881520, PII: M305871200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M305871200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Lee JH, Park CJ, Arunkumar AI, Chazin WJ, Choi BS. NMR study on the interaction between RPA and DNA decamer containing cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer in the presence of XPA: implication for damage verification and strand-specific dual incision in nucleotide excision repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Aug 8/15/2003; 31(16): 4747-54. PMID: 12907715, PMCID: PMC169961, ISSN: 1362-4962.

Hu H, Chazin WJ. Unique features in the C-terminal domain provide caltractin with target specificity. J. Mol. Biol. 2003 Jul 7/11/2003; 330(3): 473-84. PMID: 12842464, PII: S0022283603006193, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Bhattacharya S, Chazin WJ. Calcium-driven changes in S100A11 structure revealed. Structure (London, England : 1993). 2003 Jul; 11(7) Sect. 738,40.

Ohi MD, Vander Kooi CW, Rosenberg JA, Chazin WJ, Gould KL. Structural insights into the U-box, a domain associated with multi-ubiquitination. Nat. Struct. Biol. 2003 Apr; 10(4): 250-5. PMID: 12627222, PII: nsb906, DOI: 10.1038/nsb906, ISSN: 1072-8368.

Malmendal A, Halpain S, Chazin WJ. Nascent structure in the kinase anchoring domain of microtubule-associated protein 2. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003 Jan 1/31/2003; 301(1): 136-42. PMID: 12535652, PII: S0006291X02029893, ISSN: 0006-291X.

Bhattacharya S, Botuyan MV, Hsu F, Shan X, Arunkumar AI, Arrowsmith CH, Edwards AM, Chazin WJ. Characterization of binding-induced changes in dynamics suggests a model for sequence-nonspecific binding of ssDNA by replication protein A. Protein Sci. 2002 Oct; 11(10): 2316-25. PMID: 12237454, PMCID: PMC2373701, DOI: 10.1110/ps.0209202, ISSN: 0961-8368.

Veeraraghavan S, Fagan PA, Hu H, Lee V, Harper JF, Huang B, Chazin WJ. Structural independence of the two EF-hand domains of caltractin. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Aug 8/9/2002; 277(32): 28564-71. PMID: 12034713, PII: M112232200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112232200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Mizoue LS, Chazin WJ. Engineering and design of ligand-induced conformational change in proteins. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2002 Aug; 12(4): 459-63. PMID: 12163068, PII: S0959440X02003482, ISSN: 0959-440X.

Christodoulou J, Hu H, Chung J, Rance M, Harper JF, Chazin WJ. 1H, 15N and 13C assignments of the regulatory domains of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) [letter]. J. Biomol. NMR. 2002 Jul; 23(3): 249-50. PMID: 12238600, ISSN: 0925-2738.

Yui S, Nakatani Y, Hunter MJ, Chazin WJ, Yamazaki M. Implication of extracellular zinc exclusion by recombinant human calprotectin (MRP8 and MRP14) from target cells in its apoptosis-inducing activity. Mediators Inflamm. 2002 Jun; 11(3): 165-72. PMID: 12137245, PMCID: PMC1781658, DOI: 10.1080/09622935020138208, ISSN: 0962-9351.

Mäler L, Sastry M, Chazin WJ. A structural basis for S100 protein specificity derived from comparative analysis of apo and Ca(2+)-calcyclin. J. Mol. Biol. 2002 Mar 3/22/2002; 317(2): 279-90. PMID: 11902843, PII: S0022283602954215, DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.2002.5421, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Nelson MR, Thulin E, Fagan PA, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. The EF-hand domain: a globally cooperative structural unit. Protein Sci. 2002 Feb; 11(2): 198-205. PMID: 11790829, PMCID: PMC2373453, DOI: 10.1110/ps.33302, ISSN: 0961-8368.

Akke M, Chazin WJ. An open and shut case. Nature structural biology. 2001 Nov; 8(11) Sect. 910,2.

Randazzo A, Acklin C, Schäfer BW, Heizmann CW, Chazin WJ. Structural insight into human Zn(2+)-bound S100A2 from NMR and homology modeling. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2001 Oct 10/26/2001; 288(2): 462-7. PMID: 11606065, PII: S0006-291X(01)95793-6, DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.2001.5793, ISSN: 0006-291X.

Botuyan MV, Mer G, Yi GS, Koth CM, Case DA, Edwards AM, Chazin WJ, Arrowsmith CH. Solution structure and dynamics of yeast elongin C in complex with a von Hippel-Lindau peptide. J. Mol. Biol. 2001 Sep 9/7/2001; 312(1): 177-86. PMID: 11545595, PII: S0022-2836(01)94938-1, DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.2001.4938, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Mer G, Bochkarev A, Gupta R, Bochkareva E, Frappier L, Ingles CJ, Edwards AM, Chazin WJ. Structural basis for the recognition of DNA repair proteins UNG2, XPA, and RAD52 by replication factor RPA. Cell. 2000 Oct 10/27/2000; 103(3): 449-56. PMID: 11081631, PII: S0092-8674(00)00136-7, ISSN: 0092-8674.

Nowotny M, Bhattacharya S, Filipek A, Krezel AM, Chazin W, Kuznicki J. Characterization of the interaction of calcyclin (S100A6) and calcyclin-binding protein. J. Biol. Chem. 2000 Oct 10/6/2000; 275(40): 31178-82. PMID: 10884380, PII: M001622200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M001622200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Vitart V, Christodoulou J, Huang JF, Chazin WJ, Harper JF. Intramolecular activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase is disrupted by insertions in the tether that connects the calmodulin-like domain to the kinase. Biochemistry. 2000 Oct 10/3/2000; 39(39): 12102. PMID: 11009626, ISSN: 1520-4995.

Sohnle PG, Hunter MJ, Hahn B, Chazin WJ. Zinc-reversible antimicrobial activity of recombinant calprotectin (migration inhibitory factor-related proteins 8 and 14). J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2000 Oct; 182(4): 1272-5. PMID: 10979933, PII: JID000164, DOI: 10.1086/315810, ISSN: 0022-1899.

Smith JA, Bifulco G, Case DA, Boger DL, Gomez-Paloma L, Chazin WJ. The structural basis for in situ activation of DNA alkylation by duocarmycin SA. J. Mol. Biol. 2000 Jul 7/28/2000; 300(5): 1195-204. PMID: 10903864, PII: S0022-2836(00)93887-7, DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.2000.3887, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Mer G, Edwards AM, Chazin WJ. 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignments for the C-terminal protein interaction region of the 32 kDa subunit of human replication protein A [letter]. J. Biomol. NMR. 2000 Jun; 17(2): 179-80. PMID: 10921783, ISSN: 0925-2738.

Koth CM, Botuyan MV, Moreland RJ, Jansma DB, Conaway JW, Conaway RC, Chazin WJ, Friesen JD, Arrowsmith CH, Edwards AM. Elongin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 2000 Apr 4/14/2000; 275(15): 11174-80. PMID: 10753924, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Vitart V, Christodoulou J, Huang JF, Chazin WJ, Harper JF. Intramolecular activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase is disrupted by insertions in the tether that connects the calmodulin-like domain to the kinase. Biochemistry. 2000 Apr 4/11/2000; 39(14): 4004-11. PMID: 10747788, PII: bi992373m, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Mäler L, Blankenship J, Rance M, Chazin WJ. Site-site communication in the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein calbindin D9k. Nat. Struct. Biol. 2000 Mar; 7(3): 245-50. PMID: 10700285, DOI: 10.1038/73369, ISSN: 1072-8368.

Mer G, Bochkarev A, Chazin WJ, Edwards AM. Three-dimensional structure and function of replication protein A. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 2000; 65: 193-200. PMID: 12760033, ISSN: 0091-7451.

Botuyan MV, Koth CM, Mer G, Chakrabartty A, Conaway JW, Conaway RC, Edwards AM, Arrowsmith CH, Chazin WJ. Binding of elongin A or a von Hippel-Lindau peptide stabilizes the structure of yeast elongin C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999 Aug 8/3/1999; 96(16): 9033-8. PMID: 10430890, PMCID: PMC17727, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Mäler L, Potts BC, Chazin WJ. High resolution solution structure of apo calcyclin and structural variations in the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. J. Biomol. NMR. 1999 Mar; 13(3): 233-47. PMID: 10212984, ISSN: 0925-2738.

Chazin W, Veenstra TD. Determination of the metal-binding cooperativity of wild-type and mutant calbindin D9K by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1999; 13(6): 548-55. PMID: 10204248, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0231(19990330)13:6<548::AID-RCM523>3.0.CO;2-U, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0231(19990330)13:6<548::AID-RCM523>3.0.CO;2-U, ISSN: 0951-4198.

Nelson MR, Chazin WJ. Structures of EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins: diversity in the organization, packing and response to Ca2+ binding. Biometals. 1998 Dec; 11(4): 297-318. PMID: 10191495, ISSN: 0966-0844.

Wilcox SK, Putnam CD, Sastry M, Blankenship J, Chazin WJ, McRee DE, Goodin DB. Rational design of a functional metalloenzyme: introduction of a site for manganese binding and oxidation into a heme peroxidase. Biochemistry. 1998 Dec 12/1/1998; 37(48): 16853-62. PMID: 9836578, PII: bi9815039, DOI: 10.1021/bi9815039, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Kragelund BB, Jönsson M, Bifulco G, Chazin WJ, Nilsson H, Finn BE, Linse S. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k: effects on Ca2+ binding and dissociation. Biochemistry. 1998 Jun 6/23/1998; 37(25): 8926-37. PMID: 9636034, PII: bi9726436, DOI: 10.1021/bi9726436, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Hunter MJ, Chazin WJ. High level expression and dimer characterization of the S100 EF-hand proteins, migration inhibitory factor-related proteins 8 and 14. J. Biol. Chem. 1998 May 5/15/1998; 273(20): 12427-35. PMID: 9575199, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Sastry M, Ketchem RR, Crescenzi O, Weber C, Lubienski MJ, Hidaka H, Chazin WJ. The three-dimensional structure of Ca(2+)-bound calcyclin: implications for Ca(2+)-signal transduction by S100 proteins. Structure. 1998 Feb 2/15/1998; 6(2): 223-31. PMID: 9519412, ISSN: 0969-2126.

Nelson MR, Chazin WJ. An interaction-based analysis of calcium-induced conformational changes in Ca2+ sensor proteins. Protein Sci. 1998 Feb; 7(2): 270-82. PMID: 9521102, PMCID: PMC2143906, DOI: 10.1002/pro.5560070206, ISSN: 0961-8368.

Potts BC, Chazin WJ. Chemical shift homology in proteins. J. Biomol. NMR. 1998 Jan; 11(1): 45-57. PMID: 9566312, ISSN: 0925-2738.

Kördel J, Pearlman DA, Chazin WJ. Protein solution structure calculations in solution: solvated molecular dynamics refinement of calbindin D9k. J. Biomol. NMR. 1997 Oct; 10(3): 231-43. PMID: 9390401, ISSN: 0925-2738.

Eis PS, Smith JA, Rydzewski JM, Case DA, Boger DL, Chazin WJ. High resolution solution structure of a DNA duplex alkylated by the antitumor agent duocarmycin SA. J. Mol. Biol. 1997 Sep 9/19/1997; 272(2): 237-52. PMID: 9299351, PII: S0022-2836(97)91223-7, DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1997.1223, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Miick SM, Fee RS, Millar DP, Chazin WJ. Crossover isomer bias is the primary sequence-dependent property of immobilized Holliday junctions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997 Aug 8/19/1997; 94(17): 9080-4. PMID: 9256438, PMCID: PMC23039, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Lee LK, Rance M, Chazin WJ, Palmer AG. Rotational diffusion anisotropy of proteins from simultaneous analysis of 15N and 13C alpha nuclear spin relaxation. J. Biomol. NMR. 1997 Apr; 9(3): 287-98. PMID: 9204557, ISSN: 0925-2738.

Potts BC, Carlström G, Okazaki K, Hidaka H, Chazin WJ. 1H NMR assignments of apo calcyclin and comparative structural analysis with calbindin D9k and S100 beta. Protein Sci. 1996 Nov; 5(11): 2162-74. PMID: 8931135, PMCID: PMC2143283, DOI: 10.1002/pro.5560051103, ISSN: 0961-8368.

Rydzewski JM, Leupin W, Chazin W. The width of the minor groove affects the binding of the bisquaternary heterocycle SN-6999 to duplex DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996 Apr 4/1/1996; 24(7): 1287-93. PMID: 8614632, PMCID: PMC145775, PII: 5j0754, ISSN: 0305-1048.

Carlström G, Chazin WJ. Sequence dependence and direct measurement of crossover isomer distribution in model Holliday junctions using NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1996 Mar 3/19/1996; 35(11): 3534-44. PMID: 8639504, PII: bi952571n, DOI: 10.1021/bi952571n, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Akke M, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. Solution structure of (Cd2+)1-calbindin D9k reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the Apo-->(Ca2+)II1-->(Ca2+)I,II2 binding pathway. J. Mol. Biol. 1995 Sep 9/8/1995; 252(1): 102-21. PMID: 7666423, PII: S0022283685704780, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Potts BC, Smith J, Akke M, Macke TJ, Okazaki K, Hidaka H, Case DA, Chazin WJ. The structure of calcyclin reveals a novel homodimeric fold for S100 Ca(2+)-binding proteins. Nat. Struct. Biol. 1995 Sep; 2(9): 790-6. PMID: 7552751, ISSN: 1072-8368.

Chazin WJ. Releasing the calcium trigger. Nature structural biology. 1995 Sep; 2(9) Sect. 707,10.

Skelton NJ, Kördel J, Chazin WJ. Determination of the solution structure of Apo calbindin D9k by NMR spectroscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 1995 Jun 6/2/1995; 249(2): 441-62. PMID: 7783203, PII: S0022-2836(85)70308-7, DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1995.0308, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Wimberly B, Thulin E, Chazin WJ. Characterization of the N-terminal half-saturated state of calbindin D9k: NMR studies of the N56A mutant. Protein Sci. 1995 Jun; 4(6): 1045-55. PMID: 7549869, PMCID: PMC2143144, DOI: 10.1002/pro.5560040603, ISSN: 0961-8368.

Linse S, Chazin WJ. Quantitative measurements of the cooperativity in an EF-hand protein with sequential calcium binding. Protein Sci. 1995 Jun; 4(6): 1038-44. PMID: 7549868, PMCID: PMC2143146, DOI: 10.1002/pro.5560040602, ISSN: 0961-8368.

Linse S, Jönsson B, Chazin WJ. The effect of protein concentration on ion binding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995 May 5/23/1995; 92(11): 4748-52. PMID: 7761395, PMCID: PMC41784, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Carlström G, Chen SM, Miick S, Chazin WJ. NMR studies of complex DNA structures: the Holliday junction intermediate in genetic recombination. Meth. Enzymol. 1995; 261: 163-82. PMID: 8569494, ISSN: 0076-6879.

Chen SM, Chazin WJ. Two-dimensional 1H NMR studies of immobile Holliday junctions: nonlabile proton assignments and identification of crossover isomers. Biochemistry. 1994 Sep 9/27/1994; 33(38): 11453-9. PMID: 7918359, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Weber C, Lee VD, Chazin WJ, Huang B. High level expression in Escherichia coli and characterization of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein caltractin. J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Jun 6/3/1994; 269(22): 15795-802. PMID: 8195234, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Skelton NJ, Kördel J, Akke M, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. Signal transduction versus buffering activity in Ca(2+)-binding proteins. Nat. Struct. Biol. 1994 Apr; 1(4): 239-45. PMID: 7656053, ISSN: 1072-8368.

Akke M, Skelton NJ, Kördel J, Palmer AG, Chazin WJ. Effects of ion binding on the backbone dynamics of calbindin D9k determined by 15N NMR relaxation. Biochemistry. 1993 Sep 9/21/1993; 32(37): 9832-44. PMID: 8373781, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Kördel J, Skelton NJ, Akke M, Chazin WJ. High-resolution structure of calcium-loaded calbindin D9k. J. Mol. Biol. 1993 Jun 6/5/1993; 231(3): 711-34. PMID: 8515447, PII: S0022283683713227, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Carlström G, Chazin WJ. Two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the half-saturated (Ca2+)1 state of calbindin D9k. Further implications for the molecular basis of cooperative Ca2+ binding. J. Mol. Biol. 1993 May 5/20/1993; 231(2): 415-30. PMID: 8389885, PII: S0022-2836(83)71291-X, DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1993.1291, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Chen SM, Heffron F, Chazin WJ. Two-dimensional 1H NMR studies of 32-base-pair synthetic immobile Holliday junctions: complete assignments of the labile protons and identification of the base-pairing scheme. Biochemistry. 1993 Jan 1/12/1993; 32(1): 319-26. PMID: 8418851, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Skelton NJ, Kördel J, Akke M, Chazin WJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the internal dynamics in Apo, (Cd2+)1 and (Ca2+)2 calbindin D9k. The rates of amide proton exchange with solvent. J. Mol. Biol. 1992 Oct 10/20/1992; 227(4): 1100-17. PMID: 1331470, PII: 0022-2836(92)90524-N, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Chazin WJ. NMR structures and methodology. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 1992 Aug; 3(4): 326-32. PMID: 1368432, ISSN: 0958-1669.

Skelton NJ, Akke M, Kördel J, Thulin E, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. 15N NMR assignments and chemical shift analysis of uniformly labeled 15N calbindin D9k in the apo, (Cd2+)1 and (Ca2+)2 states. FEBS Lett. 1992 Jun 6/1/1992; 303(2-3): 136-40. PMID: 1607011, ISSN: 0014-5793.

Kördel J, Skelton NJ, Akke M, Palmer AG, Chazin WJ. Backbone dynamics of calcium-loaded calbindin D9k studied by two-dimensional proton-detected 15N NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1992 May 5/26/1992; 31(20): 4856-66. PMID: 1591246, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Chen SM, Leupin W, Rance M, Chazin WJ. Two-dimensional NMR studies of d(GGTTAATGCGGT).d(ACCGCATTAACC) complexed with the minor groove binding drug SN-6999. Biochemistry. 1992 May 5/12/1992; 31(18): 4406-13. PMID: 1581295, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Akke M, Drakenberg T, Chazin WJ. Three-dimensional solution structure of Ca(2+)-loaded porcine calbindin D9k determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1992 Feb 2/4/1992; 31(4): 1011-20. PMID: 1734952, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Chen SM, Leupin W, Chazin WJ. Conformational studies of the duplex d-(CCAAAAATTTCC).d-(GGAAATTTTTGG) containing a (dA)5 tract using two-dimensional 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1992 Feb; 14(1): 57-63. PMID: 1596473, ISSN: 0141-8130.

Chazin WJ, Rance M, Chollet A, Leupin W. Comparative NMR analysis of the decadeoxynucleotide d-(GCATTAATGC)2 and an analogue containing 2-aminoadenine. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Oct 10/25/1991; 19(20): 5507-13. PMID: 1945828, PMCID: PMC328949, ISSN: 0305-1048.

Moore JM, Lepre CA, Gippert GP, Chazin WJ, Case DA, Wright PE. High-resolution solution structure of reduced French bean plastocyanin and comparison with the crystal structure of poplar plastocyanin. J. Mol. Biol. 1991 Sep 9/20/1991; 221(2): 533-55. PMID: 1920431, PII: 0022-2836(91)80071-2, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Chazin WJ. New nuclear magnetic resonance structures and structural methodology. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 1991 Aug; 2(4): 520-5. PMID: 1367670, ISSN: 0958-1669.

Akke M, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. Molecular basis for co-operativity in Ca2+ binding to calbindin D9k. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of (Cd2+)1-bovine calbindin D9k. J. Mol. Biol. 1991 Jul 7/5/1991; 220(1): 173-89. PMID: 2067016, PII: 0022-2836(91)90389-N, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Chen SM, Heffron F, Leupin W, Chazin WJ. Two-dimensional 1H NMR studies of synthetic immobile Holliday junctions. Biochemistry. 1991 Jan 1/22/1991; 30(3): 766-71. PMID: 1988063, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Skelton NJ, Kördel J, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. Comparative structural analysis of the calcium free and bound states of the calcium regulatory protein calbindin D9K. J. Mol. Biol. 1990 Jun 6/20/1990; 213(4): 593-8. PMID: 2359115, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Skelton NJ, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. 1H NMR resonance assignments, secondary structure, and global fold of Apo bovine calbindin D9k. Biochemistry. 1990 Jun 6/19/1990; 29(24): 5752-61. PMID: 2200514, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Kördel J, Forsén S, Drakenberg T, Chazin WJ. The rate and structural consequences of proline cis-trans isomerization in calbindin D9k: NMR studies of the minor (cis-Pro43) isoform and the Pro43Gly mutant. Biochemistry. 1990 May 5/8/1990; 29(18): 4400-9. PMID: 2350544, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Chazin WJ, Kördel J, Thulin E, Hofmann T, Drakenberg T, Forsén S. Identification of an isoaspartyl linkage formed upon deamidation of bovine calbindin D9k and structural characterization by 2D 1H NMR. Biochemistry. 1989 Oct 10/17/1989; 28(21): 8646-53. PMID: 2605213, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Kördel J, Forsén S, Chazin WJ. 1H NMR sequential resonance assignments, secondary structure, and global fold in solution of the major (trans-Pro43) form of bovine calbindin D9k. Biochemistry. 1989 Aug 8/22/1989; 28(17): 7065-74. PMID: 2819050, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Drakenberg T, Hofmann T, Chazin WJ. 1H NMR studies of porcine calbindin D9k in solution: sequential resonance assignment, secondary structure, and global fold. Biochemistry. 1989 Jul 7/11/1989; 28(14): 5946-54. PMID: 2775745, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Chazin WJ, Kördel J, Drakenberg T, Thulin E, Brodin P, Grundström T, Forsén S. Proline isomerism leads to multiple folded conformations of calbindin D9k: direct evidence from two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1989 Apr; 86(7): 2195-8. PMID: 2928325, PMCID: PMC286878, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Celda B, Widmer H, Leupin W, Chazin WJ, Denny WA, Wüthrich K. Conformational studies of d-(AAAAATTTTT)2 using constraints from nuclear overhauser effects and from quantitative analysis of the cross-peak fine structures in two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Biochemistry. 1989 Feb 2/21/1989; 28(4): 1462-71. PMID: 2719909, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Rance M, Chazin WJ, Dalvit C, Wright PE. Multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance. Meth. Enzymol. 1989; 176: 114-34. PMID: 2811682, ISSN: 0076-6879.

Chazin WJ, Hugli TE, Wright PE. 1H NMR studies of human C3a anaphylatoxin in solution: sequential resonance assignments, secondary structure, and global fold. Biochemistry. 1988 Dec 12/27/1988; 27(26): 9139-48. PMID: 3266557, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Moore JM, Chazin WJ, Powls R, Wright PE. 1H NMR studies of plastocyanin from Scenedesmus obliquus: complete sequence-specific assignment, secondary structure analysis, and global fold. Biochemistry. 1988 Oct 10/4/1988; 27(20): 7806-16. PMID: 3207712, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Chazin WJ, Rance M, Wright PE. Complete assignment of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of French bean plastocyanin. Application of an integrated approach to spin system identification in proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 1988 Aug 8/5/1988; 202(3): 603-22. PMID: 3172229, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Chazin WJ, Wright PE. Complete assignment of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of French bean plastocyanin. Sequential resonance assignments, secondary structure and global fold. J. Mol. Biol. 1988 Aug 8/5/1988; 202(3): 623-36. PMID: 3172230, PII: 0022-2836(88)90291-4, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Moore JM, Case DA, Chazin WJ, Gippert GP, Havel TF, Powls R, Wright PE. Three-dimensional solution structure of plastocyanin from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Science. 1988 Apr 4/15/1988; 240(4850): 314-7. PMID: 3353725, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Siekmann J, Wenzel HR, Schröder W, Schutt H, Truscheit E, Arens A, Rauenbusch E, Chazin WJ, Wüthrich K, Tschesche H. Pyroglutamyl-aprotinin, a new aprotinin homologue from bovine lungs--isolation, properties, sequence analysis and characterization using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance in solution. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 1987 Dec; 368(12): 1589-96. PMID: 2450551, ISSN: 0177-3593.

Chazin WJ, Rance M, Wright PE. Complete assignment of lysine resonances in 1H NMR spectra of proteins as probes of surface structure and dynamics. FEBS Lett. 1987 Sep 9/28/1987; 222(1): 109-14. PMID: 3115827, PII: 0014-5793(87)80201-6, ISSN: 0014-5793.

Chazin WJ, Wright PE. A modified strategy for identification of 1H spin systems in proteins. Biopolymers. 1987 Jun; 26(6): 973-7. PMID: 3038206, DOI: 10.1002/bip.360260615, ISSN: 0006-3525.

Leupin W, Chazin WJ, Hyberts S, Denny WA, Wüthrich K. NMR studies of the complex between the decadeoxynucleotide d-(GCATTAATGC)2 and a minor-groove-binding drug. Biochemistry. 1986 Oct 10/7/1986; 25(20): 5902-10. PMID: 3790493, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Chazin WJ, Wüthrich K, Hyberts S, Rance M, Denny WA, Leupin W. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance assignments for d-(GCATTAATGC)2 using experimental refinements of established procedures. J. Mol. Biol. 1986 Aug 8/5/1986; 190(3): 439-53. PMID: 3783707, PII: 0022-2836(86)90014-8, ISSN: 0022-2836.

Chazin WJ, Goldenberg DP, Creighton TE, Wüthrich K. Comparative studies of conformation and internal mobility in native and circular basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance in solution. Eur. J. Biochem. 1985 Oct 10/15/1985; 152(2): 429-37. PMID: 2414103, ISSN: 0014-2956.

Blair R, Switzman L, Sinyor D, Chazin W, Cytryniak H, Rogan F, Shizgal P, Amit Z. Lithium and ion chelators mimicked morphine in the production of explosive motor behavior. Behav. Neural Biol. 1982 Aug; 35(4): 408-16. PMID: 6819855, ISSN: 0163-1047.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 12/8/2014
One is for accomplished structural biologist to work on the assembly and function of multi-protein E3 ubiquitin ligases. A second position is for US citizen or green card holder for work on DNA replication and repair proteins. Please apply by e-mail to walter.chazin@vanderbilt.edu sending CV and names of three references.